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1.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e25, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cumulative environmental exposure score for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia [ES-SCZ]) may provide potential utility for risk stratification and outcome prediction. Here, we investigated whether ES-SCZ was associated with functioning in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. METHODS: This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,261 patients, 1,282 unaffected siblings, and 1,525 healthy controls. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was used to assess functioning. ES-SCZ was calculated based on our previously validated method. The association between ES-SCZ and the GAF dimensions (symptom and disability) was analyzed by applying regression models in each group (patients, siblings, and controls). Additional models included polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) as a covariate. RESULTS: ES-SCZ was associated with the GAF dimensions in patients (symptom: B = -1.53, p-value = 0.001; disability: B = -1.44, p-value = 0.001), siblings (symptom: B = -3.07, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = -2.52, p-value < 0.001), and healthy controls (symptom: B = -1.50, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = -1.31, p-value < 0.001). The results remained the same after adjusting for PRS-SCZ. The degree of associations of ES-SCZ with both symptom and disability dimensions were higher in unaffected siblings than in patients and controls. By analyzing an independent dataset (the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study), we replicated the results observed in the patient group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ES-SCZ shows promise for enhancing risk prediction and stratification in research practice. From a clinical perspective, ES-SCZ may aid in efforts of clinical characterization, operationalizing transdiagnostic clinical staging models, and personalizing clinical management.

2.
J Clin Periodontol ; 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745150

RESUMO

AIM: To identify loci associated with stages III/IV, grade C periodontitis (PIII/IV-C) through a genome wide association study (GWAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 441 Caucasian Spanish PIII/IV-C cases from the SEPA Network of Research Clinics and 1141 controls from the Banco Nacional de ADN were genotyped with "Axiom Spain Biobank Array", which contains 757836 markers, including rare and low frequency Spanish variants. The analysis of the individual association and subsequently the gene level analysis with Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT), were carried out adjusting for age, sex and PC1 covariates. Pathway Analysis was additionally performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software on the top associated genes. RESULTS: In the individual analyses, no genome-wide significant signals were detected. However, 8 SNPs of 8 loci reached suggestive evidence of association with PIII/IV-C, including FAT3 rs35709256, CSNK1G2 rs4807188, MYH13 rs2074872, CNTN2 rs116611488, ANTXR1 rs4854545, 8p23.2 rs78672540, ANGPT1 rs13439823, and PLEC rs11993287 (p < 5×10-6 ). SKAT analysis identified other interesting signals at CNTN2, FBXO44, AP1M2, RSPO4, KRI1, BPIFB1 and INMT, although their probability does not exceed the multiple-test correction. IPA indicated significant enrichment of pathways related to cAMP, IL-2, CD28, VDR/RXR and PI3K/Akt. CONCLUSIONS: GWAS found no SNPs significantly associated with PIII/IV-C.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 142, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627629

RESUMO

Long runs of homozygosity (ROH) are contiguous stretches of homozygous genotypes, which are a footprint of inbreeding and recessive inheritance. The presence of recessive loci is suggested for Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, their search has been poorly assessed to date. To investigate homozygosity in AD, here we performed a fine-scale ROH analysis using 10 independent cohorts of European ancestry (11,919 AD cases and 9181 controls.) We detected an increase of homozygosity in AD cases compared to controls [ßAVROH (CI 95%) = 0.070 (0.037-0.104); P = 3.91 × 10-5; ßFROH (CI95%) = 0.043 (0.009-0.076); P = 0.013]. ROHs increasing the risk of AD (OR > 1) were significantly overrepresented compared to ROHs increasing protection (p < 2.20 × 10-16). A significant ROH association with AD risk was detected upstream the HS3ST1 locus (chr4:11,189,482‒11,305,456), (ß (CI 95%) = 1.09 (0.48 ‒ 1.48), p value = 9.03 × 10-4), previously related to AD. Next, to search for recessive candidate variants in ROHs, we constructed a homozygosity map of inbred AD cases extracted from an outbred population and explored ROH regions in whole-exome sequencing data (N = 1449). We detected a candidate marker, rs117458494, mapped in the SPON1 locus, which has been previously associated with amyloid metabolism. Here, we provide a research framework to look for recessive variants in AD using outbred populations. Our results showed that AD cases have enriched homozygosity, suggesting that recessive effects may explain a proportion of AD heritability.

