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2.
J Cutan Pathol ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel solutions are needed for expediting margin assessment to guide BCC surgeries. Ex-vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) is starting to be used in freshly-excised surgical specimens to examine BCC margins in real-time. Training and educational process are needed for this novel technology to be implemented into clinic. OBJECTIVE: To test a training and reading process, and measure diagnostic accuracy of clinicians with varying expertise level in reading ex-vivo FCM images. METHODS: An international 3-center study was designed for training and reading to assess BCC surgical margins and residual subtypes. Each center included a lead dermatologic/Mohs surgeon (clinical developer of FCM), and 3 additional readers (dermatologist, dermatopathologist, dermatologic/Mohs surgeon), who use confocal in clinical practice. Testing was conducted on 30 samples. RESULTS: Overall, the readers achieved 90% average sensitivity, 78% average specificity in detecting residual BCC margins, showing high and consistent diagnostic reading accuracy. Those with expertise in dermatologic surgery and dermatopathology showed the strongest potential for learning to assess FCM images. LIMITATIONS: Small dataset, variability in mosaic quality between centers. CONCLUSION: Suggested process is feasible and effective. This process is proposed for wider implementation, to facilitate wider adoption of FCM to potentially expedite BCC margin assessment to guide surgery in real-time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 145: 29-37, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 8th edition of the AJCC manual for melanoma includes many changes leading to major substage migrations, which could lead to important clinical reassessments. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the differences and prognostic value of the 8th AJCC classification in comparison with the 7th edition. METHODS: Clinical and histopathological data were retrieved from five melanoma referral centers including 7815 melanoma patients diagnosed between January 1998 and December 2018. All patients were reclassified and compared using the 7th and 8th classifications of the AJCC. Sankey plots were used to evaluate the migration of patients between the different versions. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), and curves based on the Kaplan-Meier method were used to investigate survival differences between the 7th and 8th editions. RESULTS: The number of patients classified as stages IB, IIIA, and IIIB decreased while the patients classified as stages IA and IIIC increased notably. Migration analysis showed that many patients in group I were understaged whereas a significant percentage of patients in group III were upstaged. Indirect OS analysis showed a loss in the linearity in the AJCC 8th edition and the groups tended to overlap. Direct OS analysis between groups and versions of the AJCC showed a better prognosis within the new stage III patients, with no effect on those in stages I and II. CONCLUSION: The 8th AJCC edition represents an important change in the classification of patients. We observe that the main migratory changes occur in stage I and III, that severity linearity is lost and groups overlap, and that a more advanced stage does not mean a worse prognosis.

4.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)-mediated psoriasis poses significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. OBJECTIVE: To report data on ICI-mediated psoriasis, emerging from the largest so far cohort and to propose a step-by-step management algorithm. METHODS: The medical records of all patients with ICI-mediated psoriasis were retrospectively reviewed across nine institutions. RESULTS: We included a cohort of 115 individuals. Grade-1, 2 and 3 disease severity was reported in 60/105 (57.1%, 10 missing data), 34/105 (32.4%) and 11/105 (10.5%), respectively. The ratio between de novo and exacerbation cases of psoriasis was 21/90 (23.3%). The most common systemic therapy was acitretin (23 patients, 20.1%), followed by systemic steroids (8 patients, 7%), apremilast (7 patients, 6.1%), methotrexate (5 patients, 4.3%) and biologics (4 patients, 3.6%). Overall, 29/112 patients (25.9%) interrupted and 20/111 (18%) permanently discontinued ICIs due to psoriasis. BSA>10% at baseline had a 3.6 increased risk for ICIs treatment modification (OR=3.64, CI 1.27-10.45, p=0.03) and a 6.4 increased risk for permanent discontinuation (OR=6.41, CI 2.40-17.11, p<0.001). Guttate psoriasis and grade2/3 disease were significant positive predictors for antitumor response of ICI whereas pruritus was a negative predictor. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective design CONCLUSION: Acitretin, apremilast and methotrexate are safe and effective modalities for ICI-mediated psoriasis. In most cases, ICI can be completed unhindered. A therapeutic algorithm is proposed.

