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1.
Geroscience ; 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420334

RESUMO

Prolonging survival in good health is a fundamental societal goal. However, the leading determinants of disability-free survival in healthy older people have not been well established. Data from ASPREE, a bi-national placebo-controlled trial of aspirin with 4.7 years median follow-up, was analysed. At enrolment, participants were healthy and without prior cardiovascular events, dementia or persistent physical disability. Disability-free survival outcome was defined as absence of dementia, persistent disability or death. Selection of potential predictors from amongst 25 biomedical, psychosocial and lifestyle variables including recognized geriatric risk factors, utilizing a machine-learning approach. Separate models were developed for men and women. The selected predictors were evaluated in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model and validated internally by bootstrapping. We included 19,114 Australian and US participants aged ≥65 years (median 74 years, IQR 71.6-77.7). Common predictors of a worse prognosis in both sexes included higher age, lower Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score, lower gait speed, lower grip strength and abnormal (low or elevated) body mass index. Additional risk factors for men included current smoking, and abnormal eGFR. In women, diabetes and depression were additional predictors. The biased-corrected areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the final prognostic models at 5 years were 0.72 for men and 0.75 for women. Final models showed good calibration between the observed and predicted risks. We developed a prediction model in which age, cognitive function and gait speed were the strongest predictors of disability-free survival in healthy older people.Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01038583).

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could help to define personalized colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a PRS, along with adenoma characteristics, could help to define more personalized and risk-adapted surveillance intervals. METHODS: In a population-based, case-control study from Germany, detailed information on previous colonoscopies and a PRS based on 140 CRC-related, single-nucleotide polymorphisms was obtained from 4696 CRC cases and 3709 controls. Participants were classified as having low, medium, or high genetic risk according to tertiles of PRSs among controls. We calculated the absolute risk of CRC based on the PRS and colonoscopy history and findings. RESULTS: We observed major variations of CRC risk according to the PRS, including among individuals with detection and removal of adenomas at colonoscopy. For instance, the estimated 10-year absolute risk of CRC for 50-year-old men and women with no polyps, for whom repeat screening colonoscopy is recommended after 10 years only, was 0.2%. Equivalent absolute risks were estimated for people with low-risk adenomas and low PRS. However, the same levels of absolute risk were reached within 3 to 5 years by those with low-risk adenomas and high PRS and with high-risk adenomas irrespective of the PRS. CONCLUSIONS: Consideration of genetic predisposition to CRC risk, as determined by a PRS, could help to define personalized, risk-adapted surveillance intervals after detection and removal of adenomas at screening colonoscopy. However, whether the risk variation is strong enough to direct clinical risk stratification needs to be explored further.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35348611

RESUMO

Although aspirin has been considered a promising agent for prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC), recent data suggest a lack of benefit among older individuals. Whether some individuals with higher risk of CRC may benefit from aspirin remains unknown. We used a 95-variant CRC polygenic risk score (PRS) to explore the association between genetic susceptibility to CRC and aspirin use in a prospective study of 12,609 individuals of European descent aged {greater than or equal to} 70 years, enrolled in the ASPREE (ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly) double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial (RCT). Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of aspirin use on CRC, as well as the interaction between the PRS and aspirin treatment on CRC. Over a median of 4.7 years follow-up, 143 participants were diagnosed with incident CRC. Aspirin assignment was not associated with incidence of CRC overall (hazard ratio [HR]=0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.30) or within strata of PRS (p for interaction=0.97). However, the PRS was associated with an increased risk of CRC (HR=1.28 per standard deviation [SD], 95% CI 1.09-1.51). Individuals in the top quintile of the PRS distribution had an 85% higher risk compared with individuals in the bottom quintile (HR=1.85, 95% CI 1.08-3.15). In a prospective RCT of older individuals, a PRS is associated with incident CRC risk, but aspirin use was not associated with a reduction of incident CRC, regardless of baseline genetic risk.