4.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 52: 102478, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588347

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and is one of the major causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD). An exon-targeted gene sequencing strategy was used to investigate the association of functional variants in sarcomeric genes (MYBPC3, MYH7 and TNNT2) with severe LVH and other SCD-related risk factors in Brazilian HCM patients. Clinical data of 55 HCM patients attending a Cardiology Hospital (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) were recorded. Severe LVH, aborted SCD, family history of SCD, syncope, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia and abnormal blood pressure in response to exercise were evaluated as SCD risk factors. Blood samples were obtained for genomic DNA extraction and the exons and untranslated regions of the MYH7, MYBPC3 and TNNT2 were sequenced using Nextera® and MiSEq® reagents. Variants were identified and annotated using in silico tools, and further classified as pathogenic or benign according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. Variants with functional effects were identified in MYBPC3 (n = 9), MYH7 (n = 6) and TNNT2 (n = 4). The benign variants MYBPC3 p.Val158Met and TNNT2 p.Lys263Arg were associated with severe LVH (p < 0.05), and the MYH7 p.Val320Met (pathogenic) was associated with family history of SCD (p = 0.037). Increased risk for severe LVH was found in carriers of MYBPC3 Met158 (c.472 A allele, OR = 13.5, 95% CI = 1.80-101.12, p = 0.011) or combined variants (MYBPC3, MYH7 and TNNT2: OR = 12.39, 95% CI = 2.14-60.39, p = 0.004). Carriers of TNNT2 p.Lys263Arg and combined variants had higher values of septum thickness than non-carriers (p < 0.05). Molecular modeling analysis showed that MYBPC3 158Met reduces the interaction of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) RASK domain (amino acids Arg215-Ala216-Ser217-Lys218) with tropomyosin. In conclusion, the variants MYBPC3 p.Val158Met, TNNT2 p.Lys263Arg and MYH7 p.Val320Met individually or combined contribute to the risk of sudden cardiac death and other outcomes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

5.
6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414498

RESUMO

Important questions remain about the profile of cognitive impairment in psychotic disorders across adulthood and illness stages. The age-associated profile of familial impairments also remains unclear, as well as the effect of factors, such as symptoms, functioning, and medication. Using cross-sectional data from the EU-GEI and GROUP studies, comprising 8455 participants aged 18 to 65, we examined cognitive functioning across adulthood in patients with psychotic disorders (n = 2883), and their unaffected siblings (n = 2271), compared to controls (n = 3301). An abbreviated WAIS-III measured verbal knowledge, working memory, visuospatial processing, processing speed, and IQ. Patients showed medium to large deficits across all functions (ES range = -0.45 to -0.73, p < 0.001), while siblings showed small deficits on IQ, verbal knowledge, and working memory (ES = -0.14 to -0.33, p < 0.001). Magnitude of impairment was not associated with participant age, such that the size of impairment in older and younger patients did not significantly differ. However, first-episode patients performed worse than prodromal patients (ES range = -0.88 to -0.60, p < 0.001). Adjusting for cannabis use, symptom severity, and global functioning attenuated impairments in siblings, while deficits in patients remained statistically significant, albeit reduced by half (ES range = -0.13 to -0.38, p < 0.01). Antipsychotic medication also accounted for around half of the impairment in patients (ES range = -0.21 to -0.43, p < 0.01). Deficits in verbal knowledge, and working memory may specifically index familial, i.e., shared genetic and/or shared environmental, liability for psychotic disorders. Nevertheless, potentially modifiable illness-related factors account for a significant portion of the cognitive impairment in psychotic disorders.

