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1.
Biomedicines ; 10(12)2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36551847

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in children and adolescents worldwide; among the types of liver cancer, hepatoblastoma (HBL) is the most common in childhood. Although it affects only two to three individuals in a million, it is mostly asymptomatic at diagnosis, so by the time it is detected it has already advanced. There are specific recommendations regarding HBL treatment, and ongoing studies to stratify the risks of HBL, understand the pathology, and predict prognostics and survival rates. Although magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy is frequently used in diagnostics of HBL, high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy of HBL tissues is scarce. Using this technique, we studied the alterations among tissue metabolites of ex vivo samples from (a) HBL and non-cancer liver tissues (NCL), (b) HBL and adjacent non-tumor samples, and (c) two regions of the same HBL samples, one more centralized and the other at the edge of the tumor. It was possible to identify metabolites in HBL, then metabolites from the HBL center and the border samples, and link them to altered metabolisms in tumor tissues, highlighting their potential as biochemical markers. Metabolites closely related to liver metabolisms such as some phospholipids, triacylglycerides, fatty acids, glucose, and amino acids showed differences between the tissues.

3.
Hered Cancer Clin Pract ; 20(1): 36, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare colorectal cancer (CRC) incidences in carriers of pathogenic variants of the MMR genes in the PLSD and IMRC cohorts, of which only the former included mandatory colonoscopy surveillance for all participants. METHODS: CRC incidences were calculated in an intervention group comprising a cohort of confirmed carriers of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in mismatch repair genes (path_MMR) followed prospectively by the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD). All had colonoscopy surveillance, with polypectomy when polyps were identified. Comparison was made with a retrospective cohort reported by the International Mismatch Repair Consortium (IMRC). This comprised confirmed and inferred path_MMR carriers who were first- or second-degree relatives of Lynch syndrome probands. RESULTS: In the PLSD, 8,153 subjects had follow-up colonoscopy surveillance for a total of 67,604 years and 578 carriers had CRC diagnosed. Average cumulative incidences of CRC in path_MLH1 carriers at 70 years of age were 52% in males and 41% in females; for path_MSH2 50% and 39%; for path_MSH6 13% and 17% and for path_PMS2 11% and 8%. In contrast, in the IMRC cohort, corresponding cumulative incidences were 40% and 27%; 34% and 23%; 16% and 8% and 7% and 6%. Comparing just the European carriers in the two series gave similar findings. Numbers in the PLSD series did not allow comparisons of carriers from other continents separately. Cumulative incidences at 25 years were < 1% in all retrospective groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prospectively observed CRC incidences (PLSD) in path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers undergoing colonoscopy surveillance and polypectomy were higher than in the retrospective (IMRC) series, and were not reduced in path_MSH6 carriers. These findings were the opposite to those expected. CRC point incidence before 50 years of age was reduced in path_PMS2 carriers subjected to colonoscopy, but not significantly so.