4.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 3(2): e89-e97, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35224525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the nature of transitions from a healthy state to chronic diseases and death is important for planning health-care system requirements and interventions. We aimed to quantify the trajectories of disease and disability in a population of healthy older people. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the ASPREE trial, which was done in 50 sites in Australia and the USA and recruited community-dwelling, healthy individuals who were aged 70 years or older (≥65 years for Black and Hispanic people in the USA) between March 10, 2010, and Dec 24, 2014. Participants were followed up with annual face-to-face visits, biennial assessments of cognitive function, and biannual visits for physical function until death or June 12, 2017, whichever occurred first. We used multistate models to examine transitions from a healthy state to first intermediate disease events (ie, cancer events, stroke events, cardiac events, and physical disability or dementia) and, ultimately, to death. We also examined the effects of age and sex on transition rates using Cox proportional hazards regression models. FINDINGS: 19 114 participants with a median age of 74·0 years (IQR 71·6-77·7) were included in our analyses. During a median follow-up of 4·7 years (IQR 3·6-5·7), 1933 (10·1%) of 19 114 participants had an incident cancer event, 487 (2·5%) had an incident cardiac event, 398 (2·1%) had an incident stroke event, 924 (4·8%) developed persistent physical disability or dementia, and 1052 (5·5%) died. 15 398 (80·6%) individuals did not have any of these events during follow-up. The highest proportion of deaths followed incident cancer (501 [47·6%] of 1052) and 129 (12·3%) participants transitioned from disability or dementia to death. Among 12 postulated transitions, transitions from the intermediate states to death had much higher rates than transitions from a healthy state to death. The progression rates to death were 158 events per 1000 person-years (95% CI 144-172) from cancer, 112 events per 1000 person-years (86-145) from stroke, 88 events per 1000 person-years (68-111) from cardiac disease, 69 events per 1000 person-years (58-82) from disability or dementia, and four events per 1000 person-years (4-5) from a healthy state. Age was significantly associated with an accelerated rate for most transitions. Male sex (vs female sex) was significantly associated with an accelerate rate for five of 12 transitions. INTERPRETATION: We describe a multistate model in a healthy older population in whom the most common transition was from a healthy state to cancer. Our findings provide unique insights into the frequency of events, their transition rates, and the impact of age and sex. These results have implications for preventive health interventions and planning for appropriate levels of residential care in healthy ageing populations. FUNDING: The National Institutes of Health.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830967

RESUMO

Despite the high prevalence of prostate cancer in older men, the predictive value of a polygenic risk score (PRS) remains uncertain in men aged ≥70 years. We used a 6.6 million-variant PRS to predict the risk of incident prostate cancer in a prospective study of 5701 men of European descent aged ≥70 years (mean age 75 years) enrolled in the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) clinical trial. The study endpoint was prostate cancer, including metastatic or non-metastatic disease, confirmed by an expert panel. After excluding participants with a history of prostate cancer at enrolment, we used a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to assess the association between the PRS and incident prostate cancer risk, adjusting for covariates. Additionally, we examined the distribution of Gleason grade groups by PRS group to determine if a higher PRS was associated with higher grade disease. We tested for interaction between the PRS and aspirin treatment. Logistic regression was used to independently assess the association of the PRS with prevalent (pre-trial) prostate cancer, reported in medical histories. During a median follow-up time of 4.6 years, 218 of the 5701 participants (3.8%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The PRS predicted incident risk with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.52 per standard deviation (SD) (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-1.74, p < 0.001). Men in the top quintile of the PRS distribution had an almost three times higher risk of prostate cancer than men in the lowest quintile (HR = 2.99 (95% CI 1.90-4.27), p < 0.001). However, a higher PRS was not associated with a higher Gleason grade groups. We found no interaction between aspirin treatment and the PRS for prostate cancer risk. The PRS was also associated with prevalent prostate cancer (odds ratio = 1.80 per SD (95% CI 1.65-1.96), p < 0.001).While a PRS for prostate cancer is strongly associated with incident risk in men aged ≥70 years, the clinical utility of the PRS as a biomarker is currently limited by its inability to select for clinically significant disease.

