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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(7): 177-180, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789880

RESUMO

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome that can occur following prenatal exposure to opioids (1). NAS surveillance in the United States is based largely on diagnosis codes in hospital discharge data, without validation of these codes or case confirmation. During 2004-2014, reported NAS incidence increased from 1.5 to 8.0 per 1,000 U.S. hospital births (2), based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes identified in hospital discharge data, without case confirmation. However, little is known about how well these codes identify NAS or how the October 1, 2015, transition from ICD-9-CM to the tenth revision of ICD-CM (ICD-10-CM) codes affected estimated NAS incidence. This report describes a pilot project in Illinois, New Mexico, and Vermont to use birth defects surveillance infrastructure to obtain state-level, population-based estimates of NAS incidence among births in 2015 (all three states) and 2016 (Illinois) using hospital discharge records and other sources (varied by state) with case confirmation, and to evaluate the validity of NAS diagnosis codes used by each state. Wide variation in NAS incidence was observed across the three states. In 2015, NAS incidence for Illinois, New Mexico, and Vermont was 3.0, 7.5, and 30.8 per 1,000 births, respectively. Among evaluated diagnosis codes, those with the highest positive predictive values (PPVs) for identifying confirmed cases of NAS, based on a uniform case definition, were drug withdrawal syndrome in a newborn (ICD-9-CM code 779.5; state range = 58.6%-80.2%) and drug withdrawal, infant of dependent mother (ICD-10-CM code P96.1; state range = 58.5%-80.2%). The methods used to assess NAS incidence in this pilot project might help inform other states' NAS surveillance efforts.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Vermont/epidemiologia
2.
Psychiatr Serv ; 58(11): 1483-5, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17978261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study compared crime victimization rates with rates of criminal offending among adults with serious mental illness. METHODS: Statistical estimation determined caseload overlap between anonymous extracts from public mental health and criminal justice databases for 13 rural Vermont counties. Participants included 2,610 adults who received community-based services during the study year (July 2005 through June 2006). RESULTS: Among the 2,610 adults 6.6% were identified by police as criminal offenders and 7.1% were identified as crime victims. Compared with the general population, however, their elevated risk of being identified as a victim (2.4) was lower than their elevated risk of being identified as an offender (2.6). These categories are not mutually exclusive. CONCLUSIONS: To better understand involvement in the criminal justice system among adults with serious mental illness, research should consider rates of criminal offending and victimization and compare these with rates for the general population.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Vermont/epidemiologia
4.
Radiology ; 229(2): 340-6, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14500855

RESUMO

The Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound convened a multidisciplinary panel of experts in the field of vascular ultrasonography (US) to come to a consensus regarding Doppler US for assistance in the diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis. The panel's consensus statement is believed to represent a reasonable position on the basis of analysis of available literature and panelists' experience. Key elements of the statement include the following: (a) All internal carotid artery (ICA) examinations should be performed with gray-scale, color Doppler, and spectral Doppler US. (b) The degree of stenosis determined at gray-scale and Doppler US should be stratified into the categories of normal (no stenosis), <50% stenosis, 50%-69% stenosis, > or =70% stenosis to near occlusion, near occlusion, and total occlusion. (c) ICA peak systolic velocity (PSV) and presence of plaque on gray-scale and/or color Doppler images are primarily used in diagnosis and grading of ICA stenosis; two additional parameters, ICA-to-common carotid artery PSV ratio and ICA end-diastolic velocity may also be used when clinical or technical factors raise concern that ICA PSV may not be representative of the extent of disease. (d) ICA should be diagnosed as (i) normal when ICA PSV is less than 125 cm/sec and no plaque or intimal thickening is visible; (ii) <50% stenosis when ICA PSV is less than 125 cm/sec and plaque or intimal thickening is visible; (iii) 50%-69% stenosis when ICA PSV is 125-230 cm/sec and plaque is visible; (iv) > or =70% stenosis to near occlusion when ICA PSV is greater than 230 cm/sec and visible plaque and lumen narrowing are seen; (v) near occlusion when there is a markedly narrowed lumen at color Doppler US; and (vi) total occlusion when there is no detectable patent lumen at gray-scale US and no flow at spectral, power, and color Doppler US. (e) The final report should discuss velocity measurements and gray-scale and color Doppler findings. Study limitations should be noted when they exist. The conclusion should state an estimated degree of ICA stenosis as reflected in the above categories. The panel also considered various technical aspects of carotid US and methods for quality assessment and identified several important unanswered questions meriting future research.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos
5.
Ultrasound Q ; 19(4): 190-8, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14730262

RESUMO

The Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound convened a multidisciplinary panel of experts in the field of vascular ultrasonography (US) to come to a consensus regarding Doppler US for assistance in the diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis. The panel's consensus statement is believed to represent a reasonable position on the basis of analysis of available literature and panelists' experience. Key elements of the statement include the following: First, all internal carotid artery (ICA) examinations should be performed with grayscale, color Doppler, and spectral Doppler US. Second, the degree of stenosis determined at grayscale and Doppler US should be stratified into the categories of normal (no stenosis), less than 50% stenosis, 50 to 69% stenosis, > or =70% stenosis to near occlusion, near occlusion, and total occlusion. Third, ICA peak systolic velocity (PSV) and the presence of plaque on grayscale and/or color Doppler images are primarily used in the diagnosis and grading of ICA stenosis. Two additional parameters (the ICA-to-common carotid artery PSV ratio and ICA end diastolic velocity) may also be used when clinical or technical factors raise concern that ICA PSV may not be representative of the extent of disease. Fourth, ICA should be diagnosed as normal when ICA PSV is less than 125 cm/second and no plaque or intimal thickening is visible, less than 50% stenosis when ICA PSV is less than 125 cm/second and plaque or intimal thickening is visible, 50 to 69% stenosis when ICA PSV is 125 to 230 cm/second and plaque is visible, > or =70% stenosis to near occlusion when ICA PSV is more than 230 cm/second and visible plaque and lumen narrowing are seen, near occlusion when there is a markedly narrowed lumen on color Doppler US, and total occlusion when there is no detectable patent lumen on grayscale US and no flow on spectral, power, and color Doppler US. Fifth, the final report should discuss velocity measurements and grayscale and color Doppler findings. Study limitations should be noted when they exist. The conclusion should state an estimated degree of ICA stenosis as reflected in these categories. The panel also considered various technical aspects of carotid US and methods for quality assessment, and identified several important unanswered questions meriting future research.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler/normas , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Radiografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
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