4.
Front Oncol ; 12: 976959, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119527

RESUMO

Introduction: BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline pathogenic variants (GPVs) account for most of the 5-10% of breast cancer (BC) that is attributable to inherited genetic variants. BRCA1 GPVs are associated with the triple negative subtype, whereas BRCA2 GPVs are likely to result in higher grade, estrogen-receptor positive BCs. The contribution of other genes of high and moderate risk for BC has not been well defined and risk estimates to specific BC subtypes is lacking, especially for an admixed population like Brazilian. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of a multigene panel in detecting germline mutations in cancer-predisposing genes for Brazilian BC patients and its relation with molecular subtypes and the predominant molecular ancestry. Patients and methods: A total of 321 unrelated BC patients who fulfilled NCCN criteria for BRCA1/2 testing between 2016-2018 were investigated with a 94-genes panel. Molecular subtypes were retrieved from medical records and ancestry-specific variants were obtained from off-target reads obtained from the sequencing data. Results: We detected 83 GPVs in 81 patients (positivity rate of 25.2%). Among GPVs, 47% (39/83) were identified in high-risk BC genes (BRCA1/2, PALB2 and TP53) and 18% (15/83) in moderate-penetrance genes (ATM, CHEK2 and RAD51C). The remainder of the GPVs (35% - 29/83), were identified in lower-risk genes. As for the molecular subtypes, triple negative BC had a mutation frequency of 31.6% (25/79), with predominance in BRCA1 (12.6%; 10/79). Among the luminal subtypes, except Luminal B HER2-positive, 18.7% (29/155) had GPV with BRCA1/2 genes contributing 7.1% (11/155) and non-BRCA1/2 genes, 12.9% (20/155). For Luminal B HER2-positive subtype, 40% (16/40) had GPVs, with a predominance of ATM gene (15% - 6/40) and BRCA2 with only 2.5% (1/40). Finally, HER2-enriched subtype presented a mutation rate of 30.8% (4/13) with contribution of BRCA2 of 7.5% (1/13) and non-BRCA1/2 of 23% (3/13). Variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were identified in 77.6% (249/321) of the patients and the number of VUS was increased in patients with Asian and Native American ancestry. Conclusion: The multigene panel contributed to identify GPVs in genes other than BRCA1/2, increasing the positivity of the genetic test from 9.6% (BRCA1/2) to 25.2% and, considering only the most clinically relevant BC predisposing genes, to 16.2%. These results indicate that women with clinical criteria for hereditary BC may benefit from a multigene panel testing, as it allows identifying GPVs in genes that directly impact the clinical management of these patients and family members.

5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15096, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064728

RESUMO

Scalp melanoma (SM) has a worse prognosis than melanoma in other locations likely because of late diagnosis due to hair coverage, difficulties in interpreting dermoscopy findings, and its unique molecular profile. We aimed to describe the clinical, histopathological, molecular, and dermoscopic patterns of SM and its relation to androgenetic alopecia/elastosis at the tumor site. Through a retrospective cross-sectional study, we identified all SM diagnosed at the A.C.Camargo Cancer Center between 2008 and 2018. In all, 48 SM were analyzed: 45.8% of which exhibited moderate/severe androgenetic alopecia and 54.1% exhibited elastosis. Androgenetic alopecia/elastosis at the site of the SM was associated with older age (p < 0.001), chronic sun damage (p < 0.001), lentigo maligna subtype (p = 0.029), and photodamaged dermoscopic pattern (p < 0.001). Additionally, 41 cases were evaluated with a 14-gene panel: 53.7% displayed mutations and 46.3% were wild-type. BRAF mutations were most common (77%), with BRAF V600K being more frequent (50%) than BRAF V600E (31.2%). The NF1 gene was evaluated in 40 samples, of which 20% exhibited mutations. SM presents differently in areas covered by hair compared to in areas with androgenetic alopecia. Patients without alopecia may have higher Breslow thickness due to late diagnosis because of hair concealment. The high frequency of detrimental mutations can also explain the poor prognosis of SM.


Assuntos
Alopecia , Melanoma , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Couro Cabeludo , Alopecia/genética , Alopecia/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Dermoscopia , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Couro Cabeludo/patologia
6.
Pathol Res Pract ; 238: 154113, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099718

RESUMO

Salivary gland neoplasms comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions with multiple histological subtypes, each with distinct growth patterns, resulting in a spectrum of tumor-specific prognoses; pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) are the most common representatives of these neoplasms. Many studies have associated specific profiles of membrane and adhesion molecules in salivary gland tissues; these profiles appear to be relevant in tumor biology as well as be interpreted as fingerprints for tumor classification, diagnostic prognostic and therapeutic targets. One of these membrane molecule complexes are the tight junctions, composed by various proteins, in which claudins are protagonists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expressions of genes that encode tight junction proteins (CLDN-1, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -11, occludin [OCLN], zonula occludens [TJP1, TJP2, and TJP3] and junctional adhesion molecule A [F11R]) in MEC and PA using real time RT-PCR. We observed high expression of CLDN-1 and -7 and low expression of CLDN-3, -11 and TJP2 in MEC compared to PA. PA samples demonstrated high OCLN expression when compared to MEC. CRTC1::MAML2 fusion was detected in 12 of 20 (60.0%) MEC samples and was associated with CLDN7 expression, while the absence of fusion was associated with high histological grade. Increased CLDN5 expression was associated with submandibular gland tumors. This study demonstrated differential expressions of genes encoding tight junction constituent proteins and their associations with tumor characteristics, suggesting their potential future role as diagnostic and prognostic markers.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(13)2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805051

