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1.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S6-S8, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183595

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 exposed the reactive nature of the medical education community in response to a disruption that, at one time, may have seemed preposterous. In this article, the author reflected on the impact of an unpredictable plight on a system of medical education that (1) is continuous but doesn't function as a continuum and (2) requires adaptation but is steeped in a fixed mindset and structure that resists change. As a result, innovations which were previously considered impossible, such as time variable education and training, were forced into being. Inspired by the changes brought about by the pandemic, the ensuing decade is explored through a lens of possible futures to envision a path forward based on resilience rather than reactivity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação Baseada em Competências/organização & administração , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Modelos Educacionais , Inovação Organizacional , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Criatividade , Educação Médica/métodos , Humanos , Resiliência Psicológica , Análise de Sistemas , Estados Unidos
2.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S22-S28, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183598

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) are one approach to competency-based medical education (CBME), and 7 EPAs have been developed that address content relevant for all pediatric subspecialties. However, it is not known what level of supervision fellowship program directors (FPDs) deem necessary for graduation. The Subspecialty Pediatrics Investigator Network (SPIN) investigated FPD perceptions of the minimum level of supervision required for a trainee to successfully graduate. METHOD: In 2017, SPIN surveyed all FPDs of accredited fellowships for 14 subspecialties. For each EPA, the minimum supervision level for graduation (ranging from observation only to unsupervised practice) was set such that no more than 20% of FPDs would accept a lower level. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 82% (660/802). The minimum supervision level for graduation varied across the 7 EPAs from 2 (direct) to 4 (indirect for complex cases), with significant differences between EPAs. The percentage of FPDs desiring a lower minimum supervision level ranged from 3% to 17%. Compared with the 4 nonclinical EPAs (quality improvement, management, lead within the profession, scholarship), the 3 clinical EPAs (consultation, handover, lead a team) had higher minimum supervision graduation levels (P < .001), with less likelihood that an FPD would graduate a learner below their minimum level (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Consensus among FPDs across all pediatric subspecialties demonstrates the potential need for ongoing supervision for graduates in all 7 common pediatric subspecialty EPAs after fellowship. As CBME programs are implemented, processes and infrastructure to support new graduates are important considerations for leaders.


Assuntos
Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Bolsas de Estudo , Medicina do Adolescente/educação , Endocrinologia/educação , Gastroenterologia/educação , Hematologia/educação , Humanos , Infectologia/educação , Oncologia/educação , Medicina , Neonatologia/educação , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/educação , Pediatria/educação , Pneumologia/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S42-S49, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183601

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe trajectories in level of supervision ratings for linked entrustable professional activities (EPAs) among pediatric learners in medical school, residency, fellowship. METHOD: The authors performed secondary analyses of 3 linked datasets of level of supervision ratings for the Core EPAs for Entering Residency, the General Pediatrics EPAs, and the Subspecialty Pediatrics EPAs. After identifying 9 activities in common across training stages and aligning the level of entrustment-supervision scales across the datasets, piecewise ordinal and linear mixed effects models were fitted to characterize trajectories of supervision ratings. RESULTS: Within each training period, learners were rated as needing less supervision over time in each activity. When transitioning from medical school to residency or during the first year of residency, learners were rated as needing greater supervision in activities related to patient management, teamwork, emergent care, and public health/QI than in earlier periods. When transitioning from residency to fellowship, learners were always rated as needing greater supervision than they had been accorded at the end of residency and sometimes even more than they had been accorded at the start of residency. CONCLUSIONS: Although development over training is often imagined as continuous and monotonically increasing competence, this study provides empirical evidence supporting the idea that entrustment is a set of discrete decisions. The relaxation of supervision in training is not a linear process. Even with a seamless curriculum, supervision is tightly bound to the training setting. Several explanations for these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pediatria/educação , Bolsas de Estudo , Humanos , Internato e Residência
4.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S87-S88, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183608

