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1.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349549

RESUMO

To evaluate the effects of a patented Bacillus subtilis probiotic, weaned Holstein steers, not shedding Salmonella (n = 40; ∼90 kg), were supplemented (CLO) or not (CON) with CLOSTAT® (13 g/hd per day; Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) in a starter ration for 35 d. The calves were assigned to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design with CLO and CON calves that were orally administered Salmonella (STM) or not (NoSTM). Calves were challenged with 1.6 × 106 colony-forming unit (CFU) Salmonella Typhimurium (resistant to 50 µg/mL nalidixic acid) in 1 L of milk replacer on day 0. Blood samples were collected through jugular catheters every 6 h for 96 h, and body temperature was measured every 5 min through indwelling rectal temperature recording devices. Five calves from each treatment were harvested 48 h postchallenge, and the remaining calves were harvested 96 h postchallenge. During necropsy, tissues were collected for the isolation and quantification of the inoculated STM from various tissues. The CLOSTM group had reduced STM concentrations in the jejunum, ileum, and transverse colon 48 h after the challenge (p ≤ 0.03), but were not different 96 h postchallenge (p > 0.05). Decreased (p < 0.01) pyrexia was observed after the challenge in CLOSTM calves when compared with CONSTM calves. White blood cells and lymphocyte counts were increased (p ≤ 0.05) in CLOSTM calves after the challenge in comparison with other treatments. In calves given STM, the CLO group had greater feed intake before and after the challenge (p < 0.01) compared with the CON group. Increased serum IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were observed in the CONSTM group compared with other treatments. Overall, CLO reduced Salmonella presence and concentrations in gastrointestinal tissues while simultaneously reducing the severity of the challenge as indicated by blood parameters and the reduced febrile response.

2.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366128

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine if immunosuppression through daily dexamethasone (DEX) infusion altered Salmonella translocation from the gastrointestinal tract. Weaned Holstein steers (n = 20; body weight [BW] = 102 ± 2.7 kg) received DEX (n = 10; 0.5 mg/kg BW) or saline (control [CON]; n = 10;) for 4 days (from day -1 to 2) before oral inoculation of naldixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (SAL; 3.4 × 106 colony-forming units [CFU]/animal) on day 0. Fecal swabs were obtained daily, and blood was collected daily for hematology. At harvest (day 5), ileum, cecal fluid, lymph nodes (ileocecal, mandibular, popliteal, and subscapular), and synovial (stifle, coxofemoral, and shoulder) samples were collected for isolation of the inoculated strain of SAL. White blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil concentrations were elevated (p < 0.01) in DEX calves following each administration event. Following inoculation, 100% of DEX calves shed the experimental strain of SAL for all 5 days, 90% of CON calves shed from day 1 to 3, and 100% of CON calves shed from day 4 to 5. Greater (p < 0.01) concentrations of SAL were quantified from the cecum of DEX calves (3.86 ± 0.37 log CFU/g) compared with CON calves (1.37 ± 0.37 log CFU/g). There was no difference in SAL concentrations between DEX and CON calves in ileal tissue (p = 0.07) or ileocecal (p = 0.57), mandibular (p = 0.12), popliteal (p = 0.99), or subscapular (p = 0.83) lymph nodes. Of the stifle samples collected, 3.3% were positive for SAL, highlighting a contamination opportunity during hindquarter breakdown. While more research is needed to elucidate the interactions of immunosuppression and pathogen migration patterns, these data confirm that orally inoculated SAL can translocate from the gastrointestinal tract and be harbored in atypical locations representing a food safety risk.

3.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(3): 243-253, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify acute immunologic and metabolic responses of beef heifers following topical administration of transdermal flunixin meglumine (TDFM) at various times relative to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and Mannheimia haemolytica challenges. ANIMALS: 32 beef heifers (mean body weight, 170 kg). PROCEDURES: Heifers were assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Heifers in the control group did not receive TDFM, whereas 1 dose of TDFM (3.3 mg/kg) was topically applied to heifers of groups A, V, and B at -144, -72, and 0 hours. All heifers were inoculated with 1 × 108 plaque-forming units of BHV1 in each nostril at -72 hours and with 1.18 × 106 CFUs of M haemolytica intratracheally at 0 hours. Vaginal temperature was recorded and blood samples were collected for quantification of select immunologic and metabolic biomarkers at predetermined times from -144 to 360 hours. RESULTS: Mean vaginal temperature was similar between group A and the control group. Mean vaginal temperatures for groups V and B were generally lower than that for the control group following BHV1 and M haemolytica challenges, respectively. Mean neutrophil oxidative burst capacity and L-selectin expression at 0 hours were significantly decreased for group V relative to the other groups. Other biomarkers did not differ among the groups at any time. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that topical administration of TDFM to beef cattle effectively alleviated pyrexia without adverse effects on acute immunologic or metabolic responses when TDFM was administered at the same time as, but not before, respiratory pathogen challenge.