7.
Heliyon ; 6(11): e05632, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305042

RESUMO

Objective: Bulk tissue genomic analysis of meningiomas identified common somatic mutations, however, it often excluded blood-related variants. In contrast, genomic characterisation of primary cell lines that can provide critical information regarding growth and proliferation, have been rare. In our work, we identified the variants that are present in the blood, tissues and corresponding cell lines that are likely to be predictive, tumorigenic and progressive. Method: Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify variants and distinguish related pathways that exist in 42 blood, tissues and corresponding cell lines (BTCs) samples for patients with intracranial meningiomas. Conventional sequencing was used for the confirmation of variants. Integrative analysis of the gene expression for the corresponding samples was utilised for further interpretations. Results: In total, 926 BTC variants were detected, implicating 845 genes. A pathway analysis of all BTC genes with damaging variants indicated the 'cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation' stem cell-related pathway to be the most frequently affected pathway. Concordantly, five stem cell-related genes, GPRIN2, ALDH3B2, ASPN, THSD7A and SIGLEC6, showed BTC variants in at least five of the patients. Variants that were heterozygous in the blood and homozygous in the tissues or the corresponding cell lines were rare (average: 1.3 ± 0.3%), and included variants in the RUNX2 and CCDC114 genes. An analysis comparing the variants detected only in tumours with aggressive features indicated a total of 240 BTC genes, implicating the 'homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules' pathway, and identifying the stem cell-related transcription coactivator NCOA3/AIB1/SRC3 as the most frequent BTC gene. Further analysis of the possible impact of the poly-Q mutation present in the NCOA3 gene indicated associated deregulation of 15 genes, including the up-regulation of the stem cell related SEMA3D gene and the angiogenesis related VEGFA gene. Conclusion: Stem cell-related pathways and genes showed high prevalence in the BTC variants, and novel variants in stem cell-related genes were identified for meningioma. These variants can potentially be used as predictive, tumorigenic and progressive biomarkers for meningioma.

8.
Genet Mol Biol ; 43(4): e20200143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306774

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies focused on searching genes responsible for several diseases. Admixture mapping studies proposed a more efficient alternative capable of detecting polymorphisms contributing with a small effect on the disease risk. This method focuses on the higher values of linkage disequilibrium in admixed populations. To test this, we analyzed 10 genomic regions previously defined as related with colorectal cancer among nine populations and studied the variation pattern of haplotypic structures and heterozygosity values on seven categories of SNPs. Both analyses showed differences among chromosomal regions and studied populations. Admixed Latin-American samples generally show intermediate values. Heterozygosity of the SNPs grouped in categories varies more in each gene than in each population. African related populations have more blocks per chromosomal region, coherently with their antiquity. In sum, some similarities were found among Latin American populations, but each chromosomal region showed a particular behavior, despite the fact that the study refers to genes and regions related with one particular complex disease. This study strongly suggests the necessity of developing statistical methods to deal with di- or tri-hybrid populations, as well as to carefully analyze the different historic and demographic scenarios, and the different characteristics of particular chromosomal regions and evolutionary forces.

9.
J Pers Med ; 10(4)2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228198

RESUMO

In recent decades, survival rates in colorectal cancer have improved greatly due to pharmacological treatment. However, many patients end up developing adverse drug reactions that can be severe or even life threatening, and that affect their quality of life. These remain a limitation, as they may force dose reduction or treatment discontinuation, diminishing treatment efficacy. From candidate gene approaches to genome-wide analysis, pharmacogenomic knowledge has advanced greatly, yet there is still huge and unexploited potential in the use of novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing strategies. This review summarises the road of colorectal cancer pharmacogenomics so far, presents considerations and directions to be taken for further works and discusses the path towards implementation into clinical practice.

10.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(11)2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233737

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) affect around 1.5% of the global population, which manifest alterations in communication and socialization, as well as repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. ASD is a complex disorder with known environmental and genetic contributors; however, ASD etiology is far from being clear. In the past decades, many efforts have been put into developing new models to study ASD, both in vitro and in vivo. These models have a lot of potential to help to validate some of the previously associated risk factors to the development of the disorder, and to test new potential therapies that help to alleviate ASD symptoms. The present review is focused on the recent advances towards the generation of models for the study of ASD, which would be a useful tool to decipher the bases of the disorder, as well as to conduct drug screenings that hopefully lead to the identification of useful compounds to help patients deal with the symptoms of ASD.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20641, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219311

