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1.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 69, 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385586

RESUMO

Bisphosphonates are the most common treatment for osteoporosis but there are concerns regarding its use in CKD. We evaluated the frequency of BSP by eGFR categories among patients with osteoporosis from two healthcare systems. Our results show that 56% of patients were treated, with reduced odds in those with lower eGFR. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Bisphosphonates (BSP) are the most common treatment but there are concerns regarding its efficacy and toxicity in CKD. We evaluated the frequency of BSP use by level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with osteoporosis. METHODS: We assessed BSP use in patients with incident osteoporosis from the SCREAM-Cohort, Stockholm-Sweden, and Geisinger Healthcare, PA, USA. Osteoporosis was defined as the first encountered ICD diagnosis, and BSP use was defined as the dispensation or prescription of any BSP from 6 months prior to 3 years after the diagnosis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to account for the competing risk of death. RESULTS: A total of 15,719 women and 3011 men in SCREAM and 17,325 women and 3568 men in Geisinger with incident osteoporosis were included. Overall, 56% of individuals used BSP in both studies, with a higher proportion in women. After adjustments, the odds of BSP was lower across lower eGFR in SCREAM, ranging from 0.90 (0.81-0.99) for eGFR 75-89 mL/min/1.73m2 to 0.56 (0.46-0.68) for eGFR 30-44 mL/min/1.73m2 in women and from 0.72 (0.54-0.97) for eGFR of 60-74 to 0.42 (0.25-0.70) for eGFR 30-44 mL/min/1.73m2 in men. In Geisinger, odds were lower for eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73m2 in both sexes and the frequency of BSP use dropped over time. CONCLUSION: In the two healthcare systems, approximately half of the people diagnosed with osteoporosis received BSP. Practices of prescription in relation to eGFR varied, but those with lower eGFR were less likely to receive BSP.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078214

RESUMO

AIMS: Hyperkalaemia and hypokalaemia are common in heart failure and associated with worse outcomes. However, the optimal potassium range is unknown. We sought to determine the optimal range of potassium in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (< 40%) by exploring the relationship between baseline potassium level and short- and long-term outcomes using the Swedish Heart Failure Registry from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the association between baseline potassium level and all-cause mortality at 30 days, 12 months, and maximal follow-up, in uni- and multivariable stratified and restricted cubic spline Cox regressions. Of 13 015 patients, 93.3% had potassium 3.5-5.0 mmol/L, 3.7% had potassium <3.5 mmol/L, and 3.0% had potassium >5.0 mmol/L. Potassium <3.5 mmol/L and >5.0 mmol/L were more common with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and heart failure of longer duration and greater severity. The potassium level associated with the lowest hazard risk for mortality at 30 days, 12 months, and maximal follow-up was 4.2 mmol/L, and there was a steep increase in risk with both higher and lower potassium levels. In adjusted strata analyses, lower potassium was independently associated with all-cause mortality at 12 months and maximal follow-up, while higher potassium levels only increased risk at 30 days. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide registry, the relationship between potassium and mortality was U-shaped, with an optimal potassium value of 4.2 mmol/L. After multivariable adjustment, hypokalaemia was associated with increased long-term mortality but hyperkalaemia was associated with increased short-term mortality.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(2): 405-414, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorenal syndrome is a well known concept, bolstered by extensive investigations of CKD as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. However, data on whether cardiovascular disease increases long-term risk of ESKD are sparse. METHODS: We assessed the association of incident hospitalization with major cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, and stroke) with subsequent risk of ESKD among individuals enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study; the analysis included 9047 individuals without prevalent cardiovascular disease at their fourth study visit. Each relevant incident cardiovascular disease event was entered into multivariable Cox proportional hazard models as a time-varying exposure to estimate hazard ratios. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 17.5 years, there were 2598 cases of hospitalization with cardiovascular disease (heart failure, n=1269; atrial fibrillation, n=1337; coronary heart disease, n=696; and stroke, n=559) and 210 cases of incident ESKD. The incidence of major cardiovascular disease was associated with increased risk of ESKD, with the highest risk for heart failure (hazard ratio, 11.40; 95% confidence interval, 8.38 to 15.50), followed by coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, and stroke. When we analyzed heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction separately, the risk was nominally higher for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: Major incident cardiovascular disease events were associated with ESKD, independent of kidney risk factors. In particular, heart failure showed a very strong association with ESKD. Our findings highlight the importance of monitoring and managing kidney disease in patients with cardiovascular disease. The potentially distinct contribution to ESKD of heart failure with preserved versus reduced ejection fraction deserves future investigation.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999317