4.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807776

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to examine potential differential methylation of DNA as a mechanism for altered behavioral and stress responses in prenatally stressed (PNS) compared with nonprenatally stressed (Control) young bull calves. Mature Brahman cows (n = 48) were transported for 2-h periods at 60 ± 5, 80 ± 5, 100 ± 5, 120 ± 5, and 140 ± 5 d of gestation (Transported group) or maintained as nontransported Controls (n = 48). From the offspring born to Transported and Control cows, a subset of 28-d-old intact bulls (n = 7 PNS; n = 7 Control) were evaluated for methylation of DNA of behavior and stress response-associated genes. Methylation of DNA from white blood cells was assessed via reduced representation bisulfite sequencing methods. Because increased methylation of DNA within gene promoter regions has been associated with decreased transcriptional activity of the corresponding gene, differentially methylated (P ≤ 0.05) CG sites (cytosine followed by a guanine nucleotide) located within promoter regions (n = 1,205) were used to predict (using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software) alterations to canonical pathways in PNS compared with Control bull calves. Among differentially methylated genes (P ≤ 0.05) related to behavior and the stress response were OPRK1, OPRM1, PENK, POMC, NR3C2, TH, DRD1, DRD5, COMT, HTR6, HTR5A, GABRA4, GABRQ, and GAD2. Among altered (P < 0.05) signaling pathways related to behavior and the stress response were Opioid Signaling, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Signaling, Dopamine Receptor Signaling, Dopamine-DARPP32 Feedback in cAMP Signaling, Serotonin Receptor Signaling, and GABA Receptor Signaling. Alterations to behavior and stress response-related genes and canonical pathways supported previously observed elevations in temperament score and serum cortisol through weaning in the larger population of PNS calves from which bulls in this study were derived. Differential methylation of DNA and predicted alterations to behavior and stress response-related pathways in PNS compared with Control bull calves suggest epigenetic programming of behavior and the stress response in utero.

5.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 575-592, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590903

RESUMO

Vaccination is a critical component of cattle health management. Effective cattle vaccine programs should consider the timing of vaccination in relation to expected disease challenge, risk for wild-type exposure of various bovine pathogens, and host factors during vaccination. Nearly all consulting veterinarians recommend vaccination of stressed, high-risk calves on feedlot arrival. However, this recommendation fails to consider several factors associated with vaccine efficiency. Further research evaluating vaccine interactions in stressed cattle and potential additive effects of endotoxin from multiple bacterin administration may reveal new evidence-based vaccination guidelines for cattle in the various segments of beef and dairy production systems.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Carne Vermelha , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
6.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396526

