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1.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 45: 101712, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361481

RESUMO

In many SCD cases, in particular in pediatric age, autopsy can be completely negative and then a post-mortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy) is indicated. In NGS era finding new/rare variants is extremely frequent and, when only variants of unknown significance are found, molecular autopsy fails to find a cause of death. We describe the emblematic case of the sudden death of a 7-year-old girl. We performed a full-body micro-CT analysis, an accurate autopsy, a serum tryptase test and toxicological tests. Since the only macroscopic abnormality we found was a myocardial bridging (length: 1,1 cm, thickness: 0,5 cm) of the left anterior descending coronary artery, a molecular autopsy has been performed. NGS analysis on victim DNA detected rare variants in DPP6, MYH7, SCN2B and NOTCH1 and segregation analysis was then achieved. On the basis of ACMG/AMP (clinical) guidelines, all the found variants were classified as of unknown significance. In other words, both the macroscopic and genetic anomalies we found were of uncertain significance and then the autopsy failed to find the cause of the death. Our case raises three main discussion points: (a) economical, ethical and legal limitations of genetic investigation; (b) risk that genetic testing does not succeed in finding a certain cause of the death; (c) absence of specific guidelines to face the problem of VUS in forensic cases.

2.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; : 102299, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414696

RESUMO

Forensic Science international: Genetics and Forensic Science Iinternational: Reports communicate research on a variety of biological materials using genetics and genomic methods. Numerous guidelines have been produced to secure standardization and quality of results of scientific investigations. Yet, no specific guidelines have been produced for the ethical acquisition of such data. These guidelines summarize universally adopted principles for conducting ethical research on biological materials, and provide details of the general procedures for conducting ethical research on materials of human, animal, plant and environmental environmetal origin. Finally, the minimal ethics requirements for submission of research material are presented.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359158

RESUMO

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72,284 cases and 80,354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression, and a newly developed case-only method, for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history), and on average 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.

4.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(2): 128-135, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1089246

RESUMO

Objective: We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with neuroplasticity and activity of monoamine neurotransmitters, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, rs6265), the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, rs25531), the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1, rs1800532), the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (HTR2A, rs6311, rs6313, rs7997012), and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, rs4680) genes, are associated with efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in major depression. Methods: Data from the Escitalopram vs. Electrical Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Study (ELECT-TDCS) were used. Participants were antidepressant-free at baseline and presented with an acute, moderate-to-severe unipolar depressive episode. They were randomized to receive escitalopram/tDCS-sham (n=75), tDCS/placebo-pill (n=75), or placebo-pill/sham-tDCS (n=45). General linear models assessed the interaction between treatment group and allele-wise carriers. Additional analyses were performed for each group and each genotype separately. Results: Pairwise group comparisons (tDCS vs. placebo, tDCS vs. escitalopram, and escitalopram vs. placebo) did not identify alleles associated with depression improvement. In addition, exploratory analyses also did not identify any SNP unequivocally associated with improvement of depression in any treatment group. Conclusion: Larger, combined datasets are necessary to identify candidate genes for tDCS response.