RESUMO

AIMS: Trial evidence indicates that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) may reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes and myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to expand this observation to routine care settings. METHODS: Prospective observational study including all patients with diabetes surviving an MI and registered in the nationwide SWEDEHEART registry during 2010-2017. Multivariable Cox regression analyses was used to estimate the association between GLP-1 RAs use and the study outcome, which was a composite of stroke, heart failure, reinfarction or cardiovascular death. Covariates included demographics, comorbidities, presentation at admission and use of secondary cardiovascular prevention therapies. RESULTS: Total 17,868 patients with diabetes were discharged alive after a first event of MI. Their median age was 71 years, 36% were women and their median eGFR was 75 ml/min/1.73m2. Of those, 365 (2%) were using GLP-1 RAs. During median 3 years of follow-up, 7005 patients experienced the primary composite outcome. Compared to standard of diabetes care, use of GLP-1 RAs was associated with a lower event risk (adjusted HR 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56-0.92), mainly attributed to a lower rate of reinfarction and stroke. Results were similar after propensity score matching or when compared to users of sulfonylurea. There was no suggestion of heterogeneity across subgroups of age, sex, chronic kidney disease and STEMI. CONCLUSIONS: GLP-1 RAs use, compared to standard of diabetes care, was associated with lower risk for major cardiovascular events in healthcare-managed survivors of an MI.

5.
Bone ; 133: 115242, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major fractures (MF) are common in dialysis patients. We investigated incidence, predictors and clinical outcomes associated with first MF occurring after initiation of dialysis (MFfirst). METHODS: In Swedish Renal Registry of 9714 incident (2005-2016) dialysis patients (age 68 years, 67% men), we identified all MFfirst in hip, spine, humerus and forearm. Using flexible parametric hazard models and Fine-Gray analysis, we estimated incidence, mortality rates and predictors of MFfirst, and, in time-dependent analysis, risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality following MFfirst. RESULTS: During median follow-up of 2.2 years, the crude incidence rate of MFfirst (n = 835) was 23.7/1000 patient-years and that of hip fractures (n = 470) 13.3/1000 patient-years. The multivariate-adjusted fracture incidence rates increased gradually after dialysis initiation and were 47% higher among women. Female sex, higher age, comorbidity, and previous history of MF (MFprevious) were associated with increased risk for MFfirst, whereas peritoneal dialysis as compared to hemodialysis was associated with decreased risk. The adjusted fracture incidence rate of MFfirst during the first 90 days following dialysis initiation was higher in patients with MFprevious than in those without MFprevious. MFfirst independently predicted increased all-cause (sub-distribution hazard ratio, SHR, 1.67(95%CI 1.47-1.91)) and CVD (SHR 1.49 (95%CI 1.22-1.84)) mortality. Adjusted mortality rate following hip fractures was higher than for other types of MF. Spline curves showed that mortality following MFfirst was highest during the first 6 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: MF are common and associated with increased mortality in incident dialysis patients.

6.
Ups J Med Sci ; 125(1): 37-43, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805809

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a leading risk factor for end-stage renal disease and is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. It is possible that novel markers portraying the pathophysiological underpinning processes may be useful.Aim: To investigate the associations between 80 circulating proteins, measured by a proximity extension assay, and prevalent DKD and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in type 2 diabetes.Methods: We randomly divided individuals with type 2 diabetes from three cohorts into a two-thirds discovery and one-third replication set (total n = 813, of whom 231 had DKD defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mg/mL/1.73 m2 and/or urinary albumin-creatinine ratio ≥3 g/mol). Proteins associated with DKD were also assessed as predictors for incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in persons with DKD at baseline.Results: Four proteins were positively associated with DKD in models adjusted for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, glucose control, and diabetes medication: kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation increment, 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-2.14); growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15, OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16-1.69); myoglobin (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.30-1.91), and matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP-10, OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.17-1.74). In patients with DKD, GDF-15 was significantly associated with increased risk of MACE after adjustments for baseline age, sex, microalbuminuria, and kidney function and (59 MACE events during 7 years follow-up, hazard ratio per standard deviation increase 1.43 [95% CI 1.03-1.98]) but not after further adjustments for cardiovascular risk factors.Conclusion: Our proteomics approach confirms and extends previous associations of higher circulating levels of GDF-15 with both micro- and macrovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our data encourage additional studies evaluating the clinical utility of our findings.