RESUMO

Stressors experienced by pigs at weaning may negatively impact health and productivity. Thus, supplements that enhance pig immunity during the early post-weaned period are of great interest to the swine industry. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance and hematological responses of weaned pigs supplemented with yeast cell wall (YCW) when challenged orally with Salmonella Typhimurium. Weaned pigs were assigned to one of three treatments for 22d (n = 13/treatment): Control diet, which was a non-medicated starter diet (Control); Control diet supplemented with YCW at 250 mg/kg BW (YCW250; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA); and Control diet supplemented with YCW at 500 mg/kg BW (YCW500). On d19 blood samples were collected from -6 to 72 h relative to oral Salmonella Typhimurium (1 × 106 cfu/pig) challenge. Gain:feed was greater (P = 0.01) in YCW250 treatment compared to both Control and YCW500 pigs. Baseline intraperitoneal temperature was greater (P < 0.001) in YCW250 pigs than Control or YCW500 pigs. There was a treatment x time interaction for the change in intraperitoneal temperature (P < 0.01), post-challenge cortisol, white blood cell counts (WBC), neutrophils, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (P ≤ 0.03). Control pigs had greater (P < 0.05) cortisol concentrations than both YCW-supplemented groups at 0 h, but Control pigs had reduced (P < 0.05) cortisol compared to YCW500 pigs at 24 and 30 h post-challenge. Control pigs had greater (P < 0.05) WBC counts than both YCW-supplemented groups 6 and 12 h post-challenge, and YCW250 pigs had reduced (P < 0.01) WBC counts than Control and YCW500 pigs 18 h post-challenge. Neutrophil counts were greater (P < 0.05) in Control pigs than both YCW-supplemented groups at 6 and 12 h post-challenge and were greater (P = 0.02) than YCW250 pigs at 18 h post-challenge. Lymphocytes were greater (P < 0.001) in Control and YCW500 pigs pre- and post-challenge compared to YCW250 pigs. Control pigs had the greatest (P < 0.001) monocyte counts compared to YCW treatments. There was no effect of yeast supplementation on fecal shedding or Salmonella counts in the rectum, colon or cecum (P ≥ 0.05). While some differences were observed in intraperitoneal temperature and some hematological variables, data suggests there were minimal effects of yeast supplementation on the acute immune response to Salmonella challenge.

7.
Stress ; 22(2): 236-247, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676166

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the influence of prenatal stress (PNS) on innate immune responses to an endotoxin challenge in weaned bull calves. Altered innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as characterized by changes in a range of variables was hypothesized in PNS bull calves. Brahman cows (n = 96; 48 stressed by transportation at five stages of gestation and 48 Controls) produced 85 calves, from which 16 uncastrated male (bull) calves from each PNS and Control treatment were selected for an LPS challenge period. Rectal temperature (RT), sickness behavior score (SBS), serum concentrations of cortisol, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and complete blood count (CBC) variables were assessed in response to intravenous LPS (0.25 µg/kg body weight) administration. Each reported variable increased or decreased following LPS administration. Prior to LPS, PNS bull calves exhibited increased TNF-α, IL-6, and monocyte counts, but decreased IFN-γ, eosinophils, and basophils (p < .05). Compared with Control, in response to LPS, PNS bull calves exhibited greater circulating concentrations of cortisol. PNS bull calves exhibited lower (p < .05) eosinophil and basophil counts at time 0 (time of LPS administration) but similar counts to Control bull calves 2 h after LPS. PNS bull calves exhibited a greater change from baseline for IFN-γ and monocytes in response to LPS administration. No other variables were influenced by prenatal treatment (p > .05). These findings suggest that PNS did not adversely affect basal or induced components of the innate immune response to an immunological challenge. Lay summary Our laboratory studied the influence of prenatal stress (i.e., transportation of pregnant cows) on immune function of bull calves at 8 months of age. This was accomplished by studying aspects of their innate immune response to an immunological challenge. Prenatal stress did not adversely affect basal or induced components of the innate immune response to an immunological challenge.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Transportes , Desmame , Animais , Bovinos , Endotoxinas , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
8.
J Anim Sci ; 96(12): 5075-5099, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165450

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to identify genome-wide differential methylation of DNA in young prenatally stressed (PNS) bull calves. Mature Brahman cows (n = 48) were transported for 2-h periods at 60 ± 5, 80 ± 5, 100 ± 5, 120 ± 5, and 140 ± 5 d of gestation or maintained as nontransported Controls (n = 48). Methylation of DNA from white blood cells from a subset of 28-d-old intact male offspring (n = 7 PNS; n = 7 Control) was assessed via reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. Samples from PNS bulls contained 16,128 CG, 226 CHG, and 391 CHH (C = cytosine; G = guanine; H = either adenine, thymine, or cytosine) sites that were differentially methylated compared to samples from Controls. Of the CG sites, 7,407 were hypermethylated (at least 10% more methylated than Controls; P ≤ 0.05) and 8,721 were hypomethylated (at least 10% less methylated than Controls; P ≤ 0.05). Increased DNA methylation in gene promoter regions typically results in decreased transcriptional activity of the region. Therefore, differentially methylated CG sites located within promoter regions (n = 1,205) were used to predict (using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software) alterations to canonical pathways in PNS compared with Control bull calves. In PNS bull calves, 113 pathways were altered (P ≤ 0.05) compared to Controls. Among these were pathways related to behavior, stress response, metabolism, immune function, and cell signaling. Genome-wide differential DNA methylation and predicted alterations to pathways in PNS compared with Control bull calves suggest epigenetic programming of biological systems in utero.


