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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 90: 226-233, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and burden of Q fever (QF) in Spain. METHODS: We designed a retrospective descriptive study using the minimum basic data set in patients admitted to hospitals of the National Health System between 1998 and 2015 with a diagnosis of Q fever (ICD-9: 083.0.). RESULTS: We found 4214 hospitalized patients with a mean age (±SD) of 50.9±19.3 years. The male/female ratio was 3:1. The incidence rate was between 0.41 and 0.65 cases per 100,000 person-years over the 18-year period. The highest incidence of cases was from March to August (p=0.024). 21.1% patients had pneumonia, 17.5% had liver disease, and only 3.2% had endocarditis. The average hospital stay was 13.8 days (±12.8). A total of 117 (2.8%) patients died. The total mean cost of QF is approximately €154,232,779 (€36,600±139,422 per patient). CONCLUSIONS: QF is an important zoonosis in Spain with a stable incidence rate and high cost for hospitalization. Older patients have a more severe clinical picture and higher mortality, which can be decreased with early clinical suspicion.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214125, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni is the main species causing hepatic and intestinal schistosomiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa, and it is the only species in South America. Adult stages of the parasite reside in the mesenteric venous plexus of infected hosts, and eggs are shed in feces. Collecting patient stool samples for S. mansoni diagnostic purposes is difficult in large-scale field trials. Urine samples would be an alternative approach for molecular S. mansoni detection since they have several advantages over stool samples, including better handling, management and storage. Additionally, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology is a powerful molecular diagnostic tool for infectious diseases, particularly under field conditions in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of our previously developed LAMP assay (SmMIT-LAMP) for S. mansoni-specific detection in clinical urine samples. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sensitivity of SmMIT-LAMP in urine was established in simulated fresh human urine samples artificially spiked with genomic DNA from S. mansoni. LAMP for 120 min instead of 60 min improved the sensitivity, reaching values of 0.01 fg/µL. A set of well-defined frozen stored human urine samples collected from Sub-Saharan immigrant patients was selected from a biobank to evaluate the diagnostic validity of SmMIT-LAMP. The set included urine samples from patients with microscopy-confirmed infections with S. mansoni, S. haematobium and other nonschistosome parasites, as well as urine samples from patients with microscopy-negative eosinophilia without a confirmed diagnosis. The SmMIT-LAMP was incubated for 60 and 120 min. A longer incubation time was shown to increase the LAMP-positive results in patient urine samples. We also tested urine samples from mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni, and LAMP-positive results were obtained from the third week after infection. A real-time LAMP assay was also performed with three individual urine samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The SmMIT-LAMP could effectively detect S. mansoni DNA in mouse urine samples and produced promising results for human clinical samples. The detection of S. mansoni DNA in mouse urine samples from the third week after infection indicates that early diagnosis of active S. mansoni infection is possible using urine as a source of DNA. Further studies are still needed, but our method could be used as a promising molecular tool applicable to urine samples to diagnose human intestinal schistosomiasis caused by S. mansoni.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA de Helmintos/urina , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose mansoni/urina , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-171416

RESUMO

In a global world, knowledge of imported infectious diseases is essential in daily practice, both for the microbiologist-parasitologist and the clinician who diagnoses and treats infectious diseases in returned travelers. Tropical and subtropical countries where there is a greater risk of contracting an infectious disease are among the most frequently visited tourist destinations. The SEIMC considers it appropriate to produce a consensus document that will be useful to primary care physicians as well as specialists in internal medicine, infectious diseases and tropical medicine who help treat travelers returning from tropical and sub-tropical areas with infections. Preventive aspects of infectious diseases and infections imported by immigrants are explicitly excluded here, since they have been dealt with in other SEIMC documents. Various types of professionals (clinicians, microbiologists, and parasitologists) have helped produce this consensus document by evaluating the available evidence-based data in order to propose a series of key facts about individual aspects of the topic. The first section of the document is a summary of some of the general aspects concerning the general assessment of travelers who return home with potential infections. The main second section contains the key facts (causative agents, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic measures) associated with the major infectious syndromes affecting returned travelers [gastrointestinal syndrome (acute or persistent diarrhea); febrile syndrome with no obvious source of infection; localized cutaneous lesions; and respiratory infections]. Finally, the characteristics of special traveler subtypes, such as pregnant women and immunocompromised travelers, are described (AU)