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of long non-coding RNAs that have the ability to sponge RNA-Binding Proteins (RBPs). Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has very aggressive behavior and poor prognosis for the patient. Here, we aimed to characterize the global expression profile of circRNAs in TNBC, in order to identify potential risk biomarkers. For that, we obtained RNA-Seq data from TNBC and control samples and performed validation experiments using FFPE and frozen tissues of TNBC patients and controls, followed by in silico analyses to explore circRNA-RBP interactions. We found 16 differentially expressed circRNAs between TNBC patients and controls. Next, we mapped the RBPs that interact with the top five downregulated circRNAs (hsa_circ_0072309, circ_0004365, circ_0006677, circ_0008599, and circ_0009043) and hsa_circ_0000479, resulting in a total of 16 RBPs, most of them being enriched to pathways related to cancer and gene regulation (e.g., AGO1/2, EIF4A3, ELAVL1, and PTBP1). Among the six circRNAs, hsa_circ_0072309 was the one that presented the most confidence results, being able to distinguish TNBC patients from controls with an AUC of 0.78 and 0.81, respectively. This circRNA may be interacting with some RBPs involved in important cancer-related pathways and is a novel potential risk biomarker of TNBC.

8.
Front Oncol ; 12: 845527, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35530311

RESUMO

Molecular profile of breast cancer in Latin-American women was studied in five countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Uruguay. Data about socioeconomic characteristics, risk factors, prognostic factors, and molecular subtypes were described, and the 60-month overall cumulative survival probabilities (OS) were estimated. From 2011 to 2013, 1,300 eligible Latin-American women 18 years or older, with a diagnosis of breast cancer in clinical stage II or III, and performance status ≦̸1 were invited to participate in a prospective cohort study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and clinical and outcome data, including death, were extracted from medical records. Unadjusted associations were evaluated by Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests and the OS by Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to determine differences between cumulative probability curves. Multivariable adjustment was carried out by entering potential confounders in the Cox regression model. The OS at 60 months was 83.9%. Multivariable-adjusted death hazard differences were found for women living in Argentina (2.27), Chile (1.95), and Uruguay (2.42) compared with Mexican women, for older (≥60 years) (1.84) compared with younger (≤40 years) women, for basal-like subtype (5.8), luminal B (2.43), and HER2-enriched (2.52) compared with luminal A subtype, and for tumor clinical stages IIB (1.91), IIIA (3.54), and IIIB (3.94) compared with stage IIA women. OS was associated with country of residence, PAM50 intrinsic subtype, age, and tumor stage at diagnosis. While the latter is known to be influenced by access to care, including cancer screening, timely diagnosis and treatment, including access to more effective treatment protocols, it may also influence epigenetic changes that, potentially, impact molecular subtypes. Data derived from heretofore understudied populations with unique geographic ancestry and sociocultural experiences are critical to furthering our understanding of this complexity.

9.
Front Oncol ; 12: 835626, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433488

RESUMO

Purposes: Most molecular-based published studies on breast cancer do not adequately represent the unique and diverse genetic admixture of the Latin American population. Searching for similarities and differences in molecular pathways associated with these tumors and evaluating its impact on prognosis may help to select better therapeutic approaches. Patients and Methods: We collected clinical, pathological, and transcriptomic data of a multi-country Latin American cohort of 1,071 stage II-III breast cancer patients of the Molecular Profile of Breast Cancer Study (MPBCS) cohort. The 5-year prognostic ability of intrinsic (transcriptomic-based) PAM50 and immunohistochemical classifications, both at the cancer-specific (OSC) and disease-free survival (DFS) stages, was compared. Pathway analyses (GSEA, GSVA and MetaCore) were performed to explore differences among intrinsic subtypes. Results: PAM50 classification of the MPBCS cohort defined 42·6% of tumors as LumA, 21·3% as LumB, 13·3% as HER2E and 16·6% as Basal. Both OSC and DFS for LumA tumors were significantly better than for other subtypes, while Basal tumors had the worst prognosis. While the prognostic power of traditional subtypes calculated with hormone receptors (HR), HER2 and Ki67 determinations showed an acceptable performance, PAM50-derived risk of recurrence best discriminated low, intermediate and high-risk groups. Transcriptomic pathway analysis showed high proliferation (i.e. cell cycle control and DNA damage repair) associated with LumB, HER2E and Basal tumors, and a strong dependency on the estrogen pathway for LumA. Terms related to both innate and adaptive immune responses were seen predominantly upregulated in Basal tumors, and, to a lesser extent, in HER2E, with respect to LumA and B tumors. Conclusions: This is the first study that assesses molecular features at the transcriptomic level in a multicountry Latin American breast cancer patient cohort. Hormone-related and proliferation pathways that predominate in PAM50 and other breast cancer molecular classifications are also the main tumor-driving mechanisms in this cohort and have prognostic power. The immune-related features seen in the most aggressive subtypes may pave the way for therapeutic approaches not yet disseminated in Latin America. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02326857).