Assuntos
Animais Lactentes/fisiologia , Metilação de DNA , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estresse Fisiológico , Transportes , Animais , Bovinos , DNA , Feminino , Genoma , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Leucócitos , Masculino , Gravidez
9.
Am J Vet Res ; 78(12): 1426-1436, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of meloxicam administration before long-distance transport on inflammatory mediators and leukocyte function of cattle at feedlot arrival. ANIMALS 60 healthy yearling beef steers. PROCEDURES Single-source steers were assigned to a transported (n = 40) or nontransported (20) group. Then, half of the steers within each group were assigned to receive meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO) or a lactose placebo (1 bolus/steer, PO). All steers were transported approximately 1,300 km overnight to a feedlot; however, the nontransported group was moved before treatment (meloxicam or placebo) administration and allowed a 17-day acclimation period, whereas the transported group was moved immediately after treatment administration on day -1. Blood samples for measurement of inflammatory mediators and leukocyte function were collected from all steers on days -1, 0, and 3. RESULTS For steers that received meloxicam, mean plasma meloxicam concentration for the transported group was significantly greater than that for the nontransported group on day 0. For steers that received the placebo, mean haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase-9 complex for the transported group was significantly greater than that for the nontransported group on day 0. Mean haptoglobin concentration, neutrophil L-selectin intensity, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte count for the transported group were significantly greater than those for the nontransported group. Mean substance P concentration for nontransported steers that received meloxicam was significantly lower than that for the other 3 treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated meloxicam administration to healthy steers immediately before long-distance transport did not significantly mitigate the effects of transport-induced stress on leukocyte function or inflammatory markers.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Bovinos , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazinas/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Transportes , Administração Oral , Animais , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Meloxicam , Tiazinas/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem
10.
Transl Anim Sci ; 1(1): 69-76, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372597

RESUMO

Sexually dimorphic innate immune responses have been observed in several species, but have not been studied in response to a live pathogen challenge in pigs. This study aimed to elucidate sexually dimorphic innate immune responses along with Salmonella translocation patterns in newly weaned pigs orally inoculated with Salmonella. Newly weaned pigs (n = 8 gilts and 12 barrows; 6.2 ± 0.2 kg BW) were obtained from a commercial swine facility and were maintained in an environmentally-controlled facility in individual pens equipped with feeders and nipple waterers. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to a commercial non-medicated starter ration and water throughout the study. On d 12 post-weaning, pigs were anesthetized to allow placement of a temperature measuring device in the abdominal cavity for measurement of intraperitoneal temperature (TEMP). On d 17, pigs were anesthetized and fitted with indwelling jugular vein catheters. On the following day (d 18), pigs were orally inoculated with 4.7×109 Salmonella typhimurium. Blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h, and at 8-h intervals from 8 to 72 h post-challenge. Whole blood was analyzed for complete blood cell counts. Serum was isolated for measurement of cortisol. Following collection of the 72 h sample, pigs were humanely euthanized and tissues were collected for Salmonella isolation. There was a sex × time interaction (P < 0.001) for TEMP such that gilts had a greater TEMP response to the Salmonella challenge compared to barrows. There was also a sex × time interaction (P = 0.03) for serum cortisol with gilts having decreased cortisol at 16 h yet greater cortisol at 32 h than barrows. Barrows had greater total white blood cells (17.8 vs. 16.2 ± 0.4 103 cells/µL; P < 0.01; respectively) and neutrophils (7.8 vs. 6.1 ± 0.4 103 cells/µL; P < 0.01; respectively) than gilts. However, gilts had greater lymphocytes (9.6 vs. 9.0 ± 0.2 103 cells/µL; P = 0.05; respectively) than barrows. While immune parameters were influenced by sex, there was no effect of sex (P > 0.05) on Salmonella concentrations from fecal shedding 3 d post-inoculation in the cecum, mesenteric and subiliac lymph nodes, liver, spleen, gallbladder, or kidney tissues. These data demonstrate that weaned gilts appear to produce a stronger acute phase response to a Salmonella challenge compared to barrows, without affecting the tissue translocation or shedding of Salmonella.

