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1.
Am Surg ; : 31348221126963, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few large investigations have addressed the prevalence of COVID-19 infection among trauma patients and impact on providers. The purpose of this study was to quantify the prevalence of COVID-19 infection among trauma patients by timing of diagnosis, assess nosocomial exposure risk, and evaluate the impact of COVID-19 positive status on morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Registry data from adults admitted 4/1/2020-10/31/2020 from 46 level I/II trauma centers were grouped by: timing of first positive status (Day 1, Day 2-6, or Day ≥ 7); overall Positive/Negative status; or Unknown if test results were unavailable. Groups were compared on outcomes (Trauma Quality Improvement Program complications) and mortality using univariate analysis and adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 28 904 patients (60.7% male, mean age: 56.4, mean injury severity score: 10.5). Of 13 274 (46%) patients with known COVID-19 status, 266 (2%) were Positive Day 1, 119 (1%) Days 2-6, 33 (.2%) Day ≥ 7, and 12 856 (97%) tested Negative. COVID-19 Positive patients had significantly worse outcomes compared to Negative; unadjusted comparisons showed longer hospital length of stay (10.98 vs 7.47;P < .05), higher rates of intensive care unit (57.7% vs 45.7%; P < .05) and ventilation use (22.5% vs 16.9%; P < .05). Adjusted comparisons showed higher rates of acute respiratory distress syndrome (1.7% vs .4%; P < .05) and death (8.1% vs 3.4%; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter study conducted during the early pandemic period revealed few trauma patients tested COVID-19 positive, suggesting relatively low exposure risk to care providers. COVID-19 positive status was associated with significantly higher mortality and specific morbidity. Further analysis is needed with consideration for care guidelines specific to COVID-19 positive trauma patients as the pandemic continues.

2.
J Cannabis Res ; 4(1): 29, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between drug use and traumatic injury is well documented, yet only a small proportion of patients are biochemically tested for cannabis and other substances. The study objective was to determine whether patient self-report can be used as a proxy for biochemical drug testing following traumatic injury. METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis that included 320 patients admitted to four level I trauma centers in Colorado and Texas, primarily involved in motor vehicle crash (89%). If performed, biochemical testing was collected via urine toxicology screen ("tox screen") for cannabis, amphetamines, barbiturates, cocaine, opiates, PCP, and benzodiazepines. All patients were screened for self-reported current drug use, which was evaluated for any drug and specifically for cannabis use. Analyses used to compare results of self-reported drug use and tox screen included sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values, and percent agreement. RESULTS: Among 320 patients, 23% (n = 75) self-reported drug use; cannabis was the most frequently reported drug (n = 63). A tox screen was performed in 59% of patients (n = 190); the proportion of patients who had a tox screen was similar for those self-reporting drug use (60.0%) to those who denied using drugs (59.2%), p = 0.90. Among patients who had a tox screen performed, 18% (n = 35) tested positive for any drug, 12% (n = 22) tested positive for THC, and 7% (n = 13) tested positive for opiates. The percent agreement was 80% for any drug and 81% for cannabis. The specificity was 84-85%, indicating a high likelihood that a patient will not have a positive tox screen if they do not report using drugs. Negative predictive values were 90-95%, indicating a negative self-report correctly identified nearly all patients testing negative on tox screen. Sensitivity was only 60% and positive predictive values were 30-47% for cannabis and drugs, respectively. CONCLUSION: These findings may negate the need for biochemical drug testing in this population, particularly as a "rule out" based on self-reporting. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and should address risk of selection bias.