7.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 75(3): 361-372, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515137

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Clinical practice guidelines for dietary intake in hemodialysis focus on individual nutrients. Little is known about associations of dietary patterns with survival. We evaluated the associations of dietary patterns with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among adults treated by hemodialysis. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 8,110 of 9,757 consecutive adults on hemodialysis (January 2014 to June 2017) treated in a multinational private dialysis network and with analyzable dietary data. EXPOSURES: Data-driven dietary patterns based on the GA2LEN food frequency questionnaire. Participants received a score for each identified pattern, with higher scores indicating closer resemblance of their diet to the identified pattern. Quartiles of standardized pattern scores were used as primary exposures. OUTCOMES: Cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Principal components analysis with varimax rotation to identify common dietary patterns. Adjusted proportional hazards regression analyses with country as a random effect to estimate the associations between dietary pattern scores and mortality. Associations were expressed as adjusted HRs with 95% CIs, using the lowest quartile score as reference. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 2.7 years (18,666 person-years), there were 2,087 deaths (958 cardiovascular). 2 dietary patterns, "fruit and vegetable" and "Western," were identified. For the fruit and vegetable dietary pattern score, adjusted HRs, in ascending quartiles, were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.76-1.15), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.66-1.06), and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.69-1.21) for cardiovascular mortality and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.83-1.09), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.71-0.99), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.72-1.05) for all-cause mortality. For the Western dietary pattern score, the corresponding estimates were 1.10 (95% CI, 0.90-1.35), 1.11 (95% CI, 0.87-1.41), and 1.09 (95% CI, 0.80-1.49) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.88-1.16), 1.00 (95% CI, 0.85-1.18), and 1.14 (95% CI, 0.93-1.41) for all-cause mortality. LIMITATIONS: Self-reported food frequency questionnaire, data-driven approach. CONCLUSIONS: These findings did not confirm an association between mortality among patients receiving long-term hemodialysis and the extent to which dietary patterns were either high in fruit and vegetables or consistent with a Western diet.

8.
Kidney Int ; 97(1): 42-61, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706619

RESUMO

Potassium disorders are common in patients with kidney disease, particularly in patients with tubular disorders and low glomerular filtration rate. A multidisciplinary group of researchers and clinicians met in October 2018 to identify evidence and address controversies in potassium management. The issues discussed encompassed our latest understanding of the regulation of tubular potassium excretion in health and disease; the relationship of potassium intake to cardiovascular and kidney outcomes, with increasing evidence showing beneficial associations with plant-based diet and data to suggest a paradigm shift from the idea of dietary restriction toward fostering patterns of eating that are associated with better outcomes; the paucity of data on the effect of dietary modification in restoring abnormal serum potassium to the normal range; a novel diagnostic algorithm for hypokalemia that takes into account the ascendency of the clinical context in determining cause, aligning the educational strategy with a practical approach to diagnosis; and therapeutic approaches in managing hyperkalemia when chronic and in the emergency or hospital ward. In sum, we provide here our conference deliberations on potassium homeostasis in health and disease, guidance for evaluation and management of dyskalemias in the context of kidney diseases, and research priorities in each of the above areas.