10.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 16: 1344, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35242225

RESUMO

Identifying polymorphisms in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) genes is gaining importance as predictors of fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. The recommendation of dose adjustment for chemotherapy guided by the presence of polymorphisms of the DPYD gene can potentially improve treatment safety for a large number of patients, saving lives, avoiding complications and reducing health care costs. This article discusses how personalisation of fluoropyrimidine treatment based on the identification of DPYD variants can mitigate toxicities and be cost effective.

12.
Curr Oncol ; 29(2): 411-422, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35200537

RESUMO

Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a rare and aggressive condition that is associated with the SMARCA4 mutation and has a dismal prognosis. It is generally diagnosed in young women. Here, we report a case of a young woman with SCCOHT harboring a rare molecular finding with a highly aggressive biological behavior. The patient had a somatic SMARCB1 mutation instead of an expected SMARCA4 alteration. Even though the patient was treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation, she evolved with disease progression and died 11 months after her first symptoms appeared. We present a literature review of this rare disease and discuss the findings in the present patient in comparison to expected molecular alterations and options for SCCOHT treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Tumor Rabdoide , Proteína SMARCB1 , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/terapia , DNA Helicases/genética , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Ovário/patologia , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/patologia , Tumor Rabdoide/terapia , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262419, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085295

RESUMO

Genetic predisposition accounts for nearly 10% of all melanoma cases and has been associated with a dozen moderate- to high-penetrance genes, including CDKN2A, CDK4, POT1 and BAP1. However, in most melanoma-prone families, the genetic etiology of cancer predisposition remains undetermined. The goal of this study was to identify rare genomic variants associated with cutaneous melanoma susceptibility in melanoma-prone families. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 2 affected individuals of 5 melanoma-prone families negative for mutations in CDKN2A and CDK4, the major cutaneous melanoma risk genes. A total of 288 rare coding variants shared by the affected relatives of each family were identified, including 7 loss-of-function variants. By performing in silico analyses of gene function, biological pathways, and variant pathogenicity prediction, we underscored the putative role of several genes for melanoma risk, including previously described genes such as MYO7A and WRN, as well as new putative candidates, such as SERPINB4, HRNR, and NOP10. In conclusion, our data revealed rare germline variants in melanoma-prone families contributing with a novel set of potential candidate genes to be further investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Melanoma/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Penetrância , /métodos
15.
Front Oncol ; 11: 741526, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956867