3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 93(2): 265-272, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Police transport (PT) of penetrating trauma patients in urban locations has become routine in certain metropolitan areas; however, whether it results in improved outcomes over prehospital Advanced life support (ALS) transport has not been determined in a multicenter study. We hypothesized that PT would not result in improved outcomes. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study of adults (18+ years) with penetrating trauma to the torso and/or proximal extremity presenting at 25 urban trauma centers. Police transport and ALS patients were allocated via nearest neighbor, propensity matching. Transport mode also examined by Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 1,618 total patients, 294 (18.2%) had PT and 1,324 (81.8%) were by ALS. After matching, 588 (294/cohort) remained. The patients were primarily Black (n = 497, 84.5%), males (n = 525, 89.3%, injured by gunshot wound (n = 494, 84.0%) with 34.5% (n = 203) having Injury Severity Score of 16 or higher. Overall mortality by propensity matching was not different between cohorts (15.6% ALS vs. 15.0% PT, p = 0.82). In severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score ≥16), mortality did not differ between PT and ALS transport (38.8% vs. 36.0%, respectively; p = 0.68). Cox regression analysis controlled for relevant factors revealed no association with a mortality benefit in patients transported by ALS. CONCLUSION: Police transport of penetrating trauma patients in urban locations results in similar outcomes compared with ALS. Immediate transport to definitive trauma care should be emphasized in this patient population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiologic; Level III.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Transporte de Pacientes , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Adulto , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Polícia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transporte de Pacientes/métodos , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia
4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(2): 355-361, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prehospital identification of the injured patient likely to require emergent care remains a challenge. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) has been used in the prehospital setting to monitor respiratory physiology and confirmation of endotracheal tube placement. Low levels of ETCO2 have been demonstrated to correlate with injury severity and mortality in a number of in-hospital studies. We hypothesized that prehospital ETCO2 values would be predictive of mortality and need for massive transfusion (MT) in intubated patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter trial with 24 participating centers. Prehospital, emergency department, and hospital values were collected. Receiver operating characteristic curves were created and compared. Massive transfusion defined as >10 U of blood in 6 hours or death in 6 hours with at least 1 U of blood transfused. RESULTS: A total of 1,324 patients were enrolled. ETCO2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.67; confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.71) was better in predicting mortality than shock index (SI) (AUROC, 0.55; CI, 0.50-0.60) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (AUROC, 0.58; CI, 0.53-0.62) (p < 0.0005). Prehospital lowest ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.69; CI, 0.64-0.75), SBP (AUROC, 0.75; CI, 0.70-0.81), and SI (AUROC, 0.74; CI, 0.68-0.79) were all predictive of MT. Analysis of patients with normotension demonstrated lowest prehospital ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.66; CI, 0.61-0.71), which was more predictive of mortality than SBP (AUROC, 0.52; CI, 0.47-0.58) or SI (AUROC, 0.56; CI, 0.50-0.62) (p < 0.001). Lowest prehospital ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.75; CI, 0.65-0.84), SBP (AUROC, 0.63; CI, 0.54-0.74), and SI (AUROC, 0.64; CI, 0.54-0.75) were predictive of MT in normotensive patients. ETCO2 cutoff for MT was 26 mm Hg. The positive predictive value was 16.1%, and negative predictive value was high at 98.1%. CONCLUSION: Prehospital ETCO2 is predictive of mortality and MT. ETCO2 outperformed traditional measures such as SBP and SI in the prediction of mortality. ETCO2 may outperform traditional measures in predicting need for transfusion in occult shock. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic test, level III.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Estados Unidos , Sinais Vitais
5.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(1): 88-92, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma teams are often faced with patients on antithrombotic (AT) drugs, which is challenging when bleeding occurs. We sought to compare the effects of different AT medications on head injury severity and hypothesized that AT reversal would not improve mortality in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. METHODS: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored prospective, multicentered, observational study of 15 trauma centers was performed. Patient demographics, injury burden, comorbidities, AT agents, and reversal attempts were collected. Outcomes of interest were head injury severity and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Analysis was performed on 2,793 patients. The majority of patients were on aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], 46.1%). Patients on a platelet chemoreceptor blocker (P2Y12) had the highest mean Injury Severity Score (9.1 ± 8.1). Patients taking P2Y12 inhibitors ± ASA, and ASA-warfarin had the highest head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) mean (1.2 ± 1.6). On risk-adjusted analysis, warfarin-ASA was associated with a higher head AIS (odds ratio [OR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-4.42) after controlling for Injury Severity Score, Charlson Comorbidity Index, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and initial systolic blood pressure. Among patients with severe TBI (head AIS score, ≥3) on antiplatelet therapy, reversal with desmopressin (DDAVP) and/or platelet transfusion did not improve survival (82.9% reversal vs. 90.4% none, p = 0.30). In severe TBI patients taking Xa inhibitors who received prothrombin complex concentrate, survival was not improved (84.6% reversal vs. 84.6% none, p = 0.68). With risk adjustment as described previously, mortality was not improved with reversal attempts (antiplatelet agents: OR 0.83; 85% CI, 0.12-5.9 [p = 0.85]; Xa inhibitors: OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.12-4.64; p = 0.77). CONCLUSION: Reversal attempts appear to confer no mortality benefit in severe TBI patients on antiplatelet agents or Xa inhibitors. Combination therapy was associated with severity of head injury among patients taking preinjury AT therapy, with ASA-warfarin possessing the greatest risk. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level II.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos , Hemorragia , Transfusão de Plaquetas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/classificação , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Hemorragia/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
6.