En el mundo global, el conocimiento de las enfermedades infecciosas importadas es esencial en la práctica diaria, tanto para el microbiólogo-parasitólogo como para el clínico en enfermedades infecciosas que atiende a viajeros internacionales. Entre los destinos turísticos más visitados se encuentran muchos países tropicales o subtropicales, donde el riesgo de contraer una enfermedad infecciosa es más elevado. La SEIMC ha considerado pertinente la elaboración de un documento de consenso que sirva de ayuda tanto a médicos de Atención Primaria como a especialistas en Medicina Interna, Enfermedades Infecciosas y Medicina Tropical que atienden a viajeros que regresan con infecciones tras un viaje a zonas tropicales y subtropicales. Se han excluido de forma explícita los aspectos de prevención de estas y las infecciones importadas por inmigrantes, objeto de otros documentos de la SEIMC. Varios tipos de profesionales (clínicos, microbiólogos y parasitólogos) han desarrollado este documento de consenso tras evaluar los datos disponibles basados en la evidencia para proponer una serie de datos clave acerca de este aspecto. Inicialmente se revisan los aspectos generales acerca de la evaluación general del viajero que regresa con una potencial infección. En un segundo bloque se señalan los datos clave (agentes causales, procedimientos diagnósticos y medidas terapéuticas) de los síndromes infecciosos principales en el viajero que regresa (síndrome gastrointestinal (diarrea aguda o persistente), síndrome febril sin foco aparente, lesiones cutáneas localizadas e infecciones respiratorias). Finalmente se describen las características en viajeros especiales como la viajera embarazada y el viajero inmunodeprimido (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Consenso , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Microbiologia , Microbiologia/organização & administração , Saúde do Viajante , Medicina de Viagem/organização & administração
5.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(2): 120-136, feb. 2018. graf, tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170701

RESUMO

La detección de eosinofilia periférica es un motivo relativamente frecuente para la remisión de un paciente a una Unidad/Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas. En general, se pretende descartar una enfermedad parasitaria, tanto en personas autóctonas como en viajeros o inmigrantes. Excepcionalmente la eosinofilia relacionada con parásitos corresponde a una protozoosis, siendo los helmintos los principales agentes causales de este hallazgo hematológico. La eosinofilia puede ser el único hallazgo anormal o formar parte del cuadro clínico-biológico del paciente. Por otro lado, no todas las helmintosis se asocian de forma sistemática a eosinofilia, y el grado de la misma difiere entre las fases de la infección y el tipo de helminto. El propósito de esta revisión es un estudio sistemático de la relación entre helmintosis y eosinofilia en la literatura española, distinguiendo los casos autóctonos e importados, así como la relación con situaciones de inmunodepresión (AU)


The finding of blood eosinophilia in a patient is a relatively frequent reason to refer him/her to a Clinical Department of Infectious Diseases. The doctor usually intends to rule out a parasitic disease in the autochthonous population, travelers or immigrants. It is uncommon for an eosinophilia to be produced by protozoa infection, whereas helminth parasites are more frequently associated with an increase of eosinophil counts in the infected patient. Eosinophilia can be the only abnormal finding, or it could be part of more complex clinical manifestations suffered by the patient. Furthermore, many, but not all, helminth infections are associated with eosinophilia, and the eosinophil level (low, high) differs according to parasite stages, helminth species, and worm co-infections. The purpose of the present article is to carry out a systematic review of cases and case series on helminth infections and eosinophilia reported in Spain from 1990 to 2015, making a distinction between autochthonous and imported (immigrants and travelers) cases, and studying their relationship with immunodepression situations (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/microbiologia , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Eosinófilos , Eosinófilos/microbiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Sanitário de Viajantes , Platelmintos/microbiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/microbiologia , Eosinofilia/microbiologia
6.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36(3): 187-193, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396090