5.
J Dermatol Sci ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely recognition of malignant melanoma (MM) is challenging for dermatologists worldwide and represents the main determinant for mortality. Dermoscopic examination is influenced by dermatologists' experience and fails to achieve adequate accuracy and reproducibility in discriminating atypical nevi (AN) from early melanomas (EM). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) model able to support dermatologists in the classification and management of atypical melanocytic skin lesions (aMSL). METHODS: A training set (630 images), a validation set (135) and a testing set (214) were derived from the idScore dataset of 979 challenging aMSL cases in which the dermoscopic image is integrated with clinical data (age, sex, body site and diameter) and associated with histological data. A DCNN_aMSL architecture was designed and then trained on both dermoscopic images of aMSL and the clinical/anamnestic data, resulting in the integrated "iDCNN_aMSL" model. Responses of 111 dermatologists with different experience levels on both aMSL classification (intuitive diagnosis) and management decisions (no/long follow-up; short follow-up; excision/preventive excision) were compared with the DCNNs models. RESULTS: In the lesion classification study, the iDCNN_aMSL achieved the best accuracy, reaching an AUC = 90.3 %, SE = 86.5 % and SP = 73.6 %, compared to DCNN_aMSL (SE = 89.2 %, SP = 65.7 %) and intuitive diagnosis of dermatologists (SE = 77.0 %; SP = 61.4 %). CONCLUSIONS: The iDCNN_aMSL proved to be the best support tool for management decisions reducing the ratio of inappropriate excision. The proposed iDCNN_aMSL model can represent a valid support for dermatologists in discriminating AN from EM with high accuracy and for medical decision making by reducing their rates of inappropriate excisions.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342058

RESUMO

Nevus count is highly determined by inherited variants and has been associated with the origin of melanoma. De novo melanomas (DNMMs) are more prevalent in patients with a low nevus count and have distinctive dermoscopic features than nevus-associated melanomas. We evaluated the impact of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MTAP (rs10811629, rs2218220, rs7023329 and rs751173), PLA2G6 (rs132985 and rs2284063), IRF4 (rs12203592), and PAX3 (rs10180903 and rs7600206) genes associated with nevus count and melanoma susceptibility, and the MC1R variants on dermoscopic features of 371 melanomas from 310 patients. All MTAP variants associated with a low nevus count were associated with regression structures (peppering and mixed regression), blue-whitish veil, shiny white structures, and pigment network. SNPs of PLA2G6 (rs132985), PAX3 (rs7600206), and IRF4 (rs12203592) genes were also associated with either shiny white structures or mixed regression (all corrected p-values ≤ .06). Melanomas from red hair color MC1R variants carriers showed lower total dermoscopy score (p-value = .015) and less blotches than melanomas from non-carriers (p-value = .048). Our results provide evidence that germline variants protective for melanoma risk and/or associated with a low nevus count are associated with certain dermoscopic features, more characteristic of de novo and worse prognosis melanomas.

7.
J Biomed Opt ; 25(11)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247560

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Melanoma is a deadly cancer that physicians struggle to diagnose early because they lack the knowledge to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Deep machine learning approaches to image analysis offer promise but lack the transparency to be widely adopted as stand-alone diagnostics. AIM: We aimed to create a transparent machine learning technology (i.e., not deep learning) to discriminate melanomas from nevi in dermoscopy images and an interface for sensory cue integration. APPROACH: Imaging biomarker cues (IBCs) fed ensemble machine learning classifier (Eclass) training while raw images fed deep learning classifier training. We compared the areas under the diagnostic receiver operator curves. RESULTS: Our interpretable machine learning algorithm outperformed the leading deep-learning approach 75% of the time. The user interface displayed only the diagnostic imaging biomarkers as IBCs. CONCLUSIONS: From a translational perspective, Eclass is better than convolutional machine learning diagnosis in that physicians can embrace it faster than black box outputs. Imaging biomarkers cues may be used during sensory cue integration in clinical screening. Our method may be applied to other image-based diagnostic analyses, including pathology and radiology.

8.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the clinical patterns and histopathology of SARS-CoV-2 related skin lesions, as well as on their relationship with the severity of COVID-19 are limited. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in a teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain, from 1 April to 1 May 2020. Clinical, microbiological and therapeutic characteristics, clinicopathological patterns of skin lesions, and direct immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical findings in skin biopsies were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty-eight out of the 2761 patients (2.1%) either consulting to the emergency room or admitted to the hospital for COVID-19 suspicion during the study period presented COVID-19 related skin lesions. Cutaneous lesions could be categorized into six patterns represented by the acronym "GROUCH": Generalized maculo-papular (20.7%), Grover's disease and other papulo-vesicular eruptions (13.8%), livedo Reticularis (6.9%), Other eruptions (22.4%), Urticarial (6.9%), and CHilblain-like (29.3%). Skin biopsies were performed in 72.4%, including direct immunofluorescence in 71.4% and immunohistochemistry in 28.6%. Patients with chilblain-like lesions exhibited a characteristic histology and were significantly younger and presented lower rates of systemic symptoms, radiological lung infiltrates and analytical abnormalities, and hospital and ICU admission compared to the rest of patients. CONCLUSION: Cutaneous lesions in patients with COVID-19 appear to be relatively rare and varied. Patients with chilblain-like lesions have a characteristic clinicopathological pattern and a less severe presentation of COVID-19.