Urology ; 157: 246-252, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that undergoing nephrectomy after high-grade renal trauma is associated with higher mortality rates. METHODS: We gathered data from 21 Level-1 trauma centers through the Multi-institutional Genito-Urinary Trauma Study. Patients with high-grade renal trauma were included. We assessed the association between nephrectomy and mortality in all patients and in subgroups of patients after excluding those who died within 24 hours of hospital arrival and those with GCS≤8. We controlled for age, injury severity score (ISS), shock (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). RESULTS: A total of 1181 high-grade renal trauma patients were included. Median age was 31 and trauma mechanism was blunt in 78%. Injuries were graded as III, IV, and V in 55%, 34%, and 11%, respectively. There were 96 (8%) mortalities and 129 (11%) nephrectomies. Mortality was higher in the nephrectomy group (21.7% vs 6.5%, P <.001). Those who died were older, had higher ISS, lower GCS, and higher rates of shock. After adjusting for patient and injury characteristics nephrectomy was still associated with higher risk of death (RR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.26-2.55). CONCLUSION: Nephrectomy was associated with higher mortality in the acute trauma setting even when controlling for shock, overall injury severity, and head injury. These results may have implications in decision making in acute trauma management for patients not in extremis from renal hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Rim/lesões , Rim/cirurgia , Nefrectomia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Trauma Nurs ; 28(4): 219-227, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of patient satisfaction is central to understanding and improving system performance with the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) national standard survey. However, no large, multi-institutional study exists, which examines the role of nurses in trauma patient satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of nurses on trauma patient satisfaction. METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive study of Level I-IV trauma centers in a multistate hospital system evaluated patients 18 years and older admitted with at least an overnight stay. Data were obtained electronically for patients discharged in 2018-2019 who returned an HCAHPS survey. Surveys were linked by an honest broker to demographic and injury data from the trauma registry, and then anonymized prior to analysis. Patients were categorized as "trauma" per the National Trauma Data Standard (NTDS) definition or as "medical" or "surgical" per the HCAHPS definition. RESULTS: Of 112,283 surveys from 89 trauma centers, "trauma" patients (n = 5,126) comprised 4.6%, "surgical" 39.0% (n = 43,763), and "medical" 56.5% (n = 63,394). Nurses had an overwhelming impact on "trauma" patient satisfaction, accounting for 63.9% (p < .001) of the variation (adjusted R2) in the overall score awarded the institution-larger than for "surgery" (59.6%; p < .001) or "medical" (58.4%; p < .001) patients. The most important individual domain contributor to the overall rating of a facility was "nursing communication." CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of the effect of trauma nurses was noteworthy, with their communication ability being the single biggest driver of institutional ratings. These data provide insight for future performance benchmark development and emphasize the critical impact of trauma nurses on the trauma patient experience.


Assuntos
Satisfação do Paciente , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Traumatologia
8.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 6(1): e000655, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in nationwide social distancing and shelter-in-place orders meant to curb transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The effect of the pandemic on injury patterns has not been well described in the USA. The study objective is to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the distribution and determinants of traumatic injuries. METHODS: This retrospective multi-institutional cohort study included all hospital admissions for acute traumatic injury at six community level I trauma centers. Descriptive statistics were used to compare injury causes, diagnoses and procedures over two similar time periods: prepandemic (March 11-June 30, 2019) and pandemic (March 11-June 30, 2020). RESULTS: There were 7308 trauma patients included: 3862 (53%) prepandemic and 3446 (47%) during the pandemic. Cause of injury significantly differed by period (p<0.001). During the pandemic, there were decreases in motor vehicle crashes (from 17.0% to 14.0%, p<0.001), worksite injuries (from 5.2% to 4.1%, p=0.02), pedestrian injuries (from 3.0% to 2.2%, p=0.02) and recreational injuries (from 3.0% to 1.7%, p<0.001), while there were significant increases in assaults (6.9% to 8.5%, p=0.01), bicycle crashes (2.8% to 4.2%, p=0.001) and off-road vehicle injuries (1.8% to 3.0%, p<0.001). There was no change by study period in falls, motorcycle injuries, crush/strikes, firearm and self-inflicted injuries, and injuries associated with home-improvement projects. Injury diagnoses differed between time periods; during the pandemic, there were more injury diagnoses to the head (23.0% to 27.3%, p<0.001) and the knee/leg (11.7% to 14.9%, p<0.001). There were also increases in medical/surgical procedures (57.5% to 61.9%, p<0.001), administration of therapeutics/blood products (31.4% to 34.2%, p=0.01) and monitoring (11.0% to 12.9%, p=0.01). DISCUSSION: Causes of traumatic injury, diagnoses, and procedures were significantly changed by the pandemic. Trauma centers must adjust to meet the changing demands associated with altered injury patterns, as they were associated with increased use of hospital resources. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III (epidemiological).