RESUMO

In a global world, knowledge of imported infectious diseases is essential in daily practice, both for the microbiologist-parasitologist and the clinician who diagnoses and treats infectious diseases in returned travelers. Tropical and subtropical countries where there is a greater risk of contracting an infectious disease are among the most frequently visited tourist destinations. The SEIMC considers it appropriate to produce a consensus document that will be useful to primary care physicians as well as specialists in internal medicine, infectious diseases and tropical medicine who help treat travelers returning from tropical and sub-tropical areas with infections. Preventive aspects of infectious diseases and infections imported by immigrants are explicitly excluded here, since they have been dealt with in other SEIMC documents. Various types of professionals (clinicians, microbiologists, and parasitologists) have helped produce this consensus document by evaluating the available evidence-based data in order to propose a series of key facts about individual aspects of the topic. The first section of the document is a summary of some of the general aspects concerning the general assessment of travelers who return home with potential infections. The main second section contains the key facts (causative agents, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic measures) associated with the major infectious syndromes affecting returned travelers [gastrointestinal syndrome (acute or persistent diarrhea); febrile syndrome with no obvious source of infection; localized cutaneous lesions; and respiratory infections]. Finally, the characteristics of special traveler subtypes, such as pregnant women and immunocompromised travelers, are described.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/terapia , Humanos , Viagem
7.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36(2): 120-136, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26827134

RESUMO

The finding of blood eosinophilia in a patient is a relatively frequent reason to refer him/her to a Clinical Department of Infectious Diseases. The doctor usually intends to rule out a parasitic disease in the autochthonous population, travelers or immigrants. It is uncommon for an eosinophilia to be produced by protozoa infection, whereas helminth parasites are more frequently associated with an increase of eosinophil counts in the infected patient. Eosinophilia can be the only abnormal finding, or it could be part of more complex clinical manifestations suffered by the patient. Furthermore, many, but not all, helminth infections are associated with eosinophilia, and the eosinophil level (low, high) differs according to parasite stages, helminth species, and worm co-infections. The purpose of the present article is to carry out a systematic review of cases and case series on helminth infections and eosinophilia reported in Spain from 1990 to 2015, making a distinction between autochthonous and imported (immigrants and travelers) cases, and studying their relationship with immunodepression situations.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , África/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Doenças Endêmicas , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Geografia Médica , Helmintíase/sangue , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , América Latina/etnologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
8.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0189449, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite that causes strongyloidiasis, a neglected tropical disease. S. stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth that is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Strongyloidiasis can occur without any symptoms or as a chronic infection characterized by mild, unspecific symptoms such as pruritus, abdominal pain or discomfort; respiratory impairment also may manifest as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. Most studies on strongyloidiasis in Spain have been related to chronic forms in immigrants or travellers from endemic zones and have mainly analysed out-patient populations. Studies of the impact of strongyloidiasis cases admitted to hospitals in Spain are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the impact of strongyloidiasis in hospital care in Spain. METHODOLOGY: We designed a retrospective descriptive study using the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS, CMBD in Spanish) for inpatients with ICD-9: 127.2 (strongyloidiasis) diagnoses admitted to hospitals in the Spanish National Health System between 1998 and 2014. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 507 hospitalizations with diagnosis of strongyloidiasis were recorded, 324 cases (63.9%) were males. The mean (±SD) age was 42.1±20.1 years. The impact of strongyloidiasis on the total population of Spain was 0.06 cases per 105 person-years, and the infection burden increased progressively over time (from 0.01 cases per 105 person-years in 1999 to 0.10 cases per 105 person-years in 2014). 40 cases (7.9%) died. The total cost was approximately €8,681,062.3, and the mean cost per patient was €17,122.4±97,968.8. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that strongyloidiasis is frequent in Spain and is increasing in incidence. Therefore, it would be desirable to improve the oversight and surveillance of this condition. Due to the fact that strongyloidiasis can be fatal, we believe that there is a need to establish risk categories for inclusion in national guidelines/protocols for screening individuals at risk of developing strongyloidiasis.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 35(10): 655-658, dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169566