6.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(5)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738070

RESUMO

Background: Smoking has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in previous studies, but current evidence on smoking in association with survival after CRC diagnosis is limited. Methods: We pooled data from 12 345 patients with stage I-IV CRC from 11 epidemiologic studies in the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the associations of prediagnostic smoking behavior with overall, CRC-specific, and non-CRC-specific survival. Results: Among 12 345 patients with CRC, 4379 (35.5%) died (2515 from CRC) over a median follow-up time of 7.5 years. Smoking was strongly associated with worse survival in stage I-III patients, whereas no association was observed among stage IV patients. Among stage I-III patients, clear dose-response relationships with all survival outcomes were seen for current smokers. For example, current smokers with 40 or more pack-years had statistically significantly worse overall, CRC-specific, and non-CRC-specific survival compared with never smokers (hazard ratio [HR] =1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.68 to 2.25; HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.78; and HR = 2.67, 95% CI = 2.19 to 3.26, respectively). Similar associations with all survival outcomes were observed for former smokers who had quit for less than 10 years, but only a weak association with non-CRC-specific survival was seen among former smokers who had quit for more than 10 years. Conclusions: This large consortium of CRC patient studies provides compelling evidence that smoking is strongly associated with worse survival of stage I-III CRC patients in a clear dose-response manner. The detrimental effect of smoking was primarily related to noncolorectal cancer events, but current heavy smoking also showed an association with CRC-specific survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Fumar/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298747

RESUMO

Genomic risk prediction models for breast cancer (BC) have been predominantly developed with data from women aged 40-69 years. Prospective studies of older women aged ≥70 years have been limited. We assessed the effect of a 313-variant polygenic risk score (PRS) for BC in 6339 older women aged ≥70 years (mean age 75 years) enrolled into the ASPREE trial, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating the effect of daily 100 mg aspirin on disability-free survival. We evaluated incident BC diagnoses over a median follow-up time of 4.7 years. A multivariable Cox regression model including conventional BC risk factors was applied to prospective data, and re-evaluated after adding the PRS. We also assessed the association of rare pathogenic variants (PVs) in BC susceptibility genes (BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2/CHEK2/ATM). The PRS, as a continuous variable, was an independent predictor of incident BC (hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-1.6) and hormone receptor (ER/PR)-positive disease (HR = 1.5 (CI 1.2-1.9)). Women in the top quintile of the PRS distribution had over two-fold higher risk of BC than women in the lowest quintile (HR = 2.2 (CI 1.2-3.9)). The concordance index of the model without the PRS was 0.62 (95% CI 0.56-0.68), which improved after addition of the PRS to 0.65 (95% CI 0.59-0.71). Among 41 (0.6%) carriers of PVs in BC susceptibility genes, we observed no incident BC diagnoses. Our study demonstrates that a PRS predicts incident BC risk in women aged 70 years and older, suggesting potential clinical utility extends to this older age group.

8.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(6): 649-658, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653736

RESUMO

Genetic and lifestyle factors contribute to colorectal cancer risk. We investigated their individual and joint associations with various stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. We assessed associations of a polygenic risk score (PRS) and a healthy lifestyle score (HLS) with presence of nonadvanced adenomas and advanced neoplasms among 2,585 participants of screening colonoscopy from Germany. The PRS and HLS individually showed only weak associations with presence of nonadvanced adenomas; stronger associations were observed with advanced neoplasms (ORs, 95% CI, for highest vs. lowest risk tertile: PRS 2.27, 1.78-2.88; HLS 1.96, 1.53-2.51). The PRS was associated with higher odds of advanced neoplasms among carriers of any neoplasms (1.65, 1.23-2.22). Subjects in the highest risk tertile (vs. lowest tertile) of both scores had higher risks for nonadvanced adenomas (1.77, 1.09-2.86), for advanced neoplasms (3.95, 2.53-6.16) and, among carriers of any neoplasms, for advanced versus nonadvanced neoplasms (2.26, 1.31-3.92). Both scores were individually associated with increased risk of nonadvanced adenomas and, much more pronounced, advanced neoplasms. The similarly strong association in relative terms across all levels of genetic risk implies that a healthy lifestyle may be particularly beneficial in those at highest genetic risk, given that the same relative risk reduction in this group would imply a stronger absolute risk reduction. Genetic factors may be of particular relevance for the transition of nonadvanced to advanced adenomas. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Genetic factors have strong impact on the risk of colorectal neoplasms, which may be reduced by healthy lifestyle. Similarly strong associations in relative terms across all levels of genetic risk imply that a healthy lifestyle may be beneficial due to higher absolute risk reduction in those at highest genetic risk.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Gut ; 70(7): 1325-1334, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined. DESIGN: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling. RESULTS: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10-8) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer. CONCLUSION: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.