9.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113930

RESUMO

The incidence of melanoma has been increasing worldwide during recent decades. The objective of the study was to analyse the trends in incidence for in situ and invasive melanoma in the Spanish region of Catalonia during the period of 2008-2017. We designed a cross-sectional study with an age-period-cohort analysis of melanoma patient data from the Network of Melanoma Centres in Catalonia. Our database covered a population of over seven million and included a total of 8626 patients with incident melanoma. The main outcome measures were crude and age-standardised incidence rates to the European 2013 standard population. Joinpoint regression models were used to evaluate the population trends. We observed an increase in the age-standardised incidence rate (per 100,000 population) of all melanoma subtypes from 11.56 in 2008 to 13.78 in 2017 with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of 3.5%. This incidence increase was seen exclusively in the older population. Moreover, the stratified analysis showed a statistically significant increase in the age-standardised incidence rate for invasive (AAPC 2.1%) and in situ melanoma (AAPC 6.5%). In conclusion, the incidence of melanoma has continued to increase in the elderly population over recent decades, with a rapidly increasing trend of in situ melanomas and the lentigo maligna subtype.

10.
Telemed J E Health ; 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799628

RESUMO

Background: The use of mobile electronic devices as support to medical activity was largely implemented in the past decade. Introduction: Our first aim was to evaluate the frequency of use of different electronic devices, that is, personal computer (PC), notebook, tablet, smartphone, in a pool of dermatologists recruited to perform multiple online testing session on difficult melanocytic skin lesions (MSLs) cases. The second aim was to evaluate the feasibility of each device in terms of teledermatologic diagnostic performance; the use of four different diagnostic methods, that is, intuitive diagnosis and three dermoscopic algorithms, was also investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 111 dermatologists with 4 different levels of experience in dermoscopy, performed 4 tests (intuitive diagnosis and iDScore, ABCD rule, 7-point-checklist-based diagnosis) on 979 MSLs blinded cases. Each testing session was performed with a preferred device. Results: The overall highest areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) (82%) was obtained by young generation dermoscopists 1-4 years experience) when using an integrated clinical dermoscopic algorithm (iDScore) on a notebook. The average dermatologist using the iDScore obtained AUROC 77.40% with large screen devices (PC and notebook) 77.6% with small screen (tablet, smartphone) and 78.2% by combining the two. Discussion: Young generation of dermoscopists alternately use different devices, whereas elderly generation still prefer to use the PC. The diagnostic performances obtained with small/large screen were not statistically different from those obtained with fixed/mobile devices. Conclusions: Mobile devices were feasible tools to achieve adequate diagnostic accuracy in difficult MSLs, on a teledermatology setting, independently from participant skill level/age.

14.
Dermatol Pract Concept ; 10(3): e2020066, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642314

RESUMO

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for most nonmelanoma skin cancer-related metastatic disease and deaths. Histopathology and correct surgical excision remain the gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of SCC; however, new diagnostic imaging techniques such as dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy have increased the diagnostic accuracy in terms of early recognition, better differential diagnosis, more precise selection of areas to biopsy, and noninvasive monitoring of treatments. The therapeutic intervention in patients with severe actinic damage and multiple in situ/low-risk SCC, and the development of innovative treatments such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors for locally advanced and metastatic SCC, are improving considerably the approach to the disease. This review summarizes the up-to-date knowledge in the field of detection, treatment, and monitoring of cutaneous SCC.