11.
Innate Immun ; 23(1): 97-108, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872382

RESUMO

The potential effect of prenatal LPS exposure on the postnatal acute phase response (APR) to an LPS challenge in heifers was determined. Pregnant crossbred cows were separated into prenatal immune stimulation (PIS) and saline groups (Control). From these treatments, heifer calves were identified at weaning to subsequently receive an exogenous LPS challenge. Sickness behavior scores (SBS) were recorded and blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 8 h and again at 24 h relative to the LPS challenge. There was a treatment × time interaction for the change in vaginal temperature (VT) such that the change in VT was greater in Control than PIS from 150 to 250 min, yet it was greater in PIS than Control from 355 to 440 min and from 570 to 1145 min. There was also a treatment × time interaction for SBS such that scores were greater in Control than PIS at 0.5 h, yet were greater in PIS than Control from 2.5 to 4 h post-LPS. There was a tendency for a treatment × time interaction for serum concentrations of IL-6, which were greater in PIS than Control heifers from 5.5 to 6 h and from 7 to 8 h post-challenge. Thus, a single exposure to LPS during gestation can alter the postnatal APR to LPS in heifer calves.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/veterinária , Feto/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/veterinária , Útero/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Feminino , Imunidade , Interleucina-6/sangue , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Desmame
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(3): 1929-1937, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26723121

RESUMO

The objectives of the current study were to determine the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, organic matter, ash, and energy as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigned to either a high plane of nutrition (HPN) or low plane of nutrition (LPN) treatment. The HPN calves were offered 19.2g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 28% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. The LPN calves were fed 11.6g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 20% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. All calves were given 3 L of pooled colostrum within 1h of birth after which they were assigned to treatments; no starter was offered during the study. Calves were given 1 d to adapt to their treatments and environment, so calves were 30 to 36 h old at the start of data collection. The study was divided into two 72-h periods. Total collection of feces occurred over each 72 h period, and total urine was collected for the last 24h of each period. Peripheral blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each period and analyzed for plasma glucose and urea nitrogen concentrations. Data are reported as HPN vs. LPN, respectively. Fecal scores were greater for HPN calves during both periods; however, no difference was found in the dry matter percentage of feces (30.9 vs. 31.9 ± 0.06). No differences were found between treatments in either digestible or metabolizable energy efficiencies, which averaged 93.3 and 83.7%, respectively. A treatment × period interaction was found on the percentage of intake nitrogen retained, in which calves fed the HPN had a greater percentage of intake nitrogen retained during period 1 (87.9 vs. 78.4 ± 1.79%), but was not different from calves fed the LPN during period 2 (85.4 vs. 84.9 ± 1.79%). From these data therefore, we conclude that healthy neonatal calves have the capability to digest and absorb the additional nutrients with a higher plane of nutrition during the first week of postnatal life.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Digestão , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 166(3-4): 108-15, 2015 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26144890

RESUMO

This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic immunological responses following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in beef cattle. Six female (heifers) and five male (bulls) Brahman calves (average age=253 ± 19.9 and 288 ± 47.9 days; average body weight=194 ± 11 kg and 247 ± 19 kg for heifers and bulls, respectively) were challenged with LPS (0.25 µg LPS/kg body weight). Following administration of LPS, all cattle displayed increased sickness behavior beginning at 0.5h, with heifers on average displaying less sickness behavior than bulls. A febrile response was observed in all animals following LPS administration, with a maximum response observed from 4 to 5.5h. The average rectal temperature response was greater in heifers than bulls. In all cattle there were elevated serum concentrations of cortisol from 0.5 to 8h, TNF-α from 1 to 2.5h, IL-6 from 2 to 8h, and IFN-γ from 2.5 to 7h after LPS challenge. Additionally, serum concentrations of TNF-α were greater in heifers than bulls from 1.5 to 2h after the LPS challenge. Concentrations of IFN-γ were also greater on average in bulls than heifers. Leukopenia occurred from 1 to 8h, with a decreased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for the first 5h among all calves. These data demonstrate the existence of a sexually dimorphic acute-phase response in pre-pubertal Brahman calves. Specifically, heifers may have a more robust acute response to LPS challenge, even though bulls display more signs of sickness.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Administração Intravenosa/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
14.
Innate Immun ; 21(5): 512-22, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25305381