Assuntos
Colo , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ceco , Colo Ascendente , Colo Descendente , Colo Sigmoide , Colo Transverso , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 19(4): 411-420, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of personalized medicine, cancer care is subject to major changes and innovations. It is unclear, however, to what extent implementation of such innovations and their impact on patient outcomes differ by health insurance type. This study compared provision of treatment and survival outcomes among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) who had statutory health insurance (SHI) versus private health insurance (PHI) in Germany. METHODS: We analyzed patterns of CRC treatment (surgery, chemotherapy/radiotherapy, and targeted therapy) and survival in a large cohort of patients who were diagnosed with CRC in 2003 through 2014 and were observed for an average of 6 years. Associations of type of health insurance with treatment administration and with overall, CRC-specific, and recurrence-free survival were investigated using multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. RESULTS: Of 3,977 patients with CRC, 427 (11%) had PHI. Although type of health insurance was not associated with treatment administration in patients with stage I-III disease, those with stage IV disease with PHI more often received targeted therapy (65% vs 40%; odds ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.20-4.91), with differences decreasing over time because of catch-up of uptake rates in patients with SHI. Median overall survival was longer in patients with PHI than in those with SHI (137.0 vs 114.9 months; P=.010), but survival advantages were explained to a large extent by differences in sociodemographic factors. In patients with stage IV disease, survival advantages of PHI were nonsignificant and were restricted to the early years after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We observed major differences in uptake of targeted therapy between patients with PHI and those with SHI but no differences in patient survival after adjusting for relevant sociodemographic, clinical, and tumor characteristics. Further studies are needed on factors associated with the uptake of therapeutic innovations and their impact on patient survival by health insurance type.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Seguro Saúde/classificação , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Alemanha , Humanos , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(12): 2007-2016, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In previous studies, the protective effect of colonoscopy was generally stronger for distal colorectal cancer than for proximal colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate whether reduction of CRC risk through colonoscopy varies according to major tumor markers and pathways of CRC. METHODS: This is a population-based case-control study from Germany, including 2,132 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC and information on major molecular tumor markers and 2,486 control participants without CRC. Detailed participant characteristics were collected by standardized questionnaires. Information on previous colonoscopy was derived from medical records. Polytomous logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between previous colonoscopy and subtypes of CRC. RESULTS: Overall, we observed strong risk reduction of CRC after colonoscopy that was weaker for microsatellite instable (MSI) than for non-MSI CRC (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.97 vs OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.24-0.33), for CpG island methylator phenotype high CRC than for CpG island methylator phenotype low/negative CRC (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.34-0.59 vs OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.25-0.34), for BRAF-mutated than for BRAF nonmutated CRC (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.91 vs OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.25-0.35), for KRAS nonmutated than for KRAS-mutated CRC (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.29-0.40 vs OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.20-0.32), and for CRC classified into the sessile serrated pathway than for CRC of the traditional pathway (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.91 vs OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.25-0.37). After colonoscopy with the detection of adenomas or hyperplastic polyps, no risk reduction was found for sessile serrated pathway CRC, MSI, and BRAF-mutated subtypes. DISCUSSION: Our study extends the molecular understanding of existing differences in risk reduction of proximal and distal CRCs reported by previous studies and may imply important information for improving strategies for timely detection of relevant precursors.