RESUMO

Two decades ago, the advent of competency-based medical education (CBME) marked a paradigm shift in assessment. Now, medical education is on the cusp of another transformation driven by advances in the field of artificial intelligence (AI). In this article, the authors explore the potential value of AI in advancing CBME and entrustable professional activities by shifting the focus of education from assessment of learning to assessment for learning. The thoughtful integration of AI technologies in observation is proposed to aid in restructuring our current system around the goal of assessment for learning by creating continuous, tight feedback loops that were not before possible. The authors argued that this personalized and less judgmental relationship between learner and machine could shift today's dominating mindset on grades and performance to one of growth and mastery learning that leads to expertise. However, because AI is neither objective nor value free, the authors stress the need for continuous co-production and evaluation of the technology with geographically and culturally diverse stakeholders to define desired behavior of the machine and assess its performance.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Educação Médica/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feedback Formativo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Aprendizado de Máquina
5.
Med Teach ; 43(7): 810-816, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038645

RESUMO

Competency-based medical education has been advocated as the future of medical education for nearly a half-century. Inherent to this is the promise that advancement and transitions in training would be defined by readiness to practice rather than by time. Of the logistical problems facing competency-based, time-variable (CBTV) training, enacting time variability may be the largest hurdle to clear. Although it is true that an 'all or nothing' approach to CBTV training would require massive overhauls of both medical education and health care systems, the authors propose that training institutions should gradually evolve within their current environments to incrementally move toward the best version of CBTV training for learners, supervisors, and patients. In support of this evolution, the authors seek to demonstrate the feasibility of advancing toward the goal of realistic CBTV training by detailing examples of successful CBTV training and describing key features of initial steps toward CBTV training implementation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Med Teach ; 43(7): 737-744, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989100

RESUMO

With the rapid uptake of entrustable professional activties and entrustment decision-making as an approach in undergraduate and graduate education in medicine and other health professions, there is a risk of confusion in the use of new terminologies. The authors seek to clarify the use of many words related to the concept of entrustment, based on existing literature, with the aim to establish logical consistency in their use. The list of proposed definitions includes independence, autonomy, supervision, unsupervised practice, oversight, general and task-specific trustworthiness, trust, entrust(ment), entrustable professional activity, entrustment decision, entrustability, entrustment-supervision scale, retrospective and prospective entrustment-supervision scales, and entrustment-based discussion. The authors conclude that a shared understanding of the language around entrustment is critical to strengthen bridges among stages of training and practice, such as undergraduate medical education, graduate medical education, and continuing professional development. Shared language and understanding provide the foundation for consistency in interpretation and implementation across the educational continuum.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Internato e Residência , Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1332-1336, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769339