RESUMO

Hepatoblastoma (HB) is a rare embryonal tumor, although it is the most common pediatric liver cancer. The aim of this study was to provide an accurate cytogenomic profile of this type of cancer, for which information in cancer databases is lacking. We performed an extensive literature review of cytogenetic studies on HBs disclosing that the most frequent copy number alterations (CNAs) are gains of 1q, 2/2q, 8/8q, and 20; and losses at 1p and 4q. Furthermore, the CNA profile of a Brazilian cohort of 26 HBs was obtained by array-CGH; the most recurrent CNAs were the same as shown in the literature review. Importantly, HBs from female patients, high-risk stratification tumors, tumors who developed in older patients (> 3 years at diagnosis) or from patients with metastasis and/or deceased carried a higher diversity of chromosomal alterations, specifically chromosomal losses at 1p, 4, 11q and 18q. In addition, we distinguished three major CNA profiles: no detectable CNA, few CNAs and tumors with complex genomes. Tumors with simpler genomes exhibited a significant association with the epithelial fetal subtype of HBs; in contrast, the complex genome group included three cases with epithelial embryonal histology, as well as the only HB with HCC features. A significant association of complex HB genomes was observed with older patients who developed high-risk tumors, metastasis, and deceased. Moreover, two patients with HBs exhibiting complex genomes were born with congenital anomalies. Together, these findings suggest that a high load of CNAs, mainly chromosomal losses, particularly losses at 1p and 18, increases the tendency to HB aggressiveness. Additionally, we identified six hot-spot chromosome regions most frequently affected in the entire group: 1q31.3q42.3, 2q23.3q37.3, and 20p13p11.1 gains, besides a 5,3 Mb amplification at 2q24.2q24.3, and losses at 1p36.33p35.1, 4p14 and 4q21.22q25. An in-silico analysis using the genes mapped to these six regions revealed several enriched biological pathways such as ERK Signaling, MicroRNAs in Cancer, and the PI3K-Akt Signaling, in addition to the WNT Signaling pathway; further investigation is required to evaluate if disturbances of these pathways can contribute to HB tumorigenesis. The analyzed gene set was found to be associated with neoplasms, abnormalities of metabolism/homeostasis and liver morphology, as well as abnormal embryonic development and cytokine secretion. In conclusion, we have provided a comprehensive characterization of the spectrum of chromosomal alterations reported in HBs and identified specific genomic regions recurrently altered in a Brazilian HB group, pointing to new biological pathways, and relevant clinical associations.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298749

RESUMO

Male breast cancer (MBC) is now considered molecularly different from female breast cancer (FBC). Evidence from studies indicates that common genetic and epigenetic features of FBC are not shared with those diagnosed in men. Genetic predisposition is likely to play a significant role in the tumorigenesis of this rare disease. Inherited germline variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for around 2% and 10% of MBC cases, respectively, and the lifetime risk of breast cancer for men harboring BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is 1.2% and 6.8%. As for FBC, pathogenic mutations in other breast cancer genes have also been recently associated with an increased risk of MBC, such as PALB2 and CHEK2 mutations. However, while multigene germline panels have been extensively performed for BC female patients, the rarity of MBC has resulted in limited data to allow the understanding of the magnitude of risk and the contribution of recently identified moderate penetrance genes of FBC for MBC predisposition. This review gathers available data about the germline genetic landscape of men affected by breast cancer, estimated risk associated with these genetic variants, and current guidelines for clinical management.

17.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e2324, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to contribute to the catalog of genetic mutations involved in the carcinogenic processes of uterine sarcomas (USs) and carcinosarcomas (UCSs), which may assist in the accurate diagnosis of, and selection of treatment regimens for, these conditions. METHODS: We performed gene-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 409 cancer-related genes in 15 US (7 uterine leiomyosarcoma [ULMS], 7 endometrial stromal sarcoma [ESS], 1 adenosarcoma [ADS]), 5 UCS, and 3 uterine leiomyoma (ULM) samples. Quality, frequency, and functional filters were applied to select putative somatic variants. RESULTS: Among the 23 samples evaluated in this study, 42 loss-of-function (LOF) mutations and 111 missense mutations were detected, with a total of 153 mutations. Among them, 66 mutations were observed in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. TP53 (48%), ATM (22%), and PIK3CA (17%) were the most frequently mutated genes. With respect to specific tumor subtypes, ESS showed mutations in the PDE4DIP, IGTA10, and DST genes, UCS exhibited mutations in ERBB4, and ULMS showed exclusive alterations in NOTCH2 and HER2. Mutations in the KMT2A gene were observed exclusively in ULM and ULMS. In silico pathway analyses demonstrated that many genes mutated in ULMS and ESS have functions associated with the cellular response to hypoxia and cellular response to peptide hormone stimulus. In UCS and ADS, genes with most alterations have functions associated with phosphatidylinositol kinase activity and glycerophospholipid metabolic process. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study observed pathogenic mutations in US and UCS samples. Further studies with a larger cohort and functional analyses will foster the development of a precision medicine-based approach for the treatment of US and UCS.