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of increasing energy availability from both dextrose and lipid treatments on the pro-inflammatory response to LPS in Holstein steers. Steers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: saline at 0.5 ml/kg body weight (Control) or 50% dextrose [0.5 ml/kg body weight (Dextrose) to mimic calm cattle's response to LPS] administered immediately prior to LPS (0.5 µg/kg body weight at 0 h) or continuous lipid emulsion infusion from -1 to 6 h [Intralipid 20% (Baxter, Deerfield, IL USA); 0.5 ml/kg/hr (Lipid) to mimic temperamental cattle]. Concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were greater in Lipid compared with Control and Dextrose steers. A greater decrease in the change in rectal temperature, relative to baseline, was observed in response to LPS in Dextrose in comparison to control and Lipid steers. Cortisol was greater in Lipid than Dextrose and Control steers from -0.5 to 0 h, yet decreased from 0.5 to 5.5 h relative to LPS challenge. Concentrations of IL-6 were decreased in Lipid steers compared with Dextrose and Control steers, and were decreased in Dextrose compared with Control steers post-LPS challenge. These data suggest that increasing circulating NEFA using an exogenous Lipid emulsion may modulate the pro-inflammatory response in steers.


Assuntos
Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Glucose/farmacologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-6/análise , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Temperamento
15.
Microorganisms ; 3(3): 417-27, 2015 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27682097

RESUMO

More livestock producers are seeking natural alternatives to antibiotics and antimicrobials, and searching for supplements to enhance growth performance, and general animal health and well-being. Some of the compounds currently being utilized and studied are live yeast and yeast-based products derived from the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These products have been reported to have positive effects both directly and indirectly on the immune system and its subsequent biomarkers, thereby mitigating negative effects associated with stress and disease. These yeast-based products have also been reported to simultaneously enhance growth and performance by enhancing dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) perhaps through the establishment of a healthy gastrointestinal tract. These products may be especially useful in times of potential stress such as during birth, weaning, early lactation, and during the receiving period at the feedlot. Overall, yeast supplements appear to possess the ability to improve animal health and metabolism while decreasing morbidity, thereby enhancing profitability of these animals.

16.
Anim Sci J ; 86(5): 508-16, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25440755

RESUMO

This experiment was to determine if replacing soybean meal with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) would reduce the innate immune response after lipopolysaccharide challenge and the changes of gene expression profiles associated with this response. Forty-eight 21 day-old pigs were housed individually and fed three diets for 15 days: CON (a diet without FSBM or spray-dried plasma protein; SDPP), PP7 (a diet with 7% SDPP), and FS10 (a diet with 10% FSBM). Pigs were fitted with a jugular vein catheters receiving lipopolysaccharide challenge (25 µg/kg body weight (BW)) on day 15. Blood was collected for 5 h at 30-min intervals to measure cortisol. Expressions of gene transcripts in total RNA from leukocytes were compared using an oligonucleotide microarray at 210 min after lipopolysaccharides injection. Cortisol of FS10 was lower (P < 0.05) than CON after lipopolysaccharides challenge. The expression levels of 17 transcripts, including cytosolic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase A4-4 were increased (P < 0.05), whereas 23 genes including adiponectin, neonatal Fc receptor and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 5 were decreased (P < 0.05) in FS10. This study suggests that FSBM-fed pigs can modulate expression of genes related to inflammatory response and anti-oxidant activity which can be a potential reason for reduced serum cortisol.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fermentação , Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Soja , Suínos/genética , Suínos/imunologia , Adiponectina/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes , Ligante de CD40/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Transferase/sangue , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Receptores Fc/sangue , Desmame
17.
Innate Immun ; 20(1): 104-12, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23606515