Assuntos
Adenoma/patologia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Adenoma/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética
12.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 438, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) is beneficial for reducing fatigue in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. However, little is known regarding long-term effects of PA on fatigue and whether pre-diagnosis PA is associated with less fatigue in the years after diagnosis. Our study aimed to investigate the association of pre- and post-diagnosis PA with long-term fatigue in CRC survivors. METHODS: This study used a German population-based cohort of 1781 individuals, diagnosed with CRC in 2003-2014, and alive at five-year follow-up (5YFU). Physical activity was assessed at diagnosis and at 5YFU. Fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire and the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 fatigue subscale at 5YFU. Multivariable linear regression was used to explore associations between pre- and post-diagnosis PA and fatigue at 5YFU. RESULTS: No evidence was found that pre-diagnosis PA was associated with less fatigue in long-term CRC survivors. Pre-diagnosis work-related PA and vigorous PA were even associated with higher levels of physical (Beta (ß) = 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-3.90; ß = 2.03, CI = 0.65-3.41), cognitive (ß = 0.17, CI = 0.05-0.28; ß = 0.13, CI = 0.01-0.25), and affective fatigue (ß = 0.26, CI = 0.07-0.46; ß = 0.21, CI = 0.02-0.40). In cross-sectional analyses, post-diagnosis PA was strongly associated with lower fatigue on all scales. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, pre-diagnosis PA does not appear to be associated with less fatigue among long-term CRC survivors. Our results support the importance of ongoing PA in long-term CRC survivors. Our findings might be used as a basis for further research on specific PA interventions to improve the long-term outcome of CRC survivors.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/reabilitação , Exercício Físico , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Br J Cancer ; 122(11): 1604-1610, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol increase risk for colorectal malignancies. However, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogenic disease and associations with the molecular pathological pathways are unclear. METHODS: This population-based case-control study includes 2444 cases with first-diagnosis CRC and 2475 controls. Tumour tissue was analysed for MSI (microsatellite instability), CIMP (CpG island methylator phenotype), BRAF (B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase gene) and KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue gene) mutations. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated for associations between alcohol and smoking and CRC molecular subtypes and pathways. RESULTS: Current smoking showed higher ORs for MSI-high (OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.86-4.18) compared to MSS (OR = 1.41, 1.14-1.75, p-heterogeneity (p-het) = 0.001), BRAF-mutated (mut) (OR = 2.40, 1.41-4.07) compared to BRAF-wild type (wt) (OR = 1.52, 1.24-1.88, p-het = 0.074), KRAS-wt (OR = 1.70, 1.36-2.13) compared to KRAS-mut (OR = 1.26, 0.95-1.68, p-het = 0.039) and CIMP-high (OR = 2.01, 1.40-2.88) compared to CIMP-low/negative CRC (OR = 1.50, 1.22-1.85, p-het=0.101). Current smoking seemed more strongly associated with sessile serrated pathway (CIMP-high + BRAF-mut; OR = 2.39, 1.27-4.52) than with traditional pathway CRC (MSS + CIMP-low/negative + BRAF-wt; OR = 1.50, 1.16-1.94) and no association was observed with alternate pathway CRC (MSS + CIMP-low/negative + KRAS-wt; OR = 1.08, 0.77-1.43). No heterogeneity was observed in alcohol consumption association by molecular subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: In this large case-control study, smoking was more strongly associated with MSI-high and KRAS-wt CRC and with cases showing features of the sessile serrated pathway. Association patterns were less clear for alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(7): 611-622, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253267