RESUMO

La mayor parte de los casos de fiebre de duración intermedia (FDI) en España corresponden a enfermedades infecciosas (principalmente fiebre Q y rickettsiosis). En la práctica clínica el diagnóstico causal de estas entidades se basa en el inmunodiagnóstico, con una escasa utilidad en fases precoces. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo fue la evaluación de la utilidad de técnicas moleculares en el diagnóstico precoz de fiebre Q y rickettsiosis en pacientes con FDI. Se estudió mediante PCR la presencia de material genético de Coxiella burnetii y Rickettsia spp. en muestras sanguíneas de 271 pacientes con FDI. La especificidad de ambas técnicas es elevada, permitiendo el diagnóstico en casos no diagnosticados mediante detección de anticuerpos específicos. Estos datos sugieren que el empleo de técnicas moleculares, con una adecuada selección de la muestra de estudio y el empleo de cebadores adecuados, es un elemento útil en el diagnóstico precoz de las principales causas de FDI, principalmente si la serología es negativa o no es concluyente (AU)


Most cases of fever of intermediate duration (FDI) in Spain are associated with infectious diseases (mainly Q fever and rickettsia infections). In clinical practice, the causal diagnosis of these entities is based on immunodiagnostic techniques, which are of little help in the early stages. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of molecular techniques for the early diagnosis of Q fever and rickettsia diseases in patients with FDI. A PCR method was used to detect the presence of genetic material of Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. in blood specimens from 271 patients with FDI. The specificity of both techniques is high, allowing diagnosis in cases undiagnosed by specific antibodies detection. These data suggest that the use of molecular techniques, with proper selection of the study specimen, and using appropriate primers is a useful tool in the early diagnosis of the main causes of FDI, especially if serology is negative or inconclusive (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Febre Q/microbiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Infecções por Rickettsiaceae/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rickettsiaceae/complicações , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos
10.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 30(6): 436-442, dic. 2017. graf, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169397

RESUMO

Introducción. El objetivo fue analizar los síndromes febriles en pacientes que regresan de regiones tropicales, atendidos en la Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Medicina Tropical (UEIMT) de nuestro centro. El conocimiento de estas enfermedades persigue realizar un diagnóstico precoz y, de esta forma, evitar la emergencia y diseminación de enfermedades importadas, así como establecer actividades preventivas adecuadas. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal, seleccionando de la cohorte de viajeros atendidos en la UEIMT entre 1998 y 2013 aquéllos que consultaban al regreso con fiebre (n = 247). Se analizaron las características demográficas relativas al viaje, así como motivos de consulta y el diagnóstico final. Resultados. Se incluyeron 241 viajeros con fiebre al regreso. Los diagnósticos más comunes fueron: fiebre autolimitada sin foco (29,1%), malaria (25,1%), gastroenteritis invasiva (15,4%), otras infecciones bacterianas (7,4%) e infecciones parenquimatosas genitourinarias (4,5%). De todos los casos sólo un 8,5% requirió ingreso hospitalario, no registrándose ningún caso de mortalidad. Conclusiones. En la serie presentada existen datos comunes con otras publicadas (malaria como enfermedad fundamental, dificultades en el diagnóstico) y otros diferentes (menor número de consultas pre-viaje e ingresos, mayor incidencia de prostatitis y menor número de casos de dengue) (AU)


Background. The aim was to analyse those syndromes with fever in travellers who return from tropical regions evaluated at our Department of Infectology and Tropical Medicine. Clarifying these conditions intends to reach earlier diagnoses and, perhaps, to avoid the emergence and spread of imported diseases, as well as to establish appropriate preventive measures. Methods. An observational descriptive transversal study was performed, selecting those patients who returned from tropical regions with fever, amongst all travellers evaluated in our department between 1998 and 2013. We analysed demographic features, information related to the trip, as well as the presenting complaints and the diagnoses. Results. A total of 247 international travellers presenting with fever were analysed. The most common diagnoses were self-limiting fever (29.1%), malaria (25.1%), invasive gastroenteritis (15.4%), other bacterial infections (7.4%) and genitourinary parenchymal infections (4.5%). Of all the cases, only 8.5% required hospitalization, and no case of mortality was recorded. Conclusions. In the series presented, there are common data with other published data (malaria as a fundamental disease, difficulties in diagnosis) and different ones (less number of pre-trip consultations and admissions, higher incidence of prostatitis and fewer dengue cases) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Febre/etiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Zona Tropical , Viagem , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos , Malária/epidemiologia
11.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 17(9): 630-634, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28759337