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

12.
Front Genet ; 11: 581041, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193704

RESUMO

The development of microhaplotype (MH) panels for massively parallel sequencing (MPS) platforms is gaining increasing relevance for forensic analysis. Here, we expand the applicability of a 102 autosomal and 11 X-chromosome panel of MHs, previously validated with both MiSeq and Ion S5 MPS platforms and designed for identification purposes. We have broadened reference population data for identification purposes, including data from 240 HGDP-CEPH individuals of native populations from North Africa, the Middle East, Oceania and America. Using the enhanced population data, the panel was evaluated as a marker set for bio-geographical ancestry (BGA) inference, providing a clear differentiation of the five main continental groups of Africa, Europe, East Asia, Native America, and Oceania. An informative degree of differentiation was also achieved for the population variation encompassing North Africa, Middle East, Europe, South Asia, and East Asia. In addition, we explored the potential for individual BGA inference from simple mixed DNA, by simulation of mixed profiles followed by deconvolution of mixture components.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 398, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184255

RESUMO

Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder with a substantial genetic component. However, the extent to which epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the etiology of the disorder is unknown. We performed epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium to identify DNA methylation sites associated with ADHD symptoms at two methylation assessment periods: birth and school age. We examined associations of both DNA methylation in cord blood with repeatedly assessed ADHD symptoms (age 4-15 years) in 2477 children from 5 cohorts and of DNA methylation at school age with concurrent ADHD symptoms (age 7-11 years) in 2374 children from 9 cohorts, with 3 cohorts participating at both timepoints. CpGs identified with nominal significance (p < 0.05) in either of the EWAS were correlated between timepoints (ρ = 0.30), suggesting overlap in associations; however, top signals were very different. At birth, we identified nine CpGs that predicted later ADHD symptoms (p < 1 × 10-7), including ERC2 and CREB5. Peripheral blood DNA methylation at one of these CpGs (cg01271805 in the promoter region of ERC2, which regulates neurotransmitter release) was previously associated with brain methylation. Another (cg25520701) lies within the gene body of CREB5, which previously was associated with neurite outgrowth and an ADHD diagnosis. In contrast, at school age, no CpGs were associated with ADHD with p < 1 × 10-7. In conclusion, we found evidence in this study that DNA methylation at birth is associated with ADHD. Future studies are needed to confirm the utility of methylation variation as biomarker and its involvement in causal pathways.

14.
Psychol Med ; : 1-7, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or 'jumping to conclusions'(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation. METHODS: Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses. RESULTS: JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46-5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13-6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67-8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94-4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences. CONCLUSIONS: These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.

15.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation. METHODS: We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls. RESULTS: The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: -0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465). CONCLUSIONS: The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.

16.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926304

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with increasing prevalence, and a male-to-female ratio of 4:1. Research has been suggesting that discrepancy in prevalence may be due to the fact that females camouflage their symptoms. In this study, we aimed to systematically review evidence on the camouflage effect in females with ASD. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we reviewed empirical research published from January 2009 to September 2019 on PubMed, Web of Science, PsychInfo and Scopus databases. Thirteen empirical articles were included in this review. Overall, evidence supports that camouflaging seems to be an adaptive mechanism for females with ASD, despite the negative implications of these behaviours in their daily life.

17.
Front Genet ; 11: 932, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973877

RESUMO

Individual age estimation can be applied to criminal, legal, and anthropological investigations. DNA methylation has been established as the biomarker of choice for age prediction, since it was observed that specific CpG positions in the genome show systematic changes during an individual's lifetime, with progressive increases or decreases in methylation levels. Subsequently, several forensic age prediction models have been reported, providing average age prediction error ranges of ±3-4 years, using a broad spectrum of technologies and underlying statistical analyses. DNA methylation assessment is not categorical but quantitative. Therefore, the detection platform used plays a pivotal role, since quantitative and semi-quantitative technologies could potentially result in differences in detected DNA methylation levels. In the present study, we analyzed as a shared sample pool, 84 blood-based DNA controls ranging from 18 to 99 years old using four different technologies: EpiTYPER®, pyrosequencing, MiSeq, and SNaPshotTM. The DNA methylation levels detected for CpG sites from ELOVL2, FHL2, and MIR29B2 with each system were compared. A restricted three CpG-site age prediction model was rebuilt for each system, as well as for a combination of technologies, based on previous training datasets, and age predictions were calculated accordingly for all the samples detected with the previous technologies. While the DNA methylation patterns and subsequent age predictions from EpiTYPER®, pyrosequencing, and MiSeq systems are largely comparable for the CpG sites studied, SNaPshotTM gives bigger differences reflected in higher predictive errors. However, these differences can be reduced by applying a z-score data transformation.