5.
Environ Int ; 138: 105622, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exposome is defined as encompassing all environmental exposures one undergoes from conception onwards. Challenges of the application of this concept to environmental-health association studies include a possibly high false-positive rate. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to reduce the dimension of the exposome using information from DNA methylation as a way to more efficiently characterize the relation between exposome and child body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Among 1,173 mother-child pairs from HELIX cohort, 216 exposures ("whole exposome") were characterized. BMI and DNA methylation from immune cells of peripheral blood were assessed in children at age 6-10 years. A priori reduction of the methylome to preselect BMI-relevant CpGs was performed using biological pathways. We then implemented a tailored Meet-in-the-Middle approach to identify from these CpGs candidate mediators in the exposome-BMI association, using univariate linear regression models corrected for multiple testing: this allowed to point out exposures most likely to be associated with BMI ("reduced exposome"). Associations of this reduced exposome with BMI were finally tested. The approach was compared to an agnostic exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) ignoring the methylome. RESULTS: Among the 2284 preselected CpGs (0.6% of the assessed CpGs), 62 were associated with BMI. Four factors (3 postnatal and 1 prenatal) of the exposome were associated with at least one of these CpGs, among which postnatal blood level of copper and PFOS were directly associated with BMI, with respectively positive and negative estimated effects. The agnostic ExWAS identified 18 additional postnatal exposures, including many persistent pollutants, generally unexpectedly associated with decreased BMI. DISCUSSION: Our approach incorporating a priori information identified fewer significant associations than an agnostic approach. We hypothesize that this smaller number corresponds to a higher specificity (and possibly lower sensitivity), compared to the agnostic approach. Indeed, the latter cannot distinguish causal relations from reverse causation, e.g. for persistent compounds stored in fat, whose circulating level is influenced by BMI.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 267: 23-32, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The severity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) varies significantly among probands. No study has specifically investigated the genetic base of OCD severity. A previous study from our group found an OCD polygenic risk score to predict pre- and post-treatment severity. This study explores the genomic bases of OCD severity. METHODS: We administered the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) to 401 patients at their first visit to our clinic to measure their OCD severity. Genotyping data was collected by using the Infinium PsychArray-24 BeadChip kit (Illumina). We analyzed genetic association with OCD severity in a linear regression analysis at single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)- and gene-levels, this last also considering rare variants. Enrichment analyses were performed from gene-based analyses' results. RESULTS: No SNP reached significant association (p < 10-8) with the YBOCS. Six markers showed suggestive association (p < 10-5). The top SNP was an intergenic variant in chromosome 2: rs7578149 (p < 1.89 × 10-6), located in a region suggestively associated with MDD. Linkage disequilibrium was found for two clusters of SNPs located between SLC16A14 and SP110 in chromosome 2, all of them forming one peak of association. Enrichment analyses revealed OCD genes to be associated with porin activity (FDR = 0.01) and transmembrane structure (FDR = 0.04). LIMITATIONS: The size of the sample and the transversal nature of the severity measure are limitations of this study. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to better characterize OCD at an individual level, helping to know more about the prognosis of the disorder and develop more individualized treatments.

8.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110830

RESUMO

Voriconazole is an antifungal metabolised by CYP2C19 enzyme, which can be inhibited by proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). A prospective observational study was carried out to determine the influence of PPIs on voriconazole pharmacokinetic. The 78 patients included were divided into 4 groups: omeprazole (n = 32), pantoprazole (n = 25), esomeprazole (n = 3) and no PPI (n = 18). Patients with no PPI had no significant difference in plasma voriconazole concentration when compared with those with PPI (2.63 ± 2.13 µg/mL [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.57-3.69] vs 2.11 ± 1.73 µg/mL [95%CI 1.67-2.55], P > .05). However, voriconazole plasma concentration was significantly lower in patients treated with pantoprazole vs those treated with omeprazole (1.44 ± 1.22 µg/mL [95%CI 0.94-1.94) vs 2.67 ± 1.88 µg/mL [95%CI 2.02-3.32], P = .013) suggesting a greater CYP2C19 enzyme inhibitory effect of omeprazole. This study demonstrates the greater CYP inhibition capacity of omeprazole and should be helpful for the choice of PPIs for patients treated with voriconazole.

9.
Psicothema ; 32(1): 24-32, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954412

RESUMO

Precedent: Impairments in executive functioning may be associated with compulsive symptoms in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control and working memory in OCD patients, using emotional and non-emotional paradigms. METHOD: we reviewed research published in PubMed, Web of Science, PsychInfo, Scopus, Scielo, and ProQuest Psychology databases, from January 2008 to April 2019. The review followed a two-stage process. In the first stage, we selected only studies using neutral stimuli paradigms, while in the second we selected executive-emotional paradigms. RESULTS: The first stage of the review provided 16 final results, while the second stage, with emotional stimuli, provided 3 results. CONCLUSIONS: There is some initial evidence for the existence of executive impairments in OCD, as expressed in the performance and/or processing of working memory inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. There is also initial evidence that these latter two could be modulated by the presentation or mental representation of negative valence stimuli or images, as well as the presence of aversive contingencies.