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of human Q fever, can infect mammals, birds, and arthropods. The Canary Islands (Spain) are considered an endemic territory, with a high prevalence in both humans and livestock. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological information about the wild and peridomestic cycles of C. burnetii. Tissue samples from rodents on farms (100) and wild rabbits (129) were collected and assessed by PCR to detect C. burnetii DNA. In parallel, ticks were also collected from vegetation (1169), livestock (335), domestic dogs (169), and wild animals (65). Globally, eight rodents (8%) and two rabbits (1.5%) were found to be positive, with the spleen being the most affected organ. Tick species identified were Hyalomma lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Rhipicephalus pusillus. Hyalomma lusitanicum (80%) was the main species identified in vegetation, livestock, and wild animals, whereas Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most prevalent in domestic dogs. Overall, C. burnetii DNA was detected in 6.1% of the processed ticks, distributed between those removed from livestock (11.3%), domestic dogs (6.9%), and from wild animals (6%). Ticks from vegetation were all negative. Results suggest that, in the Canary Islands, C. burnetii develops in a peridomestic rather than a wild cycle.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Gado , Febre Q/veterinária , Animais , Doenças Endêmicas , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(4): 1072-1077, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820685

RESUMO

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) includes a group of potentially serious inflammatory processes that may be present in HIV-infected patients after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Paradoxical IRIS is a worsening of symptoms, after an overwhelming response to a previously diagnosed opportunistic infection (OI); unmasking IRIS reveals a previously occult OI. The main objective of the study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and outcome data of HIV-infected immigrants, stratified according to high- or low-income countries of origin, who developed IRIS and to compare them with native-born Spanish patients. This retrospective study reviewed all patients with HIV infection admitted to the Unit of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine between 1998 and 2014. IRIS was identified in 25/138 (18%) immigrant patients and 24/473 (5%) native-born Spanish patients infected with HIV. Most cases, 19/25 (76%), were of unmasking IRIS. The time elapsed between initiation of HAART and development of IRIS was significantly longer in patients with unmasking versus paradoxical IRIS. OIs, in particular due to mycobacteria, were the most frequently involved processes. Twenty percent of patients died. The comparison of immigrant and native-born patients found significant differences for both IRIS type (higher incidence of paradoxical forms among immigrants) and for the absence of malignancies in native-born patients. No significant differences were found when the data of immigrants from low- and high-income countries were compared.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/etiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/etiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 30(2): 96-102, abr. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-161004

RESUMO

Introducción. El objetivo fue analizar los síndromes no asociados a fiebre en pacientes que regresan de regiones tropicales, atendidos en la Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Medicina Tropical (UEIMT) de nuestro centro. El conocimiento de estas enfermedades persigue realizar un diagnóstico precoz y, así, evitar la emergencia y diseminación de enfermedades importadas, así como establecer actividades preventivas adecuadas. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal, seleccionando de la cohorte de viajeros atendidos en la UEIMT entre 1998 y 2013 aquéllos que consultaban al regreso y sin fiebre (n = 281). Se analizaron las características demográficas relativas al viaje, así como motivos de consulta y el diagnóstico final. Resultados. Se incluyeron 281 viajeros sin fiebre al regreso. Sólo un 39% de ellos había consultado antes del viaje. Las regiones más visitadas fueron Latinoamérica (38,8%), África (37,8%) y Asia (13,6%). Un 15% de los sujetos estaba asintomático o consultaba por problemas no infecciosos. Del resto, la mayoría presentaba un proceso digestivo (46%) o cutáneo (34%). El principal cuadro digestivo fue la diarrea, alcanzándose un diagnóstico microbiológico en casi la mitad de los casos. Con respecto a los síndromes cutáneos, lo más frecuente fueron las picaduras de artrópodos (31%) y diversas piodermitis (20%). Conclusiones. Aproximadamente el 10% de las consultas de viajeros se debe a problemas al regreso, en la mitad de los casos sin fiebre. La mayoría presenta enfermedades infecciosas, fundamentalmente digestivas o cutáneas. La eosinofilia es el tercer motivo de consulta y las infecciones de transmisión sexual son excepcionales en nuestra serie. Es necesario insistir en actividades preventivas (AU)