9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 130-140, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prehospital procedures (PHP) by emergency medical services (EMS) are performed regularly in penetrating trauma patients despite previous studies demonstrating no benefit. We sought to examine the influence of PHPs on outcomes in penetrating trauma patients in urban locations where transport to trauma center is not prolonged. We hypothesized that patients without PHPs would have better outcomes than those undergoing PHP. METHODS: This was an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored, multicenter, prospective, observational trial of adults (18+ years) with penetrating trauma to the torso and/or proximal extremity presenting at 25 urban trauma centers. The impact of PHPs and transport mechanism on in-hospital mortality were examined. RESULTS: Of 2,284 patients included, 1,386 (60.7%) underwent PHP. The patients were primarily Black (n = 1,527, 66.9%) males (n = 1,986, 87.5%) injured by gunshot wound (n = 1,510, 66.0%) with 34.1% (n = 726) having New Injury Severity Score of ≥16. A total of 1,427 patients (62.5%) were transported by Advanced Life Support EMS, 17.2% (n = 392) by private vehicle, 13.7% (n = 312) by police, and 6.7% (n = 153) by Basic Life Support EMS. Of the PHP patients, 69.1% received PHP on scene, 59.9% received PHP in route, and 29.0% received PHP both on scene and in route. Initial scene vitals differed between groups, but initial emergency department vitals did not. Receipt of ≥1 PHP increased mortality odds (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.83; p = 0.04). Logistic regression showed increased mortality with each PHP, whether on scene or during transport. Subset analysis of specific PHP revealed that intubation (OR, 10.76; 95% CI, 4.02-28.78; p < 0.001), C-spine immobilization (OR, 5.80; 95% CI, 1.85-18.26; p < 0.01), and pleural decompression (OR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.33-10.28; p = 0.01) had the highest odds of mortality after adjusting for multiple variables. CONCLUSION: Prehospital procedures in penetrating trauma patients impart no survival advantage and may be harmful in urban settings, even when performed during transport. Therefore, PHP should be forgone in lieu of immediate transport to improve patient outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Adulto , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/terapia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Am Coll Surg ; 232(4): 656-663, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma and emergency surgery patients are unique with regard to the sudden and unexpected nature of their hospitalization and this can adversely affect patient satisfaction, but, to our knowledge, no large study exists examining this issue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the major factors that affect satisfaction scores in trauma and emergency surgery patients. STUDY DESIGN: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems, Hospital Version survey data from patients discharged in 2018-2019 from facilities in a national hospital system were obtained. Patients were categorized as trauma, emergency surgery, or direct admit surgery (elective surgery). Individual Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems, Hospital Version question scores were regressed on the score for "overall rating" to determine the primary, secondary, and tertiary satisfaction drivers. RESULTS: There were 186,779 patients from 168 hospitals included. As expected, the primary determinant of patient satisfaction was nursing communication for all groups. However, trauma and emergency surgery patients differed from elective surgery patients in that physician communication was the second most important factor in patient satisfaction, accounting for 12.0% (trauma) and 8.6% (emergency surgery) of the total variability in the overall rating beyond the variability explained by the primary driver. If physician communication received low ratings, it was unlikely that high scores in other metrics could compensate to bring the overall score above the 50th percentile. CONCLUSIONS: Acute care surgeons appear to play a uniquely important role in support of Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems, Hospital Version scores. These data emphasize the importance of physician communication, particularly when a prehospital physician-patient relationship does not exist. Future research should explore specific mechanisms by which physicians effectively communicate with patients.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel Profissional , Cirurgiões/organização & administração , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Idoso , Comunicação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Médico-Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