10.
Pharmacotherapy ; 40(1): 17-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Voriconazole, a first-line agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections, is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19. A significant portion of patients fail to achieve therapeutic voriconazole trough concentrations, with a consequently increased risk of therapeutic failure. OBJECTIVE: To show the association between subtherapeutic voriconazole concentrations and factors affecting voriconazole pharmacokinetics: CYP2C19 genotype and drug-drug interactions. METHODS: Adults receiving voriconazole for antifungal treatment or prophylaxis were included in a multicenter prospective study conducted in Spain. The prevalence of subtherapeutic voriconazole troughs was analyzed in the rapid metabolizer and ultra-rapid metabolizer patients (RMs and UMs, respectively), and compared with the rest of the patients. The relationship between voriconazole concentration, CYP2C19 phenotype, adverse events (AEs), and drug-drug interactions was also assessed. RESULTS: In this study 78 patients were included with a wide variability in voriconazole plasma levels with only 44.8% of patients attaining trough concentrations within the therapeutic range of 1 and 5.5 µg/ml. The allele frequency of *17 variant was found to be 29.5%. Compared with patients with other phenotypes, RMs and UMs had a lower voriconazole plasma concentration (RM/UM: 1.85 ± 0.24 µg/ml vs other phenotypes: 2.36 ± 0.26 µg/ml). Adverse events were more common in patients with higher voriconazole concentrations (p<0.05). No association between voriconazole trough concentration and other factors (age, weight, route of administration, and concomitant administration of enzyme inducer, enzyme inhibitor, glucocorticoids, or proton pump inhibitors) was found. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the potential clinical utility of using CYP2C19 genotype-guided voriconazole dosing to achieve concentrations in the therapeutic range in the early course of therapy. Larger studies are needed to confirm the impact of pharmacogenetics on voriconazole pharmacokinetics.

12.
Gut ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide an understanding of the role of common genetic variations in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, we report an updated field synopsis and comprehensive assessment of evidence to catalogue all genetic markers for CRC (CRCgene2). DESIGN: We included 869 publications after parallel literature review and extracted data for 1063 polymorphisms in 303 different genes. Meta-analyses were performed for 308 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 158 different genes with at least three independent studies available for analysis. Scottish, Canadian and Spanish data from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) were incorporated for the meta-analyses of 132 SNPs. To assess and classify the credibility of the associations, we applied the Venice criteria and Bayesian False-Discovery Probability (BFDP). Genetic associations classified as 'positive' and 'less-credible positive' were further validated in three large GWAS consortia conducted in populations of European origin. RESULTS: We initially identified 18 independent variants at 16 loci that were classified as 'positive' polymorphisms for their highly credible associations with CRC risk and 59 variants at 49 loci that were classified as 'less-credible positive' SNPs; 72.2% of the 'positive' SNPs were successfully replicated in three large GWASs and the ones that were not replicated were downgraded to 'less-credible' positive (reducing the 'positive' variants to 14 at 11 loci). For the remaining 231 variants, which were previously reported, our meta-analyses found no evidence to support their associations with CRC risk. CONCLUSION: The CRCgene2 database provides an updated list of genetic variants related to CRC risk by using harmonised methods to assess their credibility.

13.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with neuroplasticity and activity of monoamine neurotransmitters, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, rs6265), the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, rs25531), the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1, rs1800532), the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (HTR2A, rs6311, rs6313, rs7997012), and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, rs4680) genes, are associated with efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in major depression. METHODS: Data from the Escitalopram vs. Electrical Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Study (ELECT-TDCS) were used. Participants were antidepressant-free at baseline and presented with an acute, moderate-to-severe unipolar depressive episode. They were randomized to receive escitalopram/tDCS-sham (n=75), tDCS/placebo-pill (n=75), or placebo-pill/sham-tDCS (n=45). General linear models assessed the interaction between treatment group and allele-wise carriers. Additional analyses were performed for each group and each genotype separately. RESULTS: Pairwise group comparisons (tDCS vs. placebo, tDCS vs. escitalopram, and escitalopram vs. placebo) did not identify alleles associated with depression improvement. In addition, exploratory analyses also did not identify any SNP unequivocally associated with improvement of depression in any treatment group. CONCLUSION: Larger, combined datasets are necessary to identify candidate genes for tDCS response.