15.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 100(10): adv00134, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318743

RESUMO

Sutton naevi can sometimes present a challenging appearance with atypical presentation, also by dermoscopy. Reflectance confocal microscopy could help in making a diagnosis. This study prospectively collected two groups of Sutton nevi: the first one was composed by typical white halo naevi monitored for one year (13, 23%) and the second one was made up of atypical lesions excised in order to rule out melanoma, which were histologically diagnosed as Sutton naevi (21, 37%). These two groups of Sutton naevi were compared to a retrospectively collected cohort of thin melanomas with histologic regression features (23, 40%). On dermoscopy, atypical Sutton naevi and melanomas were indistinguishable. Reflectance confocal microscopy demonstrated significant differences at the dermo-epidermal junction: marked dermo-epidermal junction thickening and non-edged papilla were associated with melanoma, while the presence of nests was associated with Sutton naevi. However, reflectance confocal microscopy also detected marked intraepidermal pagetoid cells in Sutton naevi that were a combination of MelanA+ and CD1a+ cells. Sutton naevi can simulate melanoma, under both dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy. Nevertheless, relevant confocal dermo-epidermal junction features and the clinical scenario can be helpful to make a final diagnosis, especially in those situations where melanoma must be ruled out.

16.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 33(5): 685-694, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323445

RESUMO

Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are cutaneous malformations whose prevalence is inversely correlated with projected adult size. CMN are caused by somatic mutations, but epidemiological studies suggest that germline genetic factors may influence CMN development. In CMN patients from the U.K., genetic variants in MC1R, such as p.V92M and loss-of-function variants, have been previously associated with larger CMN. We analyzed the association of MC1R variants with CMN characteristics in two distinct cohorts of medium-to-giant CMN patients from Spain (N = 113) and from France, Norway, Canada, and the United States (N = 53), similar at the clinical and phenotypical level except for the number of nevi per patient. We found that the p.V92M or loss-of-function MC1R variants either alone or in combination did not correlate with CMN size, in contrast to the U.K. CMN patients. An additional case-control analysis with 259 unaffected Spanish individuals showed a higher frequency of MC1R compound heterozygous or homozygous variant genotypes in Spanish CMN patients compared to the control population (15.9% vs. 9.3%; p = .075). Altogether, this study suggests that MC1R variants are not associated with CMN size in these non-UK cohorts. Additional studies are required to define the potential role of MC1R as a risk factor in CMN development.

17.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(3): 860-869, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CDKN2A, CDK4, and POT1 are well-established melanoma-susceptibility genes. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated melanoma histopathology for individuals with germline mutations of CDKN2A, CDK4, and POT1. METHODS: We assessed histopathology for melanomas diagnosed in melanoma-prone families (≥2 individuals with melanoma) from the United States, Italy, and Spain. Comparisons between mutation carriers and noncarriers (no mutation) were adjusted for age, sex, Breslow depth, and correlations among individuals within the same family. RESULTS: Histologic slides were evaluated for 290 melanomas (139 from 132 noncarriers, 122 from 68 CDKN2A carriers, 10 from 6 CDK4 carriers, and 19 from 16 POT1 carriers). Superficial spreading was the predominant subtype for all groups. Spitzoid morphology (>25% of tumor) was observed in 10 of 15 invasive melanomas (67%) from POT1 carriers (P < .0001 vs noncarriers). This finding was independently confirmed by 3 expert melanoma dermatopathologists in 9 of 15 invasive melanomas (60%). In situ and invasive melanomas from CDKN2A and CDK4 carriers were histologically similar to melanomas from noncarriers. LIMITATIONS: Limited sample sizes for rare melanoma-susceptibility syndromes (CDK4, POT1). CONCLUSION: Spitzoid morphology was associated with POT1 mutations suggesting that telomere dysfunction (POT1 mutations) may contribute to spitzoid differentiation in melanocytic tumors.

20.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 100(8): adv00106, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110813

RESUMO

Numerous dermoscopic structures for the early detection of melanoma have been described. The aim of this study was to illustrate the characteristics of dermoscopic structures that are similar to blotches, but smaller (termed microblotches), and to evaluate their association with other well-known dermoscopic structures. A cross-sectional study design, including 165 dermoscopic images of melanoma was used to define microblotches, and 241 consecutive images of naevi from the HAM10000 database, were studied to evaluate the prevalence of this criterion in both groups. Microblotches were defined as sharply demarcated structures ≤1 mm, with geographical borders visible only with dermoscopy. Microblotches were present in 38.7% of the melanomas and 6.7% of the naevi. Moreover, microblotches were associated with an odds ratio (OR) of malignancy of 5.79, and were more frequent in invasive melanoma than in the in-situ subtype (OR 2.92). Histologically, they correspond to hyperpigmented parakeratosis or epidermal consumption. In conclusion, microblotches are related to melanomas. This finding could help dermatologists to differentiate between naevi and melanomas.

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