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Competency-based assessment, using entrustable professional activities (EPAs), is rapidly being implemented worldwide without sufficient agreement on the essential elements of EPA-based assessment. The rapidity of implementation has left little time to understand what works in what circumstances and why or why not. The result is the attempted execution of a complex service intervention without a shared mental model for features needed to remain true to implementing an EPA assessment framework as intended. The purpose of this study was to identify the essential core components necessary to maintain integrity in the implementation of this intended intervention. METHOD: A formal consensus-building technique, the Delphi process, was used to identify core components for implementing an EPA-based assessment framework. Twelve EPA experts from the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands participated in this process in February and March 2020. In each Delphi round, participants rated possible core components on a scale from 1 to 6, with 1 reflecting the worst fit and 6 the best fit for EPA-based assessment implementation. Predetermined automatic inclusion and exclusion criteria for candidate core components were set at ≥ 80% of participants assigning a value of 5 or 6 and ≥ 80% assigning a value of 1 or 2, respectively. RESULTS: After 3 rounds, participants prioritized 10 of 19 candidate core components for inclusion: performance prediction, shared local mental model, workplace assessment, high-stakes entrustment decisions, outcomes based, value of the collective, informed clinical competency committee members, construct alignment, qualitative data, and entrustment decision consequences. The study closed after 3 rounds on the basis of the rankings and comments. CONCLUSIONS: Using the core components identified in this study advances efforts to implement an EPA assessment framework intervention as intended, which mitigates the likelihood of making an incorrect judgment that the intervention demonstrates negative results.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Educação Baseada em Competências/normas , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Ciência da Implementação , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Canadá , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Países Baixos , Estados Unidos
8.
Acad Pediatr ; 21(1): 178-184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mental health problems in children are growing exponentially. General pediatricians, while in a unique position to address these issues as they arise, report they lack adequate training in assessing and managing behavioral/mental health (B/MH) problems. Underscoring the importance of this area, the American Board of Pediatrics has defined B/MH as one of only 17 foundational entrustable professional activities (EPAs) for general pediatric practice. Our goal was to explore the facilitators and barriers associated with implementing and assessing the B/MH EPA among pediatric residency programs in order to identify best practices and potential solutions to common barriers. METHODS: In this qualitative study, 18 key faculty members from 4 residency programs with 3 years' experience implementing and assessing their residents on the B/MH EPA were purposively sampled. Semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant, and interviews were analyzed utilizing a thematic analysis. RESULTS: Five themes were defined in the thematic analysis 1) B/MH training: who's responsible? 2) local context can serve as a barrier or facilitator, 3) B/MH may require longitudinal, integrated, and multidisciplinary training, 4) B/MH specialists: indispensable, yet a hurdle?, and 5) resident and faculty confidence and skill impact B/MH training. CONCLUSIONS: The need for robust training to prepare pediatric residency graduates to meet the needs of patients with B/MH problems has never been greater. This study provides important insights about gaps in B/MH training. These should inform future directions focused on addressing this need.

10.
Acad Pediatr ; 21(4): 735-741, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research on entrustable professional activities (EPAs) has focused on EPA development with little attention paid to implementation experiences. This constructivist grounded theory study sought to begin filling this gap by exploring the experiences of pediatric residency programs with implementing EPA-based assessment. METHODS: Interviews with 19 program leader and clinical competency committee participants from 13 sites were held between January and July 2019. Participants were asked about their experiences with implementing EPA-based assessment. Data collection and analysis were iterative. RESULTS: Participants described a range of facilitators and inhibitors that influenced their efforts to implement EPA-based assessment. These fell into 4 thematic areas: 1) alignment of EPA construct with local views of performance and assessment, 2) assessing EPAs illuminates holes in the residency curriculum, 3) clinical competency committee structure and process impacts EPA-based assessment, and 4) faculty engagement and development drives ability to assess EPAs. Areas described as facilitators by some participants were noted to be inhibitors for others. The sum of a program's facilitators and inhibitors led to more or less ability to assess EPAs on the whole. Finally, the first area functions differently from the others; it can shift the entire balance toward or away from the ability to assess EPAs overall. CONCLUSION: This study helps fill a void in implementation evidence for EPA-based assessment through better understanding of facilitators and inhibitors to such efforts.

11.
Acad Med ; 96(2): 199-204, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060399

RESUMO

The iconic Miller's pyramid, proposed in 1989, characterizes 4 levels of assessment in medical education ("knows," "knows how," "shows how," "does"). The frame work has created a worldwide awareness of the need to have different assessment approaches for different expected outcomes of education and training. At the time, Miller stressed the innovative use of simulation techniques, geared at the third level ("shows how"); however, the "does" level, assessment in the workplace, remained a largely uncharted area. In the 30 years since Miller's conference address and seminal paper, much attention has been devoted to procedures and instrument development for workplace-based assessment. With the rise of competency-based medical education (CBME), the need for approaches to determine the competence of learners in the clinical workplace has intensified. The proposal to use entrustable professional activities as a framework of assessment and the related entrustment decision making for clinical responsibilities at designated levels of supervision of learners (e.g., direct, indirect, and no supervision) has become a recent critical innovation of CBME at the "does" level. Analysis of the entrustment concept reveals that trust in a learner to work without assistance or supervision encompasses more than the observation of "doing" in practice (the "does" level). It implies the readiness of educators to accept the inherent risks involved in health care tasks and the judgment that the learner has enough experience to act appropriately when facing unexpected challenges. Earning this qualification requires qualities beyond observed proficiency, which led the authors to propose adding the level "trusted" to the apex of Miller's pyramid.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Confiança/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conscientização , Educação/normas , Educação Médica/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração
12.
Acad Med ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239536