9.
Coron Artery Dis ; 31(1): 49-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the transition from bare-metal stents (BMS) to newer generation drug-eluting stents (n-DES) in clinical practice may have reduced the risk also in patients with kidney dysfunction. METHODS: Observational study in the national SWEDEHEART registry, that compared the 1-year risk of in-stent restenosis (RS) and stent thrombosis (ST) in all percutaneous coronary intervention treated patients(n = 92 994) during 2007-2013. RESULTS: N-DES patients were younger than BMS, but had more often diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, previous revascularization and were more often treated with potent platelet inhibition. N-DES versus BMS, was associated with lower 1-year risk of RS in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 with a cumulative probability of 2.1% versus 5.3%, adjusted hazard ratio 0.30, 95% CI (0.27-0.34) and with eGFR 30-60: 3.0% versus 4.9%; hazard ratio 0.46 (0.36-0.60) but not in patients with eGFR <30: 8.1% versus 6.0%; hazard ratio 1.32 (0.71-2.45) (pinteraction = 0.009) as well as lower risk of ST for eGFR >60 and eGFR 30-60: 0.5% versus 0.9%; hazard ratio 0.52 (0.40-0.68) and 0.6% versus 1.3%; hazard ratio 0.54 (0.54-0.72) but not for eGFR <30; 2.1% versus 1.1%; hazard ratio 1.49 (0.56-3.98) (pinteraction = 0.027). CONCLUSION: N-DES is associated with lower 1-year risk of in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis in patients with normal or moderately reduced kidney function but not in patients with severe kidney dysfunction, where stenting is associated with worse outcomes regardless of stent type.

10.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 6: 2054358119892372, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839975

RESUMO

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are known to increase the risk of stroke. Objectives: We set out to examine the risk of stroke by kidney function and albuminuria in patients with and without AF. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Settings: Ontario, Canada. Participants: A total of 736 666 individuals (>40 years) from 2002 to 2015. Measurements: New-onset AF, albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Methods: A total of 39 120 matched patients were examined for the risk of ischemic, hemorrhagic, or any stroke event, accounting for the competing risk of all-cause mortality. Interaction terms for combinations of ACR/eGFR and the outcome of stroke with and without AF were examined. Results: In a total of 4086 (5.2%) strokes (86% ischemic), the presence of AF was associated with a 2-fold higher risk for any stroke event and its subtypes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Across eGFR levels, the risk of stroke was 2-fold higher with the presence of AF except for low levels of eGFR (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99-1.92). Similarly across ACR levels, the risk of stroke was 2-fold higher except for high levels of albuminuria (ACR > 30 mg/g, HR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.31-1.99). The adjusted risk of stroke with AF differed by combinations of ACR and eGFR categories (interaction P value = .04) compared with those without AF. Both stroke types were more common in patients with AF, and ischemic stroke rates differed significantly by eGFR and ACR categories. Limitations: Medication information was not included. Conclusions: Patients with CKD and AF are at a high risk of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic strokes; the risk is highest with lower eGFR and higher ACR and differs based on eGFR and the degree of ACR.

12.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(2): 250-260, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Higher fruit and vegetable intake is associated with lower cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population. It is unclear whether this association occurs in patients on hemodialysis, in whom high fruit and vegetable intake is generally discouraged because of a potential risk of hyperkalemia. We aimed to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake and mortality in hemodialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Fruit and vegetable intake was ascertained by the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network food frequency questionnaire within the Dietary Intake, Death and Hospitalization in Adults with ESKD Treated with Hemodialysis study, a multinational cohort study of 9757 adults on hemodialysis, of whom 8078 (83%) had analyzable dietary data. Adjusted Cox regression analyses clustered by country were conducted to evaluate the association between tertiles of fruit and vegetable intake with all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality. Estimates were calculated as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: During a median follow up of 2.7 years (18,586 person-years), there were 2082 deaths (954 cardiovascular). The median (interquartile range) number of servings of fruit and vegetables was 8 (4-14) per week; only 4% of the study population consumed at least four servings per day as recommended in the general population. Compared with the lowest tertile of servings per week (0-5.5, median 2), the adjusted hazard ratios for the middle (5.6-10, median 8) and highest (>10, median 17) tertiles were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.81 to 1.00) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.91) for all-cause mortality, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.02) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.91) for noncardiovascular mortality and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.81 to 1.11) and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.70 to 1.00) for cardiovascular mortality, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Fruit and vegetable intake in the hemodialysis population is low and a higher consumption is associated with lower all-cause and noncardiovascular death.