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) is positively associated with (health-related) quality of life (QOL) in colorectal cancer survivors. However, little is known regarding long-term effects of PA on QOL and if prediagnosis PA is associated with QOL in the years after diagnosis. Our study aimed to investigate the association of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis PA with long-term QOL in colorectal cancer survivors.This study is based on a population-based cohort from Germany of 1,781 newly diagnosed colorectal cancer survivors over a 5-year period. PA was assessed at diagnosis and at 5-year follow-up (5YFU). Quality of life was assessed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer C Quality of Life Questionnaire QLQ-C30 at 5YFU. Multivariable linear regression was used to explore associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis PA and QOL at 5YFU.No evidence of a positive association between higher levels of prediagnosis PA and better long-term QOL was found. Higher levels of prediagnosis work-related PA and vigorous PA were even associated with decreased QOL in domains such as cognitive [Beta(ß) = -2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -3.77, -1.27; ß = -1.92, CI = -3.17, -0.67) and emotional functioning (ß = -2.52, CI = -3.84, -1.19; ß = -2.12, CI = -3.44, -0.80). In cross-sectional analyses, higher postdiagnosis PA was strongly associated with higher QOL. Survivors physically active at both prediagnosis and postdiagnosis as well as survivors who increased their PA between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis reported significantly higher long-term QOL compared with survivors who remained inactive at prediagnosis and postdiagnosis. In this study, higher prediagnosis PA does not appear to be associated with higher QOL among long-term colorectal cancer survivors but our results support the importance of ongoing PA throughout survivorship.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/reabilitação , Exercício Físico , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Gastroenterology ; 159(1): 129-138.e9, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Estimates of absolute risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) are needed to facilitate communication and better inform the public about the potentials and limits of cancer prevention. METHODS: Using data from a large population-based case-control study in Germany (Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening [DACHS] study, which began in 2003) and population registry data, we calculated 30-year absolute risk estimates for development of CRC based on a healthy lifestyle score (derived from 5 modifiable lifestyle factors: smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity, and body fatness), a polygenic risk score (based on 90 single-nucleotide polymorphisms), and colonoscopy history. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 4220 patients with CRC and 3338 individuals without CRC. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle and colonoscopy in the preceding 10 years were associated with a reduced relative risk of CRC in men and women. We observed a higher CRC risk in participants with high or intermediate genetic risk scores. For 50-year-old men and women without a colonoscopy, the absolute risk of CRC varied according to the polygenic risk score and the healthy lifestyle score (men, 3.5%-13.4%; women, 2.5%-10.6%). For 50-year-old men and women with a colonoscopy, the absolute risk of developing CRC was much lower but still varied according to the polygenic risk score and the healthy lifestyle score (men, 1.2%-4.8%; women, 0.9%-4.2%). Among all risk factor profiles, the 30-year absolute risk estimates consistently decreased with adherence to a healthy lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based study, we found that a colonoscopy can drastically reduce the absolute risk of CRC and that the genetically predetermined risk of CRC can be further reduced by adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Our results show the magnitude of CRC prevention possible through colonoscopy and lifestyle at a predefined genetic risk. This observational study has been registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00011793), which is a primary registry in the World Health Organization Registry Network.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020361

RESUMO

High levels of adiposity in the population have a major impact on various diseases, but previous epidemiologic studies have largely been restricted to simple anthropometric measures such as the body mass index (BMI), an imperfect predictor of disease risk. There is a critical need for the use of improved measures of relative weight and body composition in large-scale, population-based research.The current article presents initial descriptive results of body composition and fat distribution based on the midterm baseline dataset of the German National Cohort, which included 101,817 participants who were examined in 18 study centers in Germany between March 2014 and March 2017. The anthropometric measures encompassed body weight, height, waist and hip circumference, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), sonography of abdominal adipose tissue, 3D-body scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging.BMI analyses showed that 46.2% of men and 29.7% of women were overweight and 23.5% of men and 21.2% of women were obese. On average, women in almost all age groups demonstrated more subcutaneous adipose tissue layer thickness than men. The mean values of visceral adipose tissue layer thickness, on the other hand, were higher among men than among women in all age groups and increased continuously across age groups in both sexes.The comprehensive assessment of body composition and fat distribution provides novel future opportunities for detailed epidemiologic analyses of overweight and adiposity in relation to the development of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
Int J Cancer ; 147(4): 1018-1026, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943160