Background. The aim was to analyse those syndromes without fever in travellers who return from tropical regions evaluated at our Department of Infectology and Tropical Medicine. Clarifying these conditions intends to reach earlier diagnoses and, perhaps, to avoid the emergence and spread of imported diseases, as well as to establish appropriate preventive measures. Methods. An observational descriptive transversal study was performed, selecting those patients who returned from tropical regions without fever (n = 281), amongst all travellers evaluated in our department between 1998 and 2013. We analysed demographic features, information related to the trip, as well as the presenting complaints and the diagnoses. Results. A total of 281 international travellers presenting without fever were analysed. Only 39% had received health counsel prior to travelling. The most visited regions were Latin America (38.8%), Africa (37.8%) and Asia (13.6%). 15% of patients were asymptomatic or suffered from non-infectious conditions. Among the rest, most had either gastrointestinal (46%) or cutaneous (34%) syndromes. The main gastrointestinal condition was diarrhoea, with a microbiological diagnosis reached in almost 50% of cases. Regarding cutaneous syndromes, arthropods bites (31%) and different bacterial lesions (20%) were most common. Conclusions. Approximately 10% of patients in Travel Medicine are international travellers returning from tropical regions, half of them with no fever. Most are diagnosed with infectious diseases, mainly gastrointestinal or cutaneous syndromes. Eosinophilia is the third problem in frequency among this group of patients, and sexually transmitted infections are rare in our cohort. It is important to emphasize in preventive activities (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Disenteria/tratamento farmacológico , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Síndrome , Saúde do Viajante , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Quantitativa/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(2): e0005403, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28234952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among immigrants of sub-Saharan origin, parasitic infection is the leading cause of eosinophilia, which is generally interpreted as a defense mechanism. A side effect of the inflammatory mediators released by eosinophils is damage to host organs, especially the heart. The main objectives of this study were to i) assess cardiac involvement in asymptomatic sub-Saharan immigrants with eosinophilia, ii) relate the presence of lesions with the degree of eosinophilia, and iii) study the relationship between cardiac involvement and the type of causative parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In total, the study included 50 black immigrants (37 patients and 13 controls) from sub-Saharan Africa. In all subjects, heart structure and function were evaluated in a blinded manner using Sonos 5500 echocardiographic equipment. The findings were classified and described according to established criteria. The diagnostic criteria for helminthosis were those reported in the literature. Serum eosinophil-derived neurotoxin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significant association was found between the presence of eosinophilia and structural alterations (mitral valve thickening). However, the lack of an association between the degree of eosinophilia and heart valve disease and the absence of valve involvement in some patients with eosinophilia suggest the role of other factors in the appearance of endocardial lesions. There was also no association between the type of helminth and valve involvement. CONCLUSIONS: We, therefore, suggest that transthoracic echocardiography be performed in every sub-Saharan individual with eosinophilia in order to rule out early heart valve lesions.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Helmintíase/complicações , Helmintos/fisiologia , Adulto , África do Norte , Animais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Ecocardiografia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Eosinófilos/parasitologia , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 30(1): 62-78, feb. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-159565

RESUMO

Los datos sobre prevalencia de la eosinofilia importada entre viajeros e inmigrantes la sitúan entre un 8%-28,5%. El estudio etiológico es en ocasiones complejo, y en función de lo exhaustivo del estudio y de la población analizada, se ha podido identificar una causa parasitaria en el 17%-75,9% de los individuos. Entre las dificultades que se encuentran para comparar los estudios están la heterogeneidad de las poblaciones estudiadas, el tipo de recogida (prospectiva/retrospectiva) y distintos protocolos diagnósticos. En este documento se detallan las recomendaciones del grupo de expertos de la Sociedad Española de Medicina Tropical y Salud Internacional (SEMTSI) para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la eosinofilia importada (AU)