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Research on how entrustment decisions are made identifies 5 broad influential factors (supervisor, trainee, supervisor-trainee relationship, context, task). However, this literature primarily represents the perspective of supervisors in graduate medical education and is conducted outside of an assessment framework where entrustment decisions have consequences for trainees and for patients. To complement the literature, the authors explored how medical students in a pilot program that used an entrustable professional activity (EPA) assessment framework perceived factors influencing entrustment decisions. METHOD: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of qualitative data from program evaluation of a pilot project using an entrustment assessment framework to advance students through their curriculum and into residency. Data were derived from 8 focus groups conducted over 4 years (2015-2018) with 27 students who shared their experience of learning and supervision in the project. Sensitized by the entrustment literature, the authors coded and analyzed focus group transcripts according to principles of thematic analysis. RESULTS: Components of the trainee and supervisor-trainee relationship factors predominated students' perceptions of entrustment decisions. Students directed their own learning by asking for feedback; seeking opportunities to engage in learning; sharing limitations of their knowledge with supervisors; and pushing supervisors to recalibrate assessments when appropriate. Students' agentic actions were facilitated by longitudinal supervisor-trainee relationships wherein they felt comfortable asking for help and built confidence in caring for patients. Students mentioned components of other factors that influenced entrustment decisions (supervisor, clinical task, clinical context), but did so less frequently and from a non-agentic vantage point. CONCLUSIONS: Students' perspectives on entrustment decisions can be derived from their views on learning and supervision in an EPA assessment framework. Their perspectives complement the literature by highlighting students' agentic actions to influence entrustment decisions and promotion of agentic action through practices incorporating longitudinal supervisor-trainee relationships.

13.
J Med Educ Curric Dev ; 7: 2382120520936613, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844115

RESUMO

Objectives: Fellowship program directors (FPD) and Clinical Competency Committees (CCCs) both assess fellow performance. We examined the association of entrustment levels determined by the FPD with those of the CCC for 6 common pediatric subspecialty entrustable professional activities (EPAs), hypothesizing there would be strong correlation and minimal bias between these raters. Methods: The FPDs and CCCs separately assigned a level of supervision to each of their fellows for 6 common pediatric subspecialty EPAs. For each EPA, we determined the correlation between FPD and CCC assessments and calculated bias as CCC minus FPD values for when the FPD was or was not a member of the CCC. In addition, we examined the effect of program size, FPD understanding of EPAs, and subspecialty on the correlations. Data were obtained in fall 2014 and spring 2015. Results: A total of 1040 fellows were assessed in the fall and 1048 in the spring. In both periods and for each EPA, there was a strong correlation between FPD and CCC supervision levels (P < .001). The correlation was somewhat lower when the FPD was not a CCC member (P < .001). Overall bias in both periods was small. Conclusions: The correlation between FPD and CCC assignment of EPA supervision levels is strong. Although slightly weaker when the FPD is not a CCC member, bias is small, so this is likely unimportant in determining fellow entrustment level. The similar performance ratings of FPDs and CCCs support the validity argument for EPAs as competency-based assessment tools.

14.
Acad Med ; 95(11S Association of American Medical Colleges Learn Serve Lead: Proceedings of the 59th Annual Research in Medical Education Presentations): S89-S94, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769468

