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Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16558, 2018 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409993


Effective conservation planning needs to consider the threats of cropland expansion to biodiversity. We used Myanmar as a case study to devise a modeling framework to identify which Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are most vulnerable to cropland expansion in a context of increasingly resolved armed conflict. We studied 13 major crops with the potential to expand into KBAs. We used mixed-effects models and an agricultural versus forest rent framework to model current land use and conversion of forests to cropland for each crop. We found that the current cropland distribution is explained by higher agricultural value, lower transportation costs and lower elevation. We also found that protected areas and socio-political instability are effective in slowing down deforestation with conflicts in Myanmar damaging farmland and displacing farmers elsewhere. Under plausible economic development and socio-political stability scenarios, the models forecast 48.5% of land to be converted. We identified export crops such as maize, and pigeon pea as key deforestation drivers. This cropland expansion would pose a major threat to Myanmar's freshwater KBAs. We highlight the importance of considering rapid land-use transitions in the tropics to devise robust conservation plans.

Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Florestas , Modelos Teóricos , Mianmar
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(4): e000801, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233829


Background: Responsible for considerable global human morbidity and mortality, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the primary vectors of several important human diseases, including dengue and yellow fever. Although numerous variables that affect mosquito survival and reproduction have been recorded at the local and regional scales, many remain untested at the global level, potentially confounding mapping efforts to date. Methods: We develop a modelling ensemble of boosted regression trees and maximum entropy models using sets of variables previously untested at the global level to examine their performance in predicting the global distribution of these two vectors. The results show that accessibility, absolute humidity and annual minimum temperature are consistently the strongest predictors of mosquito presence. Both vectors are similar in their response to accessibility and humidity, but exhibit individual profiles for temperature. Their mapped ranges are therefore similar except at peripheral latitudes, where the range of Ae. albopictus extends further, a finding consistent with ongoing trapping studies. We show that variables previously identified as being relevant, including maximum and mean temperatures, enhanced vegetation index, relative humidity and population density, are comparatively weak performers. Results: The variables identified represent three key biological mechanisms. Cold tolerance is a critical biological parameter, controlling both species' distribution northwards, and to a lesser degree for Ae. albopictus which has consequent greater inland suitability in North America, Europe and East Asia. Absolute humidity restricts the distribution of both vectors from drier areas, where moisture availability is very low, and increases their suitability in coastal areas. The latter is exacerbated by accessibility with increased likelihood of vector importation due to greater potential for human and trade movement. Conclusion: Accessibility, absolute humidity and annual minimum temperatures were the strongest and most robust global predictors of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus presence, which should be considered in control efforts and future distribution projections.

Sci Adv ; 3(7): e1602602, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28706988


Global sustainability strategies require assessing whether countries' development trajectories are sustainable over time. However, sustainability assessments are limited because losses of natural capital and its ecosystem services through deforestation have not been comprehensively incorporated into national accounts. We update the national accounts of 80 nations that underwent tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012 and evaluate their development trajectories using weak and strong sustainability criteria. Weak sustainability requires that countries do not decrease their aggregate capital over time. We adopt a strong sustainability criterion that countries do not decrease the value of their forest ecosystem services with respect to the year 2000. We identify several groups of countries: countries, such as Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and India, that present sustainable development trajectories under both weak and strong sustainability criteria; countries, such as Brazil, Peru, and Indonesia, that present weak sustainable development but fail the strong sustainability criterion as a result of rapid losses of ecosystem services; countries, such as Madagascar, Laos, and Papua New Guinea, that present unsustainable development pathways as a result of deforestation; and countries, such as Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone, in which deforestation aggravates already unsustainable pathways. Our results reveal a large number of countries where tropical deforestation is both damaging to nature and not compensated by development in other sectors, thus compromising the well-being of their future generations.

Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Clima Tropical , Agricultura , Geografia
Lancet Planet Health ; 1(5): e180-e187, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851639


BACKGROUND: Potential synergies between public health and environmental protection that offer new opportunities for achieving health and sustainable development targets have been postulated. However, empirical evidence of the effect of ecosystem degradation and protection on public health outcomes is scarce, which restricts policy makers' ability to assess the net health effects of land-use change. METHODS: We used generalised linear mixed-effects models to analyse data for 35 547 households in 1766 communities from the Cambodian Demographic Health Surveys to investigate the relation between health and protected areas across deforestation gradients in Cambodia between Feb 1, 2005, and April 30, 2014. Diarrhoea, acute respiratory infection, and fever in children younger than 5 years were used as population health indicators. Dense and mixed forest coverage were derived from Open Development Cambodia, and forest loss was calculated from 2000 to 2004, 2004 to 2009, and 2009 to 2014. The incidence of non-specific illness and injury in people older than 15 years was used as a negative control. Our analyses included rich pseudo-panel data (combining cross-sectional datasets from 2005, 2010, and 2014) that accounted for socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioural characteristics, and had a negative control, approximating a quasi-experimental study design. FINDINGS: Deforestation of dense forest was associated with an increased incidence of diarrhoea (p=0·007), fever (p=0·0495), and acute respiratory infection in children (p=0·003). For example, a 10 percentage point increase in loss of dense forest was estimated to be associated with an increase of 14·1% (95% CI 2·6-35·8) in the incidence of diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years per household in the 2 weeks before the Cambodian Demographic Health Surveys. Protected area coverage, but not type, was associated with decreased incidences of diarrhoea (p=0·028) and acute respiratory infection (p=0·030). Apart from an association between mixed forest coverage and increased incidence of diarrhoea, forest coverage was not associated with any health outcomes. INTERPRETATION: Deforestation is associated with increased risk of several major sources of global childhood morbidity and mortality. Although causal mechanisms are unclear, our findings suggest that protected areas could help to alleviate the global health burden, presenting new possibilities for simultaneous achievement of public health and conservation goals. FUNDING: Ministry of Education of Singapore.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(19): 7601-6, 2013 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23589860


The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive "slash-and-burn" farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives.

Agricultura/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidade , Carbono/química , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , República Democrática do Congo , Ecossistema , Modelos Estatísticos , Árvores , Zea mays
Prev Vet Med ; 107(3-4): 280-5, 2012 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22743214


Live bird markets (LBMs) are at risk of contamination with the avian influenza H5N1 virus. There are a number of methods for prioritizing LBMs for intervention to curb the risk of contamination. Selecting a method depends on diagnostic objective and disease prevalence. In a low resource setting, options for prioritization are constricted by the cost of and resources available for tool development and administration, as well as the resources available for intervention. In this setting, tools can be developed using previously collected data on risk factors for contamination, and translated into prediction equations, including decision trees (DTs). DTs are a graphical type of classifier that combine simple questions about the data in an intuitive way. DTs can be used to develop tools tailored to different diagnostic objectives. To demonstrate the utility of this method, risk factor data arising from a previous cross-sectional study in 83 LBMs in Indonesia were used to construct DTs. A DT with high specificity was selected for the initial stage of an LBM intervention campaign in which authorities aim to focus intervention resources on a small set of LBMs that are at near-certain risk of contamination. Another DT with high sensitivity was selected for later stages in an intervention campaign in which authorities aim to detect and prioritize all LBMs with the risk factors for virus contamination. The best specific DT achieved specificity of 77% and the best sensitive DT achieved sensitivity of 90%. The specific DT had two variables: the size of the duck population in the LBM and the human population density in the LBM's district. The sensitive DT had three variables: LBM location, whether solid waste was removed from the LBM daily and whether the LBM was zoned to separate the bird holding, slaughtering and sale areas. High specificity or sensitivity will be preferred by authorities depending on the stage of the intervention campaign. The study demonstrates that simple tools utilizing DTs can be developed to prioritize LBMs for intervention to control H5N1-virus. DT tools are simple to apply, suitable for low-resource settings and can be tailored to the particular needs and stage of the disease control program.

Galinhas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Patos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Árvores de Decisões , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Indonésia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco