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1.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705160

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Higher concentrations of the adipokine omentin are associated with lower levels of cardiometabolic risk factors in experimental and cross-sectional studies, but with higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in population-based cohort studies. However, it is unknown whether high omentin concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in people with established diabetes. Therefore, the present study investigated the association between serum omentin concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular events in individuals with diabetes. METHODS: This prospective study was based on participants of the German ESTHER cohort with diabetes and without previous cardiovascular event. The ESTHER cohort consists of individuals aged 50-75 years at baseline who were recruited by their general practitioners. After exclusion of individuals with serum C-reactive protein ≥10 mg/l (≥95.24 nmol/l), the final analysis population consisted of 933 individuals. At baseline, serum omentin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Cox regression models were fitted to estimate HRs and their corresponding 95% CIs for associations of omentin tertiles with a composite endpoint of cardiovascular events and separately with incident myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death. RESULTS: During 14 years of follow-up, 228 individuals experienced a primary cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death). After comprehensive adjustment for age, sex, BMI, metabolic and lifestyle factors and medication use, HRs (95% CIs) for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of omentin compared with the 1st tertile were: 1.24 (95% CI 0.86, 1.79) and 1.63 (1.15, 2.32) (ptrend = 0.005) for the composite cardiovascular endpoint; 1.39 (0.78, 2.47) and 1.71 (0.98, 2.99) (ptrend = 0.065) for incident myocardial infarction; 1.40 (0.78, 2.53) and 2.05 (1.17, 3.58) (ptrend = 0.010) for incident stroke; and 1.43 (0.85, 2.40) and 1.72 (1.04, 2.83) (ptrend = 0.040) for cardiovascular death. Effect estimates and p values were almost unaltered after additional adjustment for adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Higher omentin concentrations are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events in individuals with diabetes after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Given data from preclinical studies, it appears possible that this association reflects a compensatory, but insufficient upregulation of omentin concentrations as a response to stimuli that increase cardiovascular risk.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher circulating levels of C-reactive protein, but the relationship between inflammation and endocrine function in PCOS remains poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation and sex hormones in women with PCOS. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A comprehensive panel of biomarkers of inflammation was measured in serum of 63 women with PCOS using proximity extension assay technology. Associations of 65 biomarkers with sex hormones were assessed without and with adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: In the unadjusted analysis, 20 biomarkers were positively correlated with 17-OH-progesterone (17-OH-P), 14 with prolactin and 6 with free testosterone, whereas inverse associations were found for 16 biomarkers with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), 6 with luteinizing hormone (LH) and 6 with estrogen (all p<0.05). Among the positive associations, correlations were mainly found for five chemokines (CXCL11, CCL4, MCP-4/CCL13, CXCL5, CXCL6) and for VEGF-A, LAP-TGFß1, TNFSF14 and MMP-1. Inverse associations with sex hormones were mainly present for two chemokines (CXCL1, MCP-2/CCL8), CDCP1, CST5 and CSF-1. Adjustment for age and BMI reduced the number of biomarker associations for SHBG and estrogen, but had hardly any impact on associations with 17-OH-P, prolactin, free testosterone and LH. CONCLUSION: Women with PCOS feature BMI-independent associations between biomarkers of inflammation and certain sex steroid and hypophyseal hormones. Most of these inflammation-related biomarkers were chemokines, which may be relevant as potential mediators of the increased cardiometabolic risk of women with PCOS.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213650, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921355

RESUMO

Previous studies reported that secreted frizzled-related protein-5 (Sfrp5) decreases beta cell proliferation and increases fasting insulin levels, but studies on direct effects of Sfrp5 on insulin secretion and its underlying mechanisms are missing. This study examined effects of Sfrp5 on (i) beta cell viability and proliferation, (ii) basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and (iii) canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling pathways. We incubated rat INS-1E cells with 0.1, 1 or 5 µg/ml recombinant Sfrp5 for 24h. We measured basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion at glucose concentrations of 2.5 and 20 mmol/l. Phosphorylated and total protein content as well as mRNA levels of markers of cell proliferation, canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling pathways were examined using Western blotting and real-time PCR. Differences between treatments were analysed by repeated measurement one-way ANOVA or Friedman's test followed by correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure. At 5 µg/ml, Sfrp5 reduced mRNA levels of cyclin-B1 by 25% (p<0.05). At 1 and 5 µg/ml, Sfrp5 increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by 24% and by 34% (both p<0.05), respectively, but had no impact on basal insulin secretion. Sfrp5 reduced the phosphorylation of the splicing forms p46 and p54 of JNK by 39% (p<0.01) and 49% (p<0.05), respectively. In conclusion, Sfrp5 reduced markers of cell proliferation, but increased in parallel dose-dependently glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1E cells. This effect is likely mediated by reduced JNK activity, an important component of the non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between different anthropometric measurements and development of distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) considering interaction effects with prediabetes/diabetes and to evaluate subclinical inflammation as a potential mediator. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was conducted among 513 participants from the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4/FF4 cohort (aged 62-81 years). Anthropometry was measured at baseline. Incident DSPN was defined by neuropathic impairments using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument at baseline and follow-up. Associations between anthropometric measurements and DSPN were estimated by multivariable logistic regression. Potential differences by diabetes status were assessed using interaction terms. Mediation analysis was conducted to determine the mediation effect of subclinical inflammation in these associations. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, 127 cases with incident DSPN were detected. Both general and abdominal obesity were associated with development of DSPN. The odds ratios (95% CI) of DSPN were 3.06 (1.57; 5.97) for overweight, 3.47 (1.72; 7.00) for obesity (reference: normal BMI), and 1.22 (1.07; 1.38) for 5-cm differences in waist circumference, respectively. Interaction analyses did not indicate any differences by diabetes status. Two chemokines (C-C motif chemokine ligand 7 [CCL7] and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 [CXCL10]) and one neuron-specific marker (Δ/Notch-like epidermal growth factor related receptor [DNER]) were identified as potential mediators, which explained a proportion of the total effect up to 11% per biomarker. CONCLUSIONS: General and abdominal obesity were associated with incident DSPN among individuals with and without diabetes, and this association was partly mediated by inflammatory markers. However, further mechanisms and biomarkers should be investigated as additional mediators to explain the remainder of this association.

5.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3074, 2018 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198166

RESUMO

AIMS: Experimental and epidemiological studies reported controversial data on the role of omentin in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to characterise the impact of omentin on the secretome of human adipocytes to analyse the enrichment of these proteins in metabolic and cellular signalling pathways underlying its physiological function. MATERIAL/METHODS: Differentiated primary human adipocytes were treated without or with 500 or 2000 ng/mL omentin for 24 hours. The secretome was analysed by liquid chromatography coupled tandem-mass spectrometry. Differences in protein secretion between untreated and omentin-treated adipocytes were compared using a paired t-test. Other potential upstream regulators and the overrepresentation in canonical pathways of omentin-stimulated proteins were analysed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. RESULTS: The supernatant of adipocytes contained 3493 proteins, of which 140 were differentially secreted by both concentrations of omentin compared with untreated adipocytes. Among the most strongly increased proteins, tumour necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TNFAIP6) was increased by 140-fold in the supernatant. Omentin-regulated proteins were overrepresented in seven canonical pathways including eukaryotic initiation factor 2 signalling, complement system, and inhibition of matrix metalloproteases. We further identified 25 other potential upstream activators of omentin-regulated proteins, mainly pro-inflammatory cytokines and transcription regulators including NFκB. CONCLUSIONS: In differentiated human adipocytes, the release of the anti-inflammatory TNFAIP6 might be part of a counterregulatory response to the pro-inflammatory action of omentin. Omentin-regulated proteins were overrepresented in pathways indicating cellular stress, a pro-inflammatory environment and a crosstalk with other organs. Other potential activators of omentin-regulated proteins point towards a central role of NFκB activation in the omentin-induced secretory process.

6.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 34(8): e3063, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114727

RESUMO

AIMS: Subclinical systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes, but its association with early progression of glycaemic deterioration in persons without diabetes has not been fully investigated. Our primary aim was to assess longitudinal associations of changes in pro-inflammatory (leukocytes, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) and anti-inflammatory (adiponectin) markers with changes in markers that assessed glycaemia, insulin resistance, and secretion (HbA1c , HOMA-IR, and HOMA-ß). Furthermore, we aimed to directly compare longitudinal with cross-sectional associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study includes 819 initially nondiabetic individuals with repeated measurements from the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) S4/F4 cohort study (median follow-up: 7.1 years). Longitudinal and cross-sectional associations were simultaneously examined using linear mixed growth models. Changes in markers of inflammation were used as independent and changes in markers of glycaemia/insulin resistance/insulin secretion as dependent variables. Models were adjusted for age, sex, major lifestyle and metabolic risk factors for diabetes using time-varying variables in the final model. RESULTS: Changes of leukocyte count were positively associated with changes in HbA1c and HOMA-ß while changes in adiponectin were inversely associated with changes in HbA1c . All examined cross-sectional associations were statistically significant; they were generally stronger and mostly directionally consistent to the longitudinal association estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse changes in low-grade systemic inflammation go along with glycaemic deterioration and increased insulin secretion independently of changes in other risk factors, suggesting that low-grade inflammation may contribute to the development of hyperglycaemia and a compensatory increase in insulin secretion.

7.
Diabetes ; 67(11): 2434-2442, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115651

RESUMO

Prospective analyses of biomarkers of inflammation and distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) are scarce and limited to innate immunity. We therefore aimed to assess associations between biomarkers reflecting multiple aspects of immune activation and DSPN. The study was based on 127 case subjects with incident DSPN and 386 noncase subjects from the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4/FF4 cohort (follow-up 6.5 years). Proximity extension assay technology was used to measure serum levels of biomarkers of inflammation. Of 71 biomarkers assessed, 26 were associated with incident DSPN. After adjustment for multiple testing, higher levels of six biomarkers remained related to incident DSPN. Three of these proteins (MCP-3/CCL7, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10) were chemokines, and the other three (DNER, CD40, TNFRSF9) were soluble forms of transmembrane receptors. The chemokines had neurotoxic effects on neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Addition of all six biomarkers improved the C statistic of a clinical risk model from 0.748 to 0.783 (P = 0.011). Pathway analyses indicated that multiple cell types from innate and adaptive immunity are involved in the development of DSPN. We thus identified novel associations between biomarkers of inflammation and incident DSPN pointing to a complex cross talk between innate and adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of the disease.

8.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 34(5): e3000, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been proposed as important pathomechanism of cardiometabolic diseases and distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN). However, the relevance of biomarkers of oxidative stress has not been investigated in this context. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the association of the prooxidant myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the antioxidant extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) with cardiometabolic risk factors and with prevalence and incidence of DSPN. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses comprised 1069 participants (40.3% with prediabetes and 20.5% with type 2 diabetes) of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 study (2006-2008), 181 of whom had DSPN at baseline. Prospective analyses included 524 individuals without DSPN at baseline who also participated in the KORA FF4 study (2013-2014), 132 of whom developed DSPN during the 6.5-year follow-up. Serum MPO and SOD3 were measured by ELISA, and their association with cardiometabolic risk factors and DSPN were estimated by using linear and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Higher MPO and SOD levels showed multiple positive associations with cardiometabolic risk factors including age, indices of obesity, insulin resistance, serum lipids, renal dysfunction, and biomarkers of inflammation. Higher MPO levels were associated with prevalent DSPN (fully adjusted OR 1.38 [95% CI 1.10; 1.72] per doubling of MPO). Higher baseline SOD3 levels were related to incident DSPN (age and sex-adjusted OR 2.14 [1.02; 4.48] per doubling of SOD3), which was partially explained by cardiometabolic risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic levels of both pro- and antioxidant enzymes appear involved in cardiometabolic risk and development of DSPN.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Peroxidase/sangue , Polineuropatias/diagnóstico , Córtex Sensório-Motor/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polineuropatias/sangue , Polineuropatias/etiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Córtex Sensório-Motor/patologia
9.
Hypertension ; 70(4): 743-750, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28784648