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Semiannually, U.S. pediatrics residency programs report resident milestone levels to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The Pediatrics Milestones Assessment Collaborative (PMAC, consisting of the National Board of Medical Examiners, American Board of Pediatrics, and Association of Pediatric Program Directors) developed workplace-based assessments of 2 inferences: readiness to serve as an intern with a supervisor present (D1) and readiness to care for patients with a supervisor nearby in the pediatric inpatient setting (D2). The authors compared learner and program variance in PMAC scores with ACGME milestones. METHOD: The authors examined sources of variance in PMAC scores and milestones between November 2015 and May 2017 of 181 interns at 8 U.S. pediatrics residency programs using random effects models with program, competency, learner, and program × competency components. RESULTS: Program-related milestone variance was substantial (54% D1, 68% D2), both in comparison to learner milestone variance (22% D1, 14% D2) and program variance in the PMAC scores (12% D1, 10% D2). In contrast, learner variance represented 44% (D1) or 26% (D2) of variance in PMAC scores. Within programs, PMAC scores were positively correlated with milestones for all but one competency. CONCLUSIONS: PMAC assessments provided scores with little program-specific variance and were more sensitive to differences in learners within programs compared with milestones. Milestones reflected greater differences by program than by learner. This may represent program-based differences in intern performance or in use of milestones as a reporting scale. Comparing individual learner milestones without adjusting for programs is problematic.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Internato e Residência/normas , Pediatria/educação , Acreditação , Currículo , Estados Unidos
15.
Acad Med ; 95(11): 1726-1735, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324637

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Resident-sensitive quality measures (RSQMs) are quality measures that are likely performed by an individual resident and are important to care quality for a given illness of interest. This study sought to explore how individual clinical competency committee (CCC) members interpret, use, and prioritize RSQMs alongside traditional assessment data when making a summative entrustment decision. METHOD: In this constructivist grounded theory study, 19 members of the pediatric residency CCC at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center were purposively and theoretically sampled between February and July 2019. Participants were provided a deidentified resident assessment portfolio with traditional assessment data (milestone and/or entrustable professional activity ratings as well as narrative comments from 5 rotations) and RSQM performance data for 3 acute, common diagnoses in the pediatric emergency department (asthma, bronchiolitis, and closed head injury) from the emergency medicine rotation. Data collection consisted of 2 phases: (1) observation and think out loud while participants reviewed the portfolio and (2) semistructured interviews to probe participants' reviews. Analysis moved from close readings to coding and theme development, followed by the creation of a model illustrating theme interaction. Data collection and analysis were iterative. RESULTS: Five dimensions for how participants interpret, use, and prioritize RSQMs were identified: (1) ability to orient to RSQMs: confusing to self-explanatory, (2) propensity to use RSQMs: reluctant to enthusiastic, (3) RSQM interpretation: requires contextualization to self-evident, (4) RSQMs for assessment decisions: not sticky to sticky, and (5) expectations for residents: potentially unfair to fair to use RSQMs. The interactions among these dimensions generated 3 RSQM data user profiles: eager incorporation, willing incorporation, and disinclined incorporation. CONCLUSIONS: Participants used RSQMs to varying extents in their review of resident data and found such data helpful to varying degrees, supporting the inclusion of RSQMs as resident assessment data for CCC review.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Membro de Comitê , Docentes de Medicina , Internato e Residência , Pediatria/educação , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Acad Med ; 95(11): 1736-1744, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195689