According to published data, prevalence of imported eosinophilia among travellers and immigrants is set between 8% and 28.5%. Etiological diagnosis is often troublesome, and depending on the depth of the study and on the population analyzed, a parasitic cause is identified in 17% to 75.9% of the individuals. Among the difficulties encountered to compare studies are the heterogeneity of the studied populations, the type of data collection (prospective/retrospective) and different diagnostic protocols. In this document the recommendations of the expert group of the Spanish Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health (SEMTSI) for the diagnosis and treatment of imported eosinophilia are detailed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/terapia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Helmintos , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Imunoglobulina E/análise , Controle Sanitário de Viajantes , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde do Viajante , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Eosinofilia/classificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Western Blotting , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas
16.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 35(10): 655-658, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27026285

RESUMO

Most cases of fever of intermediate duration (FDI) in Spain are associated with infectious diseases (mainly Q fever and rickettsia infections). In clinical practice, the causal diagnosis of these entities is based on immunodiagnostic techniques, which are of little help in the early stages. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of molecular techniques for the early diagnosis of Q fever and rickettsia diseases in patients with FDI. A PCR method was used to detect the presence of genetic material of Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. in blood specimens from 271 patients with FDI. The specificity of both techniques is high, allowing diagnosis in cases undiagnosed by specific antibodies detection. These data suggest that the use of molecular techniques, with proper selection of the study specimen, and using appropriate primers is a useful tool in the early diagnosis of the main causes of FDI, especially if serology is negative or inconclusive.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Febre/etiologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rickettsia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico Precoce , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 29(5): 249-254, oct. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-156279

RESUMO

Introduccion. El objetivo fue conocer las características demográficas y la evolución temporal de los viajeros internacionales atendidos en la Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Medicina Tropical con el fin de mejorar las precauciones previas al viaje y disminuir la aparición de dichas enfermedades. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de todos los viajeros internacionales atendidos en la UEIMT (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria) durante el periodo 1998 - 2013. Se analizaron las siguientes variables que fueron recogidas mediante un protocolo estandarizado: edad, género, fecha de la consulta, tipo de viajero, país/es de destino y medidas preventivas realizadas (quimioprofilaxis antipalúdica y vacunas). El análisis estadístico se realizó usando el paquete SPSS versión 19.0. Resultados. Se analizaron un total de 6.783 viajeros internacionales de los cuales 52% fueron mujeres. La media de edad fue de 36 años (DT 13). El continente de destino más frecuente fue África (39%) seguido de Asia (36%) y América Latina (23%). El país de destino más habitual fue la India 13% (882), seguido de Senegal 7,5% (509) y Tailandia 6,3% (429). Las vacunas más frecuentemente recomendadas fueron, fiebre tifoidea (82,9%) y hepatitis A (66,9%). En cuanto a la profilaxis antipalúdica, los fármacos indicados fueron atovacuonaproguanil (56,5%), mefloquina (36,7 %), En lo que respecta a los viajeros que regresan para visitar a amigos y familiares un 26,81% eran niños (0-9 años). Conclusiones. El perfil general del viajero es un joven que con motivo vacacional elige como destino África seguido de Asia y Latinoamérica. Más del 50% de los viajeros recibieron vacunación frente a la fiebre tifoidea y a la hepatitis A. La quimioprofilaxis antipalúdica más utilizada fue atovacuona/ proguanil seguida de mefloquina (AU)