13.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(11): 1616-1625, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: More men than women undergo kidney replacement therapy (KRT) despite a larger number of women being affected by CKD. The aim of this multinational European study was to explore whether there might be historic and geographic trends in sex-specific incidence and prevalence of various KRT modalities. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We assessed sex-specific differences in KRT incidence and prevalence using data from nine countries reporting to the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry for at least 40 years, during the period 1965-2015. Sex distribution data were compared with the European general population (Eurostat). Statistical methodology included basic descriptive statistics, incidence and prevalence calculations per million population (pmp), as well as their male-to-female ratios. Analyses were stratified by age group and diabetic status. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 230,378 patients receiving KRT (38% women). For all KRT modalities, the incidence and prevalence rates were consistently higher in men than women. For example, the KRT incidence increased from 8 pmp in 1965-1974 to 98 pmp in 2005-2015 in women, whereas it rose from 12 to 173 pmp in men during the same period. Male-to-female ratios, calculated for incident and prevalent KRT patients, increased with age (range 1.2-2.4), showing consistency over decades and for individual countries, despite marked changes in primary kidney disease (diabetes more prevalent than glomerulonephritis in recent decades). The proportion of kidney transplants decreased less with age in incident and prevalent men compared with women on KRT. Stratified analysis of patients who were diabetic versus nondiabetic revealed that the male-to-female ratio was markedly higher for kidney transplantation in patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Since the beginning of KRT programs reporting to the ERA-EDTA Registry since the 1960s, fewer women than men have received KRT. The relative difference between men and women initiating and undergoing KRT has remained consistent over the last five decades and in all studied countries.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence on whether arteriovenous access (AVA) placement may protect renal function and hence should be considered in the timing of access placement. This study aimed to investigate the association between AVA placement and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline as compared with the placement of a peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDC) at a similar time point. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 744 pre-dialysis patients in Stockholm, Sweden, who underwent surgery for AVA or PDC between 2006 and 2012. Data on comorbidity, medication and laboratory measures were collected 100 days before and after surgery. Patients were followed until dialysis start, death or 100 days, whichever came first. The primary outcome was difference in eGFR decline after AVA surgery compared with PDC. Decline in eGFR was estimated through linear mixed models with random intercept and slope, before and after surgery. RESULTS: There were 435 AVA and 309 PDC patients. The AVA patients had higher eGFR (8.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 versus 7.0 mL/min/1.73 m2) and less rapid eGFR decline before surgery (-5.6 mL/min/1.73 m2/year compared with -6.7 mL/min/1.73 m2/year for PDC). We found no difference in eGFR decline after surgery in AVA patients compared with PDC patients [AVA progressed 0.26 (95% confidence interval -0.88 to 0.35) mL/min/1.73 m2/year faster after surgery compared with PDC]. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in eGFR decline after placement of an AVA compared with a PDC. Both forms of access were associated with reduced eGFR decline in our population. The need for dialysis remains the main determinant for timing of access surgery.

15.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(9): e005879, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients on dialysis who have an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have an exceedingly poor prognosis, but it is unknown to what extent guideline-recommended interventions and treatments are used and to which benefit. We aimed to assess temporal changes in the use of treatments and survival rates in dialysis patients with an AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: All consecutive AMI cases from 1996 to 2013 enrolled in the SWEDEHEART registry (Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies) were included. The Swedish Renal Registry identified all chronic dialysis cases. Multivariable adjusted standardized 1-year mortality was estimated. An age-sex-calendar year-matched dialysis background population from the Swedish Renal Registry was used to obtain a standardized incidence ratio. All analyses were performed in 2-year blocks, where each individual could be included several times but in different time blocks; hence the term AMI cases and not patients is used. Of 289 699 cases with AMI, 1398 (0.5%) were on dialysis (73.6% hemodialysis; 26.4% peritoneal dialysis). Among dialysis cases, 29.4% were women, and 21.0% had ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Through 1996 to 2013, dialysis cases had similar age (median, 70 years [interquartile range, 62-77]; P for trend, 0.14), but the proportion with diabetes mellitus increased (36.0%-55.3%; P for trend, 0.005). Dialysis cases admitted with AMI were treated more invasively and received more discharge medications in the later years. From 1995 to 2013, in-hospital and 1-year mortality decreased from 25.4% to 9.4% and from 59.6% to 41.2%, respectively. The standardized in-hospital and 1-year mortality decreased from 25.7% to 9.4% and from 54.6% to 41.2%. Yet, compared with the matched dialysis population, the odds of death remained as high in 2012/2013 as in 1996/1997 (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.62-2.58 and odds ratio, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.52-2.60, respectively; P for trend, 0.34). CONCLUSIONS: Over the last 18 years, more patients on dialysis with AMI have been treated with evidence-based therapies. Overall, dialysis cases with AMI have an improved in-hospital and 1-year survival in the more recent years compared with earlier years. However, this appears largely to be because of improved survival in the general dialysis population.