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the metabolic responses of newly-received feedlot cattle to an endotoxin challenge. Heifers were separated into treatment groups receiving either a Control diet, YCW-A or YCW-C, and were fed for 52 d. Heifers were weighed on d 0, 14, 36, 38 and 52. On d 37 heifers were challenged i.v. with LPS [0.5 µg/kg body weight (BW)] and blood samples were collected relative to LPS challenge. Heifer BW increased from d 0 to 36 and from d 38 to 52, but was not affected by treatment. Post-LPS, glucose concentrations increased and were less in YCW-A than Control and YCW-C heifers. Pre-LPS, insulin concentrations were greater in YCW-A and YCW-C than Control heifers. Post-LPS, insulin concentrations increased with YCW-C having greater insulin than Control heifers. Pre-LPS, NEFA concentrations tended to be less in YCW-C than Control heifers. Post-LPS non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were less in YCW-C than Control and YCW-A heifers. Post-LPS, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations were greater in YCW-A than Control and YCW-C. These data indicate, based on NEFA and BUN data, that certain YCW products can enhance energy metabolism during an immune challenge without causing lipolysis or muscle catabolism.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Misturas Complexas/administração & dosagem , Endotoxinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Parede Celular/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Endotoxinas/imunologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Leveduras
18.
Innate Immun ; 20(8): 888-96, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24217218

RESUMO

Activation of the innate immune system and acute phase response (APR) results in several responses that include fever, metabolic adaptations and changes in behavior. The APR can be modulated by many factors, with stress being the most common. An elevation of stress hormones for a short duration of time can be beneficial. However, elevation of stress hormones repeatedly or for an extended duration of time can be detrimental to the overall health and well-being of animals. The stress and APR responses can also be modulated by naturally-occurring variations, such as breed, gender, and temperament. These three natural variations modulate both of these responses, and can therefore modulate the ability of an animal to recover from a stressor or infection. Understanding that cattle have different immunological responses, based on naturally occurring variations such as these, may be the foundation of new studies on how to effectively manage cattle so that health is optimized and production is benefited.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/fisiopatologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/genética , Reação de Fase Aguda/psicologia , Animais , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Temperamento
19.
Am J Vet Res ; 74(12): 1522-9, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24274890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the endocrine and immune responses of steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). ANIMALS: 12 crossbred beef steers. PROCEDURES: Steers were randomly assigned to IBRV- (control) or IBRV+ treatment groups. Experimentally challenged steers (IBRV+) received a dose of IBRV intranasally (8.0 50% tissue culture infective doses), IBRV- steers received a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution placebo intranasally, and each group was placed in an isolated paddock. At 72 hours after challenge, all steers were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters and placed into individual stanchions. Blood samples were collected on days 4 through 8. Serum was analyzed for concentrations of cortisol, interleukin-6, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I. RESULTS: From 72 to 144 hours after challenge inoculation, the IBRV+ group had significantly greater mean rectal temperature, compared with the IBRV- group; the greatest temperatures in both groups were observed at 72 hours. Serum cortisol concentrations were increased in both groups from hours 72 to 136 and serum interferon-γ concentrations were greater in the IBRV+ from 94 to 112 hours after inoculation. Growth hormone concentration was greater in the IBRV+ group at various time points, but no difference in insulin-like growth factor- I concentration was observed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that IBVR challenge altered growth hormone concentration at some time points but was not associated with large increases in circulating proinflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/imunologia , Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina/imunologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Bovinos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
20.
Int J Microbiol ; 2013: 398320, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23401690

RESUMO

Citrus byproducts (CBPs) are utilized as a low cost nutritional supplement to the diets of cattle and have been suggested to inhibit the growth of both Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. The objective of this study was to examine the effects in vitro that varying concentrations of CBP in the powdered or pelleted variety have on the survival of Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes O26:H11, O103:H8, O111:H8, O145:H28, and O157:H7 in bovine ruminal microorganism media. The O26:H11, O111:H8, O145:H28, and O157:H7 serotypes did not exhibit a change in populations in media supplemented with CBP with either variety. The O103:H8 serotype displayed a general trend for an approximate 1log(10) reduction in 5% powdered CBP and 20% pelleted CBP over 6 h. There was a trend for reductions in populations of a variant form of O157:H7 mutated in the stx1 and stx2 genes in higher concentrations of CBP. These results suggest that variations exist in the survival of these serotypes of STEC within mixed ruminal microorganism fluid media when supplemented with CBP. Further research is needed to determine why CBPs affect STEC serotypes differently.

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