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine which narrative performance level for each general pediatrics entrustable professional activity (EPA) reflects the minimum level clinical competency committees (CCCs) felt should be associated with graduation as well as initial entrustment and compare expected narrative performance levels (ENPLs) for each EPA with actual narrative performance levels (ANPLs) assigned to residents at initial entrustment. METHOD: A series of 5 narratives, corresponding to the 5 milestone performance levels, were developed for each of the 17 general pediatrics EPAs. In academic year (AY) 2015-2016, the CCCs at 22 Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network member sites reported ENPLs for initial entrustment and at time of graduation. From AYs 2015-2016 to 2017-2018, programs reported ANPLs for initial entrustment decisions. ENPLs and ANPLs were compared using a logistic mixed effects model. RESULTS: ENPLs for graduation and entrustment were most often level 3 (competent) followed by level 4 (proficient). For 8 EPAs, the ENPLs for graduation and entrustment were the same. For the remaining 9, some programs would entrust residents before graduation or graduate them before entrusting them. There were 4,266 supervision level reports for initial entrustment for which an ANPL was provided. ANPLs that were lower than the ENPLs were significantly more likely to be assigned to the medical home-well child (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.26-0.57), transition to adult care (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.95), behavioral or mental health (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.18-0.71), make referrals (OR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.17-0.55), lead a team (OR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.22-0.52), and handovers (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.09-0.36) EPAs. CONCLUSIONS: CCCs reported lower ENPLs for graduation than for entrustment for 5 EPAs, possibly indicating curricular gaps that milestones and EPAs could help identify.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Membro de Comitê , Educação Baseada em Competências , Internato e Residência , Narração , Pediatria/educação , Confiança , Humanos , Competência Profissional , Padrões de Referência
17.
Fam Med ; 52(6): 398-407, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Much can be gained by the three primary care disciplines collaborating on efforts to transform residency training toward interprofessional collaborative practice. We describe findings from a study designed to align primary care disciplines toward implementing interprofessional education. METHODS: In this mixed methods study, we included faculty, residents and other interprofessional learners in family medicine, internal medicine, and pediatrics from nine institutions across the United States. We administered a web-based survey in April/May of 2018 and used qualitative analyses of field notes to study resident exposure to team-based care during training, estimates of career choice in programs that are innovating, and supportive and challenging conditions that influence collaboration among the three disciplines. Complete data capture was attained for 96.3% of participants. RESULTS: Among family medicine resident graduates, an estimated 87.1% chose to go into primary care compared to 12.4% of internal medicine, and 36.5% of pediatric resident graduates. Qualitative themes found to positively influence cross-disciplinary collaboration included relationship development, communication of shared goals, alignment with health system/other institutional initiatives, and professional identity as primary care physicians. Challenges included expressed concerns by participants that by working together, the disciplines would experience a loss of identity and would be indistinguishable from one another. Another qualitative finding was that overwhelming stressors plague primary care training programs in the current health care climate-a great concern. These include competing demands, disruptive transitions, and lack of resources. CONCLUSIONS: Uniting the primary care disciplines toward educational and clinical transformation toward interprofessional collaborative practice is challenging to accomplish.

18.
Acad Med ; 95(8): 1256-1264, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101934

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study explores the associations between resident-sensitive quality measures (RSQMs) and supervisor entrustment as well as between RSQMs and patient acuity and complexity for encounters in the pediatric emergency department (PED) in which residents are caring for patients. METHOD: Pediatric residents rotating through Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center PED as well as supervising pediatric emergency medicine faculty and fellows were recruited during the 2017-2018 academic year for the purpose of collecting the following data from the residents' patient encounters for 3 illnesses (acute asthma exacerbation, bronchiolitis, and closed head injury [CHI]): supervisor entrustment decision rating, RSQMs relevant to the care provided, and supervisor patient acuity and complexity ratings. To measure the association of RSQM composite scores with the other variables of interest, mixed models were used. RESULTS: A total of 83 residents cared for 110 patients with asthma, 112 with bronchiolitis, and 77 with CHI. Entrustment decision ratings were positively associated with asthma RSQM composite scores (beta coefficient = 0.03; P < .001). There was no significant association between RSQM composite scores and entrustment decision ratings for bronchiolitis or CHI. RSQM composite scores were significantly higher when acuity was also higher and significantly lower when acuity was also lower for both asthma (P < .001) and bronchiolitis (P = .01). However, RSQM composite scores were almost identical between levels of acuity for CHI (P = .94). There were no significant differences in RSQM composite scores when complexity varied. CONCLUSION: This study found limited associations between RSQM composite scores and entrustment decision ratings but offers insight into how RSQMs could be used for the purposes of resident assessment and feedback.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Docentes de Medicina , Gravidade do Paciente , Pediatria/educação , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Confiança , Asma/terapia , Bronquiolite/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Traumatismos Cranianos Fechados/terapia , Humanos , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1919316, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940042