16.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(10): 1575-1583, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558270

RESUMO

There are no studies of long-term worsening renal function (WRF) in heart failure (HF) with different ejection fraction (EF) groups. The aim was to compare incidence of, associations with and prognostic impact of WRF in HF with preserved (HFpEF), mid-range (HFmrEF), and reduced EF (HFrEF). The Swedish Heart Failure Registry (SwedeHF) was merged with the Stockholm Creatinine Measurement (SCREAM) registry 2006 to 2010. The associations between EF and WRF (≥25% decrease in eGFR) and the associations between WRF25-49% and WRF≥50% within year one and subsequent all-cause mortality were all assessed with multiadjusted Cox regression. Of 7,154 patients, 41.6% of HFpEF versus 34.5% and 35.4% of HFmrEF and HFrEF patients developed WRF≥25% during year one. The WRF risk was higher in HFpEF (reference) than in HFmrEF, hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.890 (0.794 to 0.997) and HFrEF 0.870 (0.784 to 0.965). WRF within year one was strongly associated with subsequent long-term mortality in all EF groups, yielding adjusted HRs with WRF25-49% and WRF≥50%: HFpEF, 1.101 (0.913 to 1.328) and 2.096 (1.652 to 2.659), in HFmrEF 1.654 (1.353 to 2.022) and 2.375 (1.807 to 3.122) and in HFrEF 1.212 (1.060 to 1.386) and 1.694 (1.412 to 2.033). In conclusion, the long-term WRF risk was high in HF and highest in HFpEF. WRF was strongly associated with mortality in all EF groups, although in HFpEF only with the most severe WRF.

17.
Am Heart J ; 216: 20-29, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent, low-grade inflammation likely participates in the pathophysiology of both atherosclerosis and kidney disease. Although high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) predicts future cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), it is unknown whether hsCRP levels predict adverse renal outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We studied all myocardial infarction (MI) survivors undergoing hsCRP testing >30 days after their MI during routine health care in Stockholm, Sweden (2006-2011), with available information on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). HsCRP tests measured during hospitalization/emergency room visits, followed by antibiotics or indicative of acute illness, were excluded, together with patients with ongoing/recent cancer, chronic infections, or immunosuppression. Inflammation was defined over a 3-month baseline window. Study outcomes were CKD progression (composite of doubling plasma creatinine, renal replacement therapy, or renal death) and acute kidney injury (AKI, acute creatinine peaks according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria). Multivariable Cox regression was used to adjust for age, sex, eGFR, hemoglobin, time since MI, comorbidities, undertaken procedures, and medications. RESULTS: A total of 12,905 patients (62% men, mean age 73 years and 3 years since MI) were included, of whom 35% had an eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean (SD) hsCRP was 3.0 (4.4) mg/L. Baseline hsCRP levels were increasingly higher across lower eGFR categories. During a median follow-up of 3.2 years, 1,019 CKD progressions and 1,481 AKI events were recorded. Patients with hsCRP ≥2 mg/L were at higher risk of both CKD progression (adjusted hazard ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.21-1.66) and AKI (1.29; 1.13-1.47) compared to those with hsCRP <2 mg/L. This association persisted across single CKD severity stages and after further hsCRP categorization into 4 groups (≤1, 1-3, 3-10, >10 mg/L). Results were robust across subgroups of patients and after exclusion of events occurring during the first 6-12 months. CONCLUSIONS: In post-MI patients undergoing routine health care, elevated hsCRP was associated with subsequent risk of AKI and progression of CKD, irrespective of baseline kidney function.