RESUMO

Hypertension represents a major cardiovascular risk factor. The pathophysiology of increased blood pressure (BP) is not yet completely understood. Transcriptome profiling offers possibilities to uncover genetics effects on BP. Based on 2 populations including 2549 individuals, a meta-analyses of monocytic transcriptome-wide profiles were performed to identify transcripts associated with BP. Replication was performed in 2 independent studies of whole-blood transcriptome data including 1990 individuals. For identified candidate genes, a direct link between long-term changes in BP and gene expression over time and by treatment with BP-lowering therapy was assessed. The predictive value of protein levels encoded by candidate genes for subsequent cardiovascular disease was investigated. Eight transcripts (CRIP1, MYADM, TIPARP, TSC22D3, CEBPA, F12, LMNA, and TPPP3) were identified jointly accounting for up to 13% (95% confidence interval, 8.7-16.2) of BP variability. Changes in CRIP1, MYADM, TIPARP, LMNA, TSC22D3, CEBPA, and TPPP3 expression associated with BP changes-among these, CRIP1 gene expression was additionally correlated to measures of cardiac hypertrophy. Assessment of circulating CRIP1 (cystein-rich protein 1) levels as biomarkers showed a strong association with increased risk for incident stroke (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.09; P=5.0×10-5). Our comprehensive analysis of global gene expression highlights 8 novel transcripts significantly associated with BP, providing a link between gene expression and BP. Translational approaches further established evidence for the potential use of CRIP1 as emerging disease-related biomarker.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Hipertensão , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Proteolipídicas Associadas a Linfócitos e Mielina/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 16(1): 109, 2017 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28851362