11.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 6(1): e000642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports indicate social distancing guidelines and other effects of the COVID-19 pandemic impacted trauma patient volumes and injury patterns. This report is the first analysis of a large trauma network describing the extent of these impacts. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient volumes, demographics, injury characteristics, and outcomes. METHODS: For this descriptive, multicenter study from a large, multistate hospital network, data were collected from the system-wide centralized trauma registry and retrospectively reviewed to retrieve patient information including volume, demographics, and outcomes. For comparison, patient data from January through May of 2020 and January through May of 2019 were extracted. RESULTS: A total of 12 395 trauma patients (56% men, 79% white, mean age 59 years) from 85 trauma centers were included. The first 5 months of 2020 revealed a substantial decrease in volume, which began in February and continued into June. Further analysis revealed an absolute decrease of 32.5% in patient volume in April 2020 compared with April 2019 (4997 from 7398; p<0.0001). Motor vehicle collisions decreased 49.7% (628 from 1249). There was a statistically significant increase in injury severity score (9.0 vs. 8.3; p<0.001). As a proportion of the total trauma population, blunt injuries decreased 3.1% (87.3 from 90.5) and penetrating injuries increased 2.7% (10.0 from 7.3; p<0.001). A significant increase was found in the proportion of patients who did not survive to discharge (3.6% vs. 2.8%; p=0.010; absolute decrease: 181 from 207). DISCUSSION: Early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with a 32.5% decrease in trauma patient volumes and altered injury patterns at 85 trauma centers in a multistate system. This preliminary observational study describes the initial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and warrants further investigation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II (therapeutic/care management).

12.
Urology ; 148: 287-291, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To find clinical or radiographic factors that are associated with angioembolization failure after high-grade renal trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients were selected from the Multi-institutional Genito-Urinary Trauma Study. Included were patients who initially received renal angioembolization after high-grade renal trauma (AAST grades III-V). This cohort was dichotomized into successful or failed angioembolization. Angioembolization was considered a failure if angioembolization was followed by repeat angiography and/or an exploratory laparotomy. RESULTS: A total of 67 patients underwent management initially with angioembolization, with failure in 18 (27%) patients. Those with failed angioembolization had a larger proportion ofgrade IV (72% vs 53%) and grade V (22% vs 12%) renal injuries. A total of 53 patients underwent renal angioembolization and had initial radiographic data for review, with failure in 13 cases. The failed renal angioembolization group had larger perirenal hematoma sizes on the initial trauma scan. CONCLUSION: Angioembolization after high-grade renal trauma failed in 27% of patients. Failed angioembolization was associated with higher injury grade and a larger perirenal hematoma. Likely these characteristics are associated with high-grade renal trauma that may be less amenable to successful treatment after a single renal angioembolization.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Rim/lesões , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/terapia , Adulto , Angiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Falha de Tratamento , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(6): 1023-1031, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence comparing stoma creation (STM) versus anastomosis after urgent or emergent colorectal resection is limited. This study examined outcomes after colorectal resection in emergency general surgery patients. METHODS: This was an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored prospective observational multicenter study of patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. Twenty-one centers enrolled patients for 11 months. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were recorded. χ, Mann-Whitney U test, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication/mortality. RESULTS: A total of 439 patients were enrolled (ANST, 184; STM, 255). The median (interquartile range) age was 62 (53-71) years, and the median Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 4 (1-6). The most common indication for surgery was diverticulitis (28%). Stoma group was older (64 vs. 58 years, p < 0.001), had a higher CCI, and were more likely to be immunosuppressed. Preoperatively, STM patients were more likely to be intubated (57 vs. 15, p < 0.001), on vasopressors (61 vs. 13, p < 0.001), have pneumoperitoneum (131 vs. 41, p < 0.001) or fecal contamination (114 vs. 33, p < 0.001), and had a higher incidence of elevated lactate (149 vs. 67, p < 0.001). Overall mortality was 13%, which was higher in STM patients (18% vs. 8%, p = 0.02). Surgical complications were more common in STM patients (35% vs. 25%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, management with an open abdomen, intraoperative blood transfusion, and larger hospital size were associated with development of a surgical complication, while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a tendency to perform fecal diversion in patients who are acutely ill at presentation. There is a higher morbidity and mortality rate in STM patients. Independent predictors of mortality include CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion. Following adjustment by clinical factors, method of colon management was not associated with surgical complications or mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Colectomia/métodos , Cirurgia Colorretal/educação , Doença Diverticular do Colo/cirurgia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colectomia/educação , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