14.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 676, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607966

RESUMO

Introduction: White noise speech illusions index liability for psychotic disorder in case-control comparisons. In the current study, we examined i) the rate of white noise speech illusions in siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and ii) to what degree this rate would be contingent on exposure to known environmental risk factors (childhood adversity and recent life events) and level of known endophenotypic dimensions of psychotic disorder [psychotic experiences assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) scale and cognitive ability]. Methods: The white noise task was used as an experimental paradigm to elicit and measure speech illusions in 1,014 patients with psychotic disorders, 1,157 siblings, and 1,507 healthy participants. We examined associations between speech illusions and increasing familial risk (control -> sibling -> patient), modeled as both a linear and a categorical effect, and associations between speech illusions and level of childhood adversities and life events as well as with CAPE scores and cognitive ability scores. Results: While a positive association was found between white noise speech illusions across hypothesized increasing levels of familial risk (controls -> siblings -> patients) [odds ratio (OR) linear 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.21, p = 0.019], there was no evidence for a categorical association with sibling status (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.79-1.09, p = 0.360). The association between speech illusions and linear familial risk was greater if scores on the CAPE positive scale were higher (p interaction = 0.003; ORlow CAPE positive scale 0.96, 95% CI 0.85-1.07; ORhigh CAPE positive scale 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.46); cognitive ability was lower (p interaction < 0.001; ORhigh cognitive ability 0.94, 95% CI 0.84-1.05; ORlow cognitive ability 1.43, 95% CI 1.23-1.68); and exposure to childhood adversity was higher (p interaction < 0.001; ORlow adversity 0.92, 95% CI 0.82-1.04; ORhigh adversity 1.31, 95% CI 1.13-1.52). A similar, although less marked, pattern was seen for categorical patient-control and sibling-control comparisons. Exposure to recent life events did not modify the association between white noise and familial risk (p interaction = 0.232). Conclusion: The association between white noise speech illusions and familial risk is contingent on additional evidence of endophenotypic expression and of exposure to childhood adversity. Therefore, speech illusions may represent a trait-dependent risk marker.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 265, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636250

RESUMO

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene regulation has been linked to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). MDD patients show cognitive deficits, and altered BDNF regulation has a relevant role in neurocognitive functions. Our goal was to explore the association between BDNF genetic and epigenetic variations with neurocognitive performance in a group of MDD patients and healthy controls considering possible modulating factors. The sample included 134 subjects, 64 MDD patients, and 70 healthy controls. Clinical data, childhood maltreatment, and neurocognitive performance were assessed in all participants. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two promoter regions in the BDNF gene were selected for genotype and methylation analysis. The role of interactions between BDNF genetic and epigenetic variations with MDD diagnosis, sex, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) scores was also explored. We observed significant associations between neurocognitive performance and two BDNF SNPs (rs908867 and rs925946), an effect that was significantly mediated by methylation values at specific promoter I sites. We identified significant associations between neurocognitive results and methylation status as well as its interactions with MDD diagnosis, sex, and CTQ scores. Our results support the hypothesis that BDNF gene SNPs and methylation status, as well as their interactions with modulating factors, can influence cognition. Further studies are required to confirm the effect of BDNF variations and cognitive function in larger samples.

16.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 143, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) which may significantly impact on the affected individual's life. ADHD is acknowledged to have a high heritability component (70-80%). Recently, a meta-analysis of GWAS (Genome Wide Association Studies) has demonstrated the association of several independent loci. Our main aim here, is to apply PASCAL (pathway scoring algorithm), a new gene-based analysis (GBA) method, to the summary statistics obtained in this meta-analysis. PASCAL will take into account the linkage disequilibrium (LD) across genomic regions in a different way than the most commonly employed GBA methods (MAGMA or VEGAS (Versatile Gene-based Association Study)). In addition to PASCAL analysis a gene network and an enrichment analysis for KEGG and GO terms were carried out. Moreover, GENE2FUNC tool was employed to create gene expression heatmaps and to carry out a (DEG) (Differentially Expressed Gene) analysis using GTEX v7 and BrainSpan data. RESULTS: PASCAL results have revealed the association of new loci with ADHD and it has also highlighted other genes previously reported by MAGMA analysis. PASCAL was able to discover new associations at a gene level for ADHD: FEZF1 (p-value: 2.2 × 10- 7) and FEZF1-AS1 (p-value: 4.58 × 10- 7). In addition, PASCAL has been able to highlight association of other genes that share the same LD block with some previously reported ADHD susceptibility genes. Gene network analysis has revealed several interactors with the associated ADHD genes and different GO and KEGG terms have been associated. In addition, GENE2FUNC has demonstrated the existence of several up and down regulated expression clusters when the associated genes and their interactors were considered. CONCLUSIONS: PASCAL has been revealed as an efficient tool to extract additional information from previous GWAS using their summary statistics. This study has identified novel ADHD associated genes that were not previously reported when other GBA methods were employed. Moreover, a biological insight into the biological function of the ADHD associated genes across brain regions and neurodevelopmental stages is provided.