18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990755

RESUMO

The knowledge of the genetic variability of the local population is of utmost importance in personalized medicine and has been revealed as a critical factor for the discovery of new disease variants. Here, we present the Collaborative Spanish Variability Server (CSVS), which currently contains more than 2000 genomes and exomes of unrelated Spanish individuals. This database has been generated in a collaborative crowdsourcing effort collecting sequencing data produced by local genomic projects and for other purposes. Sequences have been grouped by ICD10 upper categories. A web interface allows querying the database removing one or more ICD10 categories. In this way, aggregated counts of allele frequencies of the pseudo-control Spanish population can be obtained for diseases belonging to the category removed. Interestingly, in addition to pseudo-control studies, some population studies can be made, as, for example, prevalence of pharmacogenomic variants, etc. In addition, this genomic data has been used to define the first Spanish Genome Reference Panel (SGRP1.0) for imputation. This is the first local repository of variability entirely produced by a crowdsourcing effort and constitutes an example for future initiatives to characterize local variability worldwide. CSVS is also part of the GA4GH Beacon network. CSVS can be accessed at: http://csvs.babelomics.org/.

19.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915356

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, executive functioning, sensory-perceptual abilities and behaviour, such as anxious/depressed states, attention problems, aggression, or somatic complains. However, the dynamic relationship between these dimensions remains to be addressed. Therefore, we explored the link between executive functions, sensory processing and behaviour in 79 children and adolescents with ASD. Results showed significant associations between all dimensions-executive functions, sensory processing and behaviour. Furthermore, using structural equation modelling methods, we observed a mediation effect of executive functioning, specifically the domain pertaining to emotion regulation and control, and in the relationship between sensory processing abnormalities and behavioural problems. We discuss the importance of emotion regulation as a mediator between sensory processing and behavioural impairments and its impact in social competence in ASD.

20.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 243, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adverse health effects of early life exposure to tobacco smoking have been widely reported. In spite of this, the underlying molecular mechanisms of in utero and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke are only partially understood. Here, we aimed to identify multi-layer molecular signatures associated with exposure to tobacco smoke in these two exposure windows. METHODS: We investigated the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with molecular features measured in 1203 European children (mean age 8.1 years) from the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) project. Molecular features, covering 4 layers, included blood DNA methylation and gene and miRNA transcription, plasma proteins, and sera and urinary metabolites. RESULTS: Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with DNA methylation changes at 18 loci in child blood. DNA methylation at 5 of these loci was related to expression of the nearby genes. However, the expression of these genes themselves was only weakly associated with maternal smoking. Conversely, childhood SHS was not associated with blood DNA methylation or transcription patterns, but with reduced levels of several serum metabolites and with increased plasma PAI1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), a protein that inhibits fibrinolysis. Some of the in utero and childhood smoking-related molecular marks showed dose-response trends, with stronger effects with higher dose or longer duration of the exposure. CONCLUSION: In this first study covering multi-layer molecular features, pregnancy and childhood exposure to tobacco smoke were associated with distinct molecular phenotypes in children. The persistent and dose-dependent changes in the methylome make CpGs good candidates to develop biomarkers of past exposure. Moreover, compared to methylation, the weak association of maternal smoking in pregnancy with gene expression suggests different reversal rates and a methylation-based memory to past exposures. Finally, certain metabolites and protein markers evidenced potential early biological effects of postnatal SHS, such as fibrinolysis.

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