RESUMO

Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was found to be associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known regarding associations with molecular subtypes of CRC. The current study includes female participants of a large German population-based case-control study (922 CRC cases and 1,183 controls). Tumor tissue samples were analyzed for microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), BRAF and KRAS mutation status. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association of HRT use with molecular subtypes and pathways. Postmenopausal HRT use was overall associated with reduced risk of CRC (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.76) and no major differences were observed for molecular subtypes or for tumor marker combinations representing molecular pathways. When stratified by median age (≤/>71 years) potentially stronger risk reductions were observed in the older group for subtypes showing MSI (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.76), BRAF mutation (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.83) and CIMP-high (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.21-0.73) and for CRC suggestive of the sessile serrated pathway (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.20-1.01). In conclusion, postmenopausal use of HRT was similarly associated with risk reduction of major molecular tumor subtypes and pathways of CRC. Potentially stronger risk reductions with CRC subtypes diagnosed at higher ages require confirmation and clarification from other studies. The current study extends the limited understanding of the mechanisms of HRT in CRC prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/métodos , Pós-Menopausa , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 562-569, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have consistently shown that a high BMI is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying mechanisms linking obesity to CRC remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations of BMI and CRC by major molecular pathological subtypes of CRC. METHODS: This analysis included 2407 cases and 2454 controls from a large German population-based case-control study. Information on recent weight and height as well as other demographic and lifestyle data were obtained by standardized interviews. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for the associations between BMI and risk of CRC by major molecular pathological features: microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) mutation, and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog gene (KRAS) mutation. RESULTS: Among women, a higher BMI was differentially and more strongly associated with risk of MSI CRC (OR per 5 kg/m2: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.34, 2.12; Pheterogeneity ≤ 0.001), CIMP-high CRC (OR per 5 kg/m2: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.89; Pheterogeneity ≤ 0.001), BRAF-mutated CRC (OR per 5 kg/m2: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.99; Pheterogeneity = 0.04), and KRAS-wildtype CRC (OR per 5 kg/m2: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.54; Pheterogeneity = 0.01), compared with the risk of CRC in subjects with the molecular feature counterpart. In men, no meaningful differences in CRC risk were observed for the investigated molecular feature pairs. For the association of BMI with MSI CRC, we observed effect modification by sex (Pinteraction = 0.04). Also, in women, the risk of CRC with the serrated pathway features was more strongly increased with higher BMI than risk of CRC with the traditional pathway features (OR per 5 kg/m2: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.34; Pheterogeneity = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In women, the relation between BMI and MSI-high CRC seems to be stronger than that between BMI and microsatellite-stable CRC. However, a validation in an independent cohort is needed. This observational study was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (http://www.drks.de; study ID: DRKS00011793), an approved primary register in the WHO network.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(12): e00268, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512803

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Post-CRC resection complications and lower quality of life (QoL) are associated with a lower long-term survival. Perioperative administration of probiotics/synbiotics might lower prevalence of side effects and improve QoL and survival among CRC patients. Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane database, Embase, and clinical trials registries were searched in January 2020. Altogether, 16 randomized placebo-controlled probiotic/synbiotic clinical trials that included patients undergoing CRC surgery and investigated postoperative complications and QoL side effects were found. Meta-analyses using random-effects model were performed on data from 11 studies to calculate the effects of probiotics/synbiotics on common CRC resection postoperative side effects and complications. Perioperative probiotics/synbiotics administration was associated with lower infection incidence (odds ratio [OR] = 0.34, P < 0.001), lower diarrheal incidence (OR = 0.38, P < 0.001), faster return to normal gut function (mean difference [MD] -0.66 days, P < 0.001), shorter postoperative antibiotics use (MD -0.64 days, P < 0.001), lower incidence of septicemia (OR = 0.31, P < 0.001), and shorter length of hospital stay (MD -0.41 days, P = 0.110). The results support the hypothesis that short-term perioperative administration of probiotics/synbiotics, which are easy to administer, have few side-effects, and are low cost compared with alternatives, might help to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms and postoperative complications among CRC patients.


Assuntos
Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/dietoterapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Protectomia/efeitos adversos , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Incidência , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
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