14.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(4): 679-685, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The natural history of traumatic hemothorax (HTX) remains unclear. We aimed to describe outcomes of HTX following tube thoracostomy drainage and to delineate factors that predict progression to a retained hemothorax (RH). We hypothesized that initial large-volume HTX predicts the development of an RH. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational, multi-institutional study of adult trauma patients diagnosed with an HTX identified on computed tomography (CT) scan with volumes calculated at time of diagnosis. All patients were managed with tube thoracostomy drainage within 24 hours of presentation. Retained hemothorax was defined as blood-density fluid identified on follow-up CT scan or need for additional intervention after initial tube thoracostomy placement for HTX. RESULTS: A total of 369 patients who presented with an HTX initially managed with tube thoracostomy drainage were enrolled from 17 trauma centers. Retained hemothorax was identified in 106 patients (28.7%). Patients with RH had a larger median (interquartile range) HTX volume on initial CT compared with no RH (191 [48-431] mL vs. 88 [35-245] mL, p = 0.013) and were more likely to be older with a higher burden of thoracic injury. After controlling for significant differences between groups, RH was independently associated with a larger HTX on presentation, with a 15% increase in risk of RH for each additional 100 mL of HTX on initial CT imaging (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.21; p < 0.001). Patients with an RH also had higher rates of pneumonia and longer hospital length of stay than those with successful initial management. Retained hemothorax was also associated with worse functional outcomes at discharge and first outpatient follow-up. CONCLUSION: Larger initial HTX volumes are independently associated with RH, and unsuccessful initial management with tube thoracostomy is associated with worse patient outcomes. Future studies should use this experience to assess a range of options for reducing the risk of unsuccessful initial management. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/care management study, level III.


Assuntos
Tubos Torácicos , Hemotórax/epidemiologia , Hemotórax/cirurgia , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Toracostomia/métodos , Adulto , Drenagem/métodos , Feminino , Hemotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pneumonia/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Traumatismos Torácicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Torácicos/cirurgia , Toracostomia/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Centros de Traumatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(6): 104804, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) are associated with long-term neurological effects. The first-line treatment for BCVIs is antithrombotics, but consensus on the optimal choice and timing of treatment is lacking. METHODS: This was a retrospective study on patients aged at least 18 years admitted to 6 level 1 trauma centers between 1/1/2014 and 12/31/2017 with grade 1-4 BCVI and treated with antithrombotics. Differences in treatment practices were examined across the 6 centers. The primary outcome was ischemic stroke, and secondary outcomes were related to bleeding complications: blood transfusion and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Treatment characteristics examined were time to diagnosis and first computerized tomography angiography, time of total treatment course, time on each antithrombotic (anticoagulants, antiplatelets, combination), time from hospital arrival to antithrombotic initiation, and treatment interruption, i.e., treatment halted for a surgical procedure and restarted postoperatively. Chi-square, Fisher exact, Spearman's rank-order correlation, Wilcoxon rank-sum, Kruskal-Wallis, and Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates were used to evaluate associations with the outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 189 patients with BCVI were included. The median (IQR) time from arrival to antithrombotic initiation was 27 (8-61) hours, and 28% of patients had treatment interrupted. The ischemic stroke rate was 7.5% (n = 14), with most strokes (64%, n = 9) occurring between arrival and treatment initiation. Treatment interruption was associated with ischemic stroke (75% of patients with stroke had an interruption versus 24% of patients with no stroke; P < .01). Time on anticoagulants was not associated with ischemic stroke (P = .78), transfusion (P = .43), or ICH (P = .96). Similarly, time on antiplatelets (P = .54, P = .65, P = .60) and time on combination therapy (P = .96, P = .38, P = .57) were not associated with these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The timing and consistency of antithrombotic administration are critical in preventing adverse outcomes in patients with BCVI. Most ischemic strokes in this study population occurred between arrival and antithrombotic initiation, representing events that may potentially be intervened upon by earlier treatment. Future studies should examine the safety of continuing treatment through surgical procedures.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral Traumática/etiologia , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Hemorragia Cerebral Traumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Cerebral Traumática/terapia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/etiologia