Background. The objective of this paper was to determine the demographic characteristics and the evolution of international travelers treated at the Unit of Infectious and Tropical Medicine in order to improve precautions prior to travel and, thus reduce the occurrence of these diseases. Methods. A retrospective study of all international travelers served in UEIMT (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria) during the period 1998-2013 was performed. The following variables were collected using a standardized protocol were analyzed: age, gender, date of consultation, type of traveler, countries of destination and preventive measures undertaken (malaria chemoprophylaxis and vaccines). Results. A total of 6,783 international travelers of which 52% were women were analyzed. The average age was 36 years (SD 13). The most frequent destination continent was Africa (39%) followed by Asia (36%) and Latin America (23%). The most common country of destination was India 13% (882), followed by Senegal 7.5% (509) and Thailand 6.3% (429). The most frequently recommended vaccines were typhoid fever (82.9%) and hepatitis A (66.9%). As for malaria prophylaxis, the indicated drugs were atovaquone-proguanil (56.5%), mefloquine (36.7%), in regard to travelers returning to visit relatives and friends with a 26.81% were children (0-9 years). Conclusions. The overall profile of the traveler is a young man who chooses holiday destination Africa followed by Asia and Latin America. Over 50% of travelers received vaccination against typhoid and hepatitis A. The most commonly used malaria chemoprophylaxis was atovaquone / proguanil followed by mefloquine (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antimaláricas/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Controle Sanitário de Viajantes , Saúde do Viajante , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde
18.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(1): 45-52, ene. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-148505

RESUMO

En este artículo se indican inicialmente las definiciones que delimitan su contenido. Posteriormente se señalan las fuentes principales de información acerca del cribado de enfermedades en inmigrantes y se consideran las entidades susceptibles de cribado. En un apartado posterior se revisa la metodología diagnóstica empleada considerando de forma separada la anamnesis, la exploración física, los exámenes complementarios habituales y los estudios específicos tanto de enfermedades infecciosas como de no infecciosas. Finalmente, y con las limitaciones de los datos disponibles, se realiza una propuesta de cribado de enfermedades en el inmigrante recién llegado (AU)


The definition of terms that delimits the content of this paper are initially displayed. Subsequently, the main sources of information about the disease screening in immigrants and the entities considered susceptible of screening are showed. In a later section we review the diagnostic methodology used, separately considering the history, physical examination, the usual complementary tests and specific studies of both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Finally, with the limitations of the data available a proposal of a protocol for screening of diseases in recent immigrant is performed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , /epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estratégias Nacionais , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 34(1): 45-52, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26655674

RESUMO

The definition of terms that delimites the content of this paper are initially displayed. Subsequently, the main sources of information about the disease screening in immigrants and the entities considered susceptible of screening are showed. In a later section we review the diagnostic methodology used, separately considering the history, physical examination, the usual complementary tests and specific studies of both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Finally, with the limitations of the data available a proposal of a protocol for screening of diseases in recent immigrant is performed.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Espanha
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 9(7): e0003963, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26230990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium is a serious underestimated public health problem affecting 112 million people - particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Microscopic examination of urine samples to detect parasite eggs still remains as definitive diagnosis. This work was focussed on developing a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in human urine samples as a high-throughput, simple, accurate and affordable diagnostic tool to use in diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A LAMP assay targeting a species specific sequence of S. haematobium ribosomal intergenic spacer was designed. The effectiveness of our LAMP was assessed in a number of patients´ urine samples with microscopy confirmed S. haematobium infection. For potentially large-scale application in field conditions, different DNA extraction methods, including a commercial kit, a modified NaOH extraction method and a rapid heating method were tested using small volumes of urine fractions (whole urine, supernatants and pellets). The heating of pellets from clinical samples was the most efficient method to obtain good-quality DNA detectable by LAMP. The detection limit of our LAMP was 1 fg/µL of S. haematobium DNA in urine samples. When testing all patients´ urine samples included in our study, diagnostic parameters for sensitivity and specificity were calculated for LAMP assay, 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 81.32%-100%) and 86.67% specificity (95% CI: 75.40%-94.05%), and also for microscopy detection of eggs in urine samples, 69.23% sensitivity (95% CI: 48.21%-85.63%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 93.08%-100%). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed and evaluated, for the first time, a LAMP assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in heated pellets from patients´ urine samples using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA extraction. The procedure has been named the Rapid-Heat LAMPellet method and has the potential to be developed further as a field diagnostic tool for use in urogenital schistosomiasis-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Esquistossomose Urinária/diagnóstico , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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