Assuntos
Carcinossarcoma , Sarcoma , Neoplasias Uterinas , Brasil , Carcinossarcoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Sarcoma/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética
18.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(7): 3637-3645, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phase III trials evaluating the role of secondary cytoreductive surgery (SCS) in recurrent ovarian cancer have pointed to the importance of patient selection. Two studies showed conflicting results regarding the benefit of SCS in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of SCS on recurrent ovarian cancer according to BRCA1/2 status. METHODS: All patients with ovarian carcinoma with platinum-sensitive recurrent disease and tested for BRCA1/2 germline mutations were included. Cox regression and log rank test were used to evaluate the impact of SCS on progression-free survival (PFS) and the influence of BRCA1/2 mutations on the effect of SCS. RESULTS: 127 patients were included, 45.6% were treated with SCS and chemotherapy and 54.3% treated with chemotherapy only. Patients treated with SCS were younger, presented better performance status, had lower CA125, and had a longer platinum-free interval. In multivariate analysis SCS was associated with longer PFS (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.25-0.72, p = 0.002). BRCA1/2 mutations were found in 35 patients (27.5%), and 11.8% of patients were treated with PARP inhibitors. Although not statistically significant, both BRCA1/2 wild type patients (PFS: 21.6 vs 18.4 months; p = 0.114) and BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (PFS: 23.1 vs 18.2 months, p = 0.193) appeared to derive benefit from SCS. DISCUSSION: The present study suggests a benefit of SCS irrespective of BRCA1/2 status among patients mostly not treated with PARP inhibitor. Further data on post hoc analysis from the phase III trials are warranted to confirm whether BRCA1/2 mutated patients should be selected for SCS.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia
19.
Clinics ; 76: e2324, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to contribute to the catalog of genetic mutations involved in the carcinogenic processes of uterine sarcomas (USs) and carcinosarcomas (UCSs), which may assist in the accurate diagnosis of, and selection of treatment regimens for, these conditions. METHODS: We performed gene-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 409 cancer-related genes in 15 US (7 uterine leiomyosarcoma [ULMS], 7 endometrial stromal sarcoma [ESS], 1 adenosarcoma [ADS]), 5 UCS, and 3 uterine leiomyoma (ULM) samples. Quality, frequency, and functional filters were applied to select putative somatic variants. RESULTS: Among the 23 samples evaluated in this study, 42 loss-of-function (LOF) mutations and 111 missense mutations were detected, with a total of 153 mutations. Among them, 66 mutations were observed in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. TP53 (48%), ATM (22%), and PIK3CA (17%) were the most frequently mutated genes. With respect to specific tumor subtypes, ESS showed mutations in the PDE4DIP, IGTA10, and DST genes, UCS exhibited mutations in ERBB4, and ULMS showed exclusive alterations in NOTCH2 and HER2. Mutations in the KMT2A gene were observed exclusively in ULM and ULMS. In silico pathway analyses demonstrated that many genes mutated in ULMS and ESS have functions associated with the cellular response to hypoxia and cellular response to peptide hormone stimulus. In UCS and ADS, genes with most alterations have functions associated with phosphatidylinositol kinase activity and glycerophospholipid metabolic process. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study observed pathogenic mutations in US and UCS samples. Further studies with a larger cohort and functional analyses will foster the development of a precision medicine-based approach for the treatment of US and UCS.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Sarcoma/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Carcinossarcoma/genética , Brasil , Mutação
20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316873

RESUMO

DNA repair deficiency (DRD) is an important driver of carcinogenesis and an efficient target for anti-tumor therapies to improve patient survival. Thus, detection of DRD in tumors is paramount. Currently, determination of DRD in tumors is dependent on wet-lab assays. Here we describe an efficient machine learning algorithm which can predict DRD from histopathological images. The utility of this algorithm is demonstrated with data obtained from 1445 cancer patients. Our method performs rather well when trained on breast cancer specimens with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), AUC (area under curve) = 0.80. Results for an independent breast cancer cohort achieved an AUC = 0.70. The utility of our method was further shown by considering the detection of mismatch repair deficiency (MMRD) in gastric cancer, yielding an AUC = 0.81. Our results demonstrate the capacity of our learning-base system as a low-cost tool for DRD detection.

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