17.
Schizophr Bull ; 45(5): 960-965, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508804

RESUMO

Exposures constitute a dense network of the environment: exposome. Here, we argue for embracing the exposome paradigm to investigate the sum of nongenetic "risk" and show how predictive modeling approaches can be used to construct an exposome score (ES; an aggregated score of exposures) for schizophrenia. The training dataset consisted of patients with schizophrenia and controls, whereas the independent validation dataset consisted of patients, their unaffected siblings, and controls. Binary exposures were cannabis use, hearing impairment, winter birth, bullying, and emotional, physical, and sexual abuse along with physical and emotional neglect. We applied logistic regression (LR), Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB), the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Ridge penalized classification models to the training dataset. ESs, the sum of weighted exposures based on coefficients from each model, were calculated in the validation dataset. In addition, we estimated ES based on meta-analyses and a simple sum score of exposures. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic, and Nagelkerke's R2 were compared. The ESMeta-analyses performed the worst, whereas the sum score and the ESGNB were worse than the ESLR that performed similar to the ESLASSO and ESRIDGE. The ESLR distinguished patients from controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, P < .001), patients from siblings (OR = 1.58, P < .001), and siblings from controls (OR = 1.21, P = .001). An increase in ESLR was associated with a gradient increase of schizophrenia risk. In reference to the remaining fractions, the ESLR at top 30%, 20%, and 10% of the control distribution yielded ORs of 3.72, 3.74, and 4.77, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that predictive modeling approaches can be harnessed to evaluate the exposome.

18.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 43: 102159, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522018

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the functional impact of two combined KCNH2 variants involved in atrial fibrillation, syncope and sudden infant death syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genetic testing of a 4-month old SIDS victim identified a rare missense heterozygous in KCNH2 variant (V483I) and a missense homozygous polymorphism (K897T) which is often described as a genetic modifier. Electrophysiological characterisation of heterologous HERG channels representing two different KCNH2 genotypes within the family, showed significant differences in both voltage and time dependence of activation and inactivation with a global gain-of-function effect of mutant versus wild type channels and, also, differences between both types of recombinant channels. CONCLUSIONS: The rare variant V483I in combination with K897T produces a gain-of-function effect that represents a pathological substrate for atrial fibrillation, syncope and sudden infant death syndrome events in this family. Ascertaining the genotype-phenotype correlation of genetic variants is imperative for the correct assessment of genetic testing and counselling. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: According to the current guidelines for clinical interpretation of sequence variants, functional studies are an essential tool for the ascertainment of variant pathogenicity. They are especially relevant in the context of sudden infant death syndrome and sudden cardiac death, where individuals cannot be clinically evaluated. The patch-clamp technique is a gold-standard for analysis of the biophysical mechanisms of ion channels.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Canal de Potássio ERG1/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Morte Súbita do Lactente/genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético
19.
Psychol Med ; : 1-14, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes. METHODS: We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS. RESULTS: In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene-environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388769

RESUMO

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common mood disorder that occurs after delivery with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Recent reports have related placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH) to postpartum depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether pCRH, ACTH, and cortisol (measured 48 h after delivery) and glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor genotypes (NR3C1 and NR3C2) and their interaction are associated with PPD. A longitudinal 32-week prospective study of five hundred twenty-five Caucasian depression-free women that were recruited from obstetric units at two Spanish general hospitals immediately after delivery. Of the women included in the sample, forty-two (8%) developed PPD. A strong association between PPD and the interaction between the pCRH and NR3C2 rs2070951 genotype was observed. The mean level of pCRH in rs2070951GG carriers with PPD was 56% higher than the mean in the CG and CC genotype groups (P < 0.00005). Carriers of the rs2070951GG genotype with high levels of pCRH had a higher risk of developing PPD (OR = 1.020, 95% CI 1.007-1.034, P = 0.002). This association remained even after controlling for variables such as neuroticism, obstetric complications and the number of stressful life events during pregnancy. There is an important interaction between pCRH 48 h postpartum and the NR3C2 rs2070951GG genotype. This interaction moderately associates with the presence of PPD. These results may open a new line of research and, if confirmed in other settings, will help to identify better risk predictors and the treatment for PPD.

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