18.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(9): 1336-1345, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data from observational and interventional studies provide discordant results regarding the relationship between creatinine increase after renin-angiotensin system inhibition (RASi) and adverse outcomes. We compared health outcomes among patients with different categories of increase in creatinine upon initiation of RASi in a large population-based cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the Stockholm CREAtinine Measurements database, which contains complete information on diagnoses, medication dispensation claims, and laboratory test results for all Stockholm citizens accessing health care. Included were 31,951 adults initiating RASi during 2007-2011 with available pre- and postinitiation creatinine monitoring. Multivariable Cox regression was used to compare mortality, cardiovascular and ESKD events among individuals with different ranges of creatinine increases within 2 months after starting treatment. RESULTS: In a median follow-up of 3.5 years, acute increases in creatinine were associated with mortality (3202 events) in a graded manner: compared with creatinine increases <10%, a 10%-19% increase showed an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05 to 1.27); HR 1.22 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.40) for 20%-29%; HR 1.55 (95% CI, 1.36 to 1.77) for ≥30%. Similar graded associations were present for heart failure (2275 events, P<0.001) and ESKD (52 events; P<0.001), and, less consistently, myocardial infarction (842 events, P=0.25). Results were robust across subgroups, among continuing users, when patients with decreases in creatinine were excluded from the reference group, and after accounting for death as a competing risk. CONCLUSIONS: Among real-world monitored adults, increases in creatinine (>10%) after initiation of RASi are associated with worse health outcomes. These results do not address the issue of discontinuation of RASi when plasma creatinine increases but do suggest that patients with increases in creatinine have higher subsequent risk of cardiovascular and kidney outcomes.

19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(9): 1746-1755, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decline in eGFR is a biologically plausible surrogate end point for the progression of CKD in clinical trials. However, it must first be tested to ensure strong associations with clinical outcomes in diverse populations, including patients with higher eGFR. METHODS: To investigate the association between 1-, 2-, and 3-year changes in eGFR (slope) with clinical outcomes over the long term, we conducted a random effects meta-analysis of 3,758,551 participants with baseline eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and 122,664 participants with eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 from 14 cohorts followed for an average of 4.2 years. RESULTS: Slower eGFR decline by 0.75 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year over 2 years was associated with lower risk of ESKD in participants with baseline eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.72) and eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (0.71; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.74). The relationship was stronger with 3-year slope. For a rapidly progressing population with predicted 5-year risk of ESKD of 8.3%, an intervention that reduced eGFR decline by 0.75 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year over 2 years would reduce the ESKD risk by 1.6%. For a hypothetical low-risk population with a predicted 5-year ESKD risk of 0.58%, the same intervention would reduce the risk by only 0.13%. CONCLUSIONS: Slower decline in eGFR was associated with lower risk of subsequent ESKD, even in participants with eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, but those with the highest risk would be expected to benefit the most.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361316

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People undergoing maintenance dialysis are at high risk for fractures, but less is known about fracture incidence and associated outcomes in earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We conducted an observational analysis from the Stockholm Creatinine Measurements project, a Swedish health care utilization cohort during 2006-11. We identified all adults with confirmed CKD Stages 3-5 and no documented history of fractures and extracted information on comorbid history, ongoing medication, cardiovascular events and death. We studied incidence rates of fractures (overall and by location), with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as time-dependent exposure. We then studied hazard ratios [HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for the events of death and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) using Cox regression with fracture as time-varying exposure. RESULTS: We identified 68 764 individuals with confirmed CKD (mean age 79 years, 56% women). During a median follow-up of 2.7 years, 9219 fractures occurred, of which 3105 were hip fractures. A more severe CKD stage was associated with a higher risk of fractures, particularly hip fractures: compared with CKD Stage 3a, the adjusted HR was 1.10 (95% CI 1.02-1.19), 1.32 (1.17-1.49) and 2.47 (1.94-3.15) for CKD Stage 3b, 4 and 5, respectively. Spline curves suggested a linear association with fracture risk with an eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Compared with non-fracture periods, incident fracture was associated with a 4-fold increased mortality within 90 days [HR 4.21 (95% CI 3.95-4.49)]. The risk remained elevated beyond 90 days [HR 1.47 (95% CI 1.40-1.54)] and was stronger after hip fractures. Post-fracture MACE risk was also highest in the first 90 days [HR 4.02 (95% CI 3.73-4.33)], particularly after hip fractures, and persisted beyond 90 days [HR 1.20 (95% CI 1.10-1.30)]. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the commonness of fractures and the increased risk for subsequent adverse outcomes in CKD patients. These results may inform clinical decisions regarding post-fracture clinical surveillance and fracture prevention strategies.

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