RESUMO

Importance: Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) are an emerging workplace-based, patient-oriented assessment approach with limited empirical evidence. Objective: To measure the development of pediatric trainees' clinical skills over time using EPA-based assessment data. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of categorical pediatric residents over 3 academic years (2015-2016, 2016-2017, and 2017-2018) assessed on 17 American Board of Pediatrics EPAs. Residents in training at 23 pediatric residency programs in the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network were included. Assessment was conducted by clinical competency committee members, who made summative assessment decisions regarding levels of supervision required for each resident and each EPA. Data were collected from May 2016 to November 2018 and analyzed from November to December 2018. Interventions: Longitudinal, prospective assessment using EPAs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Trajectories of supervision levels by EPA during residency training and how often graduating residents were deemed ready for unsupervised practice in each EPA. Results: Across the 5 data collection cycles, 1987 residents from all 3 postgraduate years in 23 residency programs were assigned 25 503 supervision level reports for the 17 general pediatrics EPAs. The 4 EPAs that required the most supervision across training were EPA 14 (quality improvement) on the 5-level scale (estimated mean level at graduation, 3.7; 95% CI, 3.6-3.7) and EPAs 8 (transition to adult care; mean, 7.0; 95% CI, 7.0-7.1), 9 (behavioral and mental health; mean, 6.6; 95% CI, 6.5-6.6), and 10 (resuscitate and stabilize; mean, 6.9; 95% CI, 6.8-7.0) on the expanded 5-level scale. At the time of graduation (36 months), the percentage of trainees who were rated at a supervision level corresponding to "unsupervised practice" varied by EPA from 53% to 98%. If performance standards were set to align with 90% of trainees achieving the level of unsupervised practice, this standard would be met for only 8 of the 17 EPAs (although 89% met this standard for EPA 17, performing the common procedures of the general pediatrician). Conclusions and Relevance: This study presents initial evidence for empirically derived practice readiness and sets the stage for identifying curricular gaps that contribute to discrepancy between observed practice readiness and standards needed to produce physicians able to meet the health needs of the patient populations they serve. Future work should compare these findings with postgraduation outcomes data as a means of seeking validity evidence.


Assuntos
Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Internato e Residência/normas , Pediatria/educação , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
20.
Acad Med ; 95(8): 1248-1255, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913878

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A lack of quality measures aligned with residents' work led to the development of resident-sensitive quality measures (RSQMs). This study sought to describe how often residents complete RSQMs, both individually and collectively, when they are implemented in the clinical environment. METHOD: During academic year 2017-2018, categorical pediatric residents in the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center pediatric emergency department were assessed using RSQMs for acute asthma exacerbation (21 RSQMs), bronchiolitis (23 RSQMs), and closed head injury (19 RSQMs). Following eligible patient encounters, all individual RSQMs for the illnesses of interest were extracted from the health record. Frequencies of 3 performance classifications (opportunity and met, opportunity and not met, or no opportunity) were detailed for each RSQM. A composite score for each encounter was calculated by determining the proportion of individual RSQMs performed out of the total possible RSQMs that could have been performed. RESULTS: Eighty-three residents cared for 110 patients with asthma, 112 with bronchiolitis, and 77 with closed head injury during the study period. Residents had the opportunity to meet the RSQMs in most encounters, but exceptions existed. There was a wide range in the frequency of residents meeting RSQMs in encounters in which the opportunity existed. One closed head injury measure was met in all encounters in which the opportunity existed. Across illnesses, some RSQMs were met in almost all encounters, while others were met in far fewer encounters. RSQM composite scores demonstrated significant range and variation as well-asthma: mean = 0.81 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.11) and range = 0.47-1.00, bronchiolitis: mean = 0.62 (SD = 0.12) and range = 0.35-0.91, and closed head injury: mean = 0.63 (SD = 0.10) and range = 0.44-0.89. CONCLUSIONS: Individually and collectively, RSQMs can distinguish variations in the tasks residents perform across patient encounters.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Bronquiolite/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Traumatismos Cranianos Fechados/terapia , Pediatria/educação , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
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