16.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 5(1): e000406, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with hemodynamically stable blunt splenic injury (BSI), there is no consensus on whether quantity of hemoperitoneum (HP) is a predictor for intervention with splenic artery embolization (SAE) or failing nonoperative management (fNOM). We sought to analyze whether the quantity of HP was associated with need for intervention. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adult trauma patients with hemodynamically stable BSI admitted to six trauma centers between 2014 and 2016. Quantity of HP was defined as small (perisplenic blood or blood in Morrison's pouch), moderate (blood in one or both pericolic gutters), or large (additional finding of free blood in the pelvis). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of intervention with SAE or fNOM versus successful observation. RESULTS: There were 360 patients: hemoperitoneum was noted in 214 (59%) patients, of which the quantity was small in 92 (43%), moderate in 76 (35.5%), and large in 46 (21.5%). Definitive management was as follows: 272 (76%) were observed and 88 (24%) had intervention (83 SAE, 5 fNOM). The rate of intervention was univariately associated with quantity of HP, even after stratification by American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade. After adjustment, larger quantities of HP significantly increased odds of intervention (p=0.01). Compared with no HP, the odds of intervention were significantly increased for moderate HP (OR=3.51 (1.49 to 8.26)) and large HP (OR=2.89 (1.03 to 8.06)), with similar odds for small HP (OR=1.21 (0.46 to 2.76)). Other independent predictors of intervention were higher AAST grade, older age, and presence of splenic vascular injury. CONCLUSION: Greater quantity of HP was associated with increased odds of intervention, with no difference in risk for moderate versus large HP. These findings suggest quantity of HP should be incorporated in the management algorithm of BSI as a consideration for angiography and/or embolization to maximize splenic preservation and reduce the risk of splenic rupture. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, retrospective epidemiological study.

17.
J Healthc Qual ; 42(6): 304-314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703020

RESUMO

It is generally believed that pharmacologic prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is underused. However, previous studies have not shown associations between increased prophylaxis administration and reductions in VTE. We here investigated prophylaxis administration and VTE incidence among trauma patients at our facility to determine whether to further increase prophylaxis administration after implementation of a standardized monitoring protocol. Univariate analyses and regression models were used to evaluate the protocol's effect on VTE, identify clinical factors associated with VTE and with receiving prophylaxis, and identify over- or under-prophylaxed patients. A final prophylaxis rate of 71.2% was achieved, an increase from the 40.8% reported by the Trauma Quality Improvement Program in 2015, with no accompanying reduction in VTE (1.5% pre and postintervention). Factors that identified patients at lower probability of receiving prophylaxis were those that increased bleeding risk: severe head injuries (odds ratio [OR] = 0.13) and preexisting bleeding (OR = 0.69) and renal/kidney (OR = 0.46) disorders. A large group of patients was both at increased odds of receiving prophylaxis and at low risk of VTE, representing a group that may be considered for nonpharmacologic options. Examination of current prophylaxis practices and identification of underuse or overuse is beneficial before expending effort to increase prophylaxis administration to reduce VTE.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Tromboembolia Venosa , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Razão de Chances , Melhoria de Qualidade , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(3): 357-365, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) published revisions to the renal injury grading system to reflect the increased reliance on computed tomography scans and non-operative management of high-grade renal trauma (HGRT). We aimed to evaluate how these revisions will change the grading of HGRT and if it outperforms the original 1989 grading in predicting bleeding control interventions. METHODS: Data on HGRT were collected from 14 Level-1 trauma centers from 2014 to 2017. Patients with initial computed tomography scans were included. Two radiologists reviewed the scans to regrade the injuries according to the 1989 and 2018 AAST grading systems. Descriptive statistics were used to assess grade reclassifications. Mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression was used to measure the predictive ability of each grading system. The areas under the curves were compared. RESULTS: Of the 322 injuries included, 27.0% were upgraded, 3.4% were downgraded, and 69.5% remained unchanged. Of the injuries graded as III or lower using the 1989 AAST, 33.5% were upgraded to grade IV using the 2018 AAST. Of the grade V injuries, 58.8% were downgraded using the 2018 AAST. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall areas under the curves between the 2018 and 1989 AAST grading system for predicting bleeding interventions (0.72 vs. 0.68, p = 0.34). CONCLUSION: About one third of the injuries previously classified as grade III will be upgraded to grade IV using the 2018 AAST, which adds to the heterogeneity of grade IV injuries. Although the 2018 AAST grading provides more anatomic details on injury patterns and includes important radiologic findings, it did not outperform the 1989 AAST grading in predicting bleeding interventions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiological Study, level III.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagem , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Rim/lesões , Adulto , Classificação , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/cirurgia , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/cirurgia , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 4(1): e000323, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392280

RESUMO

Background: We sought to identify predictors of splenic artery embolization (SAE) over observation for hemodynamically stable patients with blunt splenic injury (BSI), by Organ Injury Scale (OIS) grade. Methods: This was a multi-institutional retrospective study of all adults (≥18) with BSI who were initially managed non-operatively between 2014 and 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of SAE by OIS grade. Covariates included radiographic characteristics (presence/quantity of hemoperitoneum, blush, vascular injury), demographics (age, sex, cause), Injury Severity Score, vital signs, and hemoglobin values. We also examined outcomes of death, length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, blood products, and failed non-operative management (NOM). Results: Among 422 patients with stable BSI, 93 (22%) had SAE and 329 (78%) were observed. The rate of SAE increased by grade (p<0.001). In grade I and II BSI, 7% had SAE; significant predictors of SAE were blush (OR: 5.9, p=0.02), moderate or large hemoperitoneum (OR: 3.0, p=0.01), and male sex (OR: 6.3, p=0.05). In grade III BSI, 26% had SAE; significant predictors included moderate or large hemoperitoneum (OR: 3.9, p=0.04), motor vehicle crash (OR: 6.1, p=0.005), and age (OR=1.4, 40% with each decade increase in age, p=0.02). The rate of SAE was 52% for grade IV and 85% for grade V BSI; there were no independent predictors of SAE in either grade. Clinical outcomes were comparable by NOM strategy and grade, except longer LOS with SAE in grades I-III (p<0.05) and longer ICU LOS with SAE in grades I-IV (p<0.05). Only 5 (1.2%) patients failed NOM (4 observation, 1 SAE). Conclusion: These results strongly support SAE consideration for patients with stable grade IV and V BSI even if there are no other high-risk clinical or radiographic findings. For grades I-III, the identified predictors may help refine consideration for SAE. Level of evidence: Level III, retrospective epidemiological study.

20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(6): 974-982, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indications for intervention after high-grade renal trauma (HGRT) remain poorly defined. Certain radiographic findings can be used to guide the management of HGRT. We aimed to assess the associations between initial radiographic findings and interventions for hemorrhage after HGRT and to determine hematoma and laceration sizes predicting interventions. METHODS: The Genitourinary Trauma Study is a multicenter study including HGRT patients from 14 Level I trauma centers from 2014 to 2017. Admission computed tomography scans were categorized based on multiple variables, including vascular contrast extravasation (VCE), hematoma rim distance (HRD), and size of the deepest laceration. Renal bleeding interventions included angioembolization, surgical packing, renorrhaphy, partial nephrectomy, and nephrectomy. Mixed-effect Poisson regression was used to assess the associations. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to define optimal cutoffs for HRD and laceration size. RESULTS: In the 326 patients, injury mechanism was blunt in 81%. Forty-seven (14%) patients underwent 51 bleeding interventions, including 19 renal angioembolizations, 16 nephrectomies, and 16 other procedures. In univariable analysis, presence of VCE was associated with a 5.9-fold increase in risk of interventions, and each centimeter increase in HRD was associated with 30% increase in risk of bleeding interventions. An HRD of 3.5 cm or greater and renal laceration depth of 2.5 cm or greater were most predictive of interventions. In multivariable models, VCE and HRD were significantly associated with bleeding interventions. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the importance of certain radiographic findings in prediction of bleeding interventions after HGRT. These factors can be used as adjuncts to renal injury grading to guide clinical decision making. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiological Study, Level III and Therapeutic/Care Management, Level IV.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/patologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Nefropatias/etiologia , Rim/lesões , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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