RESUMO

AIMS: Secreted frizzled-related protein (Sfrp)5 has beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, inflammation and cardiovascular risk in different mouse models, but its relevance for cardiometabolic diseases in humans is controversial. We aimed to characterise associations of circulating SFRP5 with cardiometabolic risk factors and prediabetes/type 2 diabetes in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations between serum SFRP5 and cardiometabolic risk factors as well as prediabetes/type 2 diabetes were investigated in 1096 participants aged 62-81 years from the German KORA F4 study, of whom 666 had prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Multivariable linear regression models were adjusted for potential confounders including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), lifestyle factors, lipids, hypertension, kidney function and myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Higher serum SFRP5 levels were associated with lower HbA1c, BMI, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin in the fully adjusted model (all P < 0.009). In contrast, favourable associations between SFRP5 and glycaemia, insulin, insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic risk factors were attenuated after adjustment for BMI. Serum SFRP5 levels were lower in participants with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes [(median (25th; 75th percentile) 48.8 (35.5; 65.7) ng/ml] compared to participants with normal glucose tolerance [55.9 (42.6; 69.6) ng/ml] (P < 0.001). In the fully adjusted model, higher SFRP5 was associated with lower odds of prediabetes/type 2 diabetes [OR (95% CI) (0.72 (0.58; 0.89)) per doubling of SFRP5, P < 0.01]. CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum SFRP5 was inversely associated with multiple risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, BMI represents a strong confounder of some of these associations. Higher circulating SFRP5 was also associated with lower odds of prediabetes/type 2 diabetes, and this association was independent of BMI. Thus, SFRP5 emerges as novel biomarker that merits further research in the context of prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Olho/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
11.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 177(4): 277-286, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies found that higher levels of the novel adipokine omentin-1 were associated with higher adiponectin and lower levels of risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but its relevance for incident type 2 diabetes is currently not understood. Therefore this study investigated whether serum omentin-1 was associated with changes in glycaemia and incident type 2 diabetes independently of adiponectin. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was based on participants aged 62-81 years from the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4/FF4 cohort. Associations of baseline serum levels of omentin-1 and adiponectin with changes in glycaemia were assessed in 471 non-diabetic participants, and associations between both adipokines and incident type 2 diabetes were assessed in 76 cases and 430 non-cases (follow-up time 6.5 years). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for multiple potential confounders. RESULTS: Higher serum levels of omentin-1 were associated with increases in fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and HbA1c (all P < 0.001) and with incident type 2 diabetes (adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% CI): 1.40 (1.03; 1.90) per s.d. of log2-transformed omentin-1; P = 0.032). These associations were independent from adiponectin levels, which showed associations with changes in glycaemia and risk of type 2 diabetes in the opposite direction. We found no statistically significant interactions of omentin-1 with adiponectin or sex in the association with incident type 2 diabetes (all P > 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Systemic levels of omentin-1 were positively associated with increases in glycaemia and incident type 2 diabetes in this older population. These associations were independent of potential confounders including adiponectin.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Lectinas/sangue , Vigilância da População , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 37(6): 1222-1227, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28428221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-1ß represents a key cytokine in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). IL-1ß is counter-regulated by IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), an endogenous inhibitor. This study aimed to identify population-based studies on circulating IL-1RA and incident CVD in a systematic review, estimate the association between IL-1RA and incident CVD in a meta-analysis, and to test whether the association between IL-1RA and incident CVD is explained by other inflammation-related biomarkers in the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study (Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease/Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg). APPROACH AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic literature search and identified 5 cohort studies on IL-1RA and incident CVD in addition to the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study for a meta-analysis based on a total of 1855 CVD cases and 18 745 noncases with follow-up times between 5 and 16 years. The pooled standardized hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident CVD was 1.11 (1.06-1.17) after adjustment for age, sex, anthropometric, metabolic, and lifestyle factors (P<0.0001). There was no heterogeneity in effect sizes (I2=0%; P=0.88). More detailed analyses in the MONICA/KORA study showed that the excess risk for CVD was attenuated by ≥10% after additional separate adjustment for serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, myeloperoxidase, soluble E-selectin, or soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. CONCLUSIONS: Serum IL-1RA levels were positively associated with risk of CVD after adjustment for multiple confounders in a meta-analysis of 6 population-based cohorts. This association may at least partially reflect a response to triggers inducing subclinical inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial activation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Diabetes Care ; 40(4): 569-576, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28174259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Experimental and epidemiological studies have implicated inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN), but prospective studies are lacking. We hypothesized that biomarkers of inflammation predict the development and progression of DSPN in a population-based cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was based on participants aged 62-81 years from the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4/FF4 cohort, with a mean follow-up of 6.5 years. The predictive value of systemic levels of eight biomarkers of inflammation was assessed for incident DSPN in 133 incident case subjects and 397 individuals without incident DSPN, and for DSPN progression in 57 patients with prevalent DSPN at both time points. RESULTS: Higher hs-CRP, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and lower adiponectin levels were associated with incident DSPN in age- and sex-adjusted analysis; IL-18 and omentin were not. IL-6 (odds ratio 1.31 [95% CI 1.00-1.71]) and TNF-α (odds ratio 1.31 [95% CI 1.03-1.67]) remained associated with incident DSPN after adjusting for known DSPN risk factors. The addition of both cytokines to a clinical risk model improved model fit and reclassification. sICAM-1 and IL-1RA were positively associated with progression of DSPN. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic subclinical and vascular inflammation predicted both the onset and progression of DSPN over 6.5 years in an older general population. Thus modulation of inflammatory processes may be relevant to prevent and/or treat diabetic neuropathy.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Polineuropatias/sangue , Polineuropatias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polineuropatias/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 16(1): 17, 2017 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28143481

RESUMO

AIMS: Interleukin-22 (IL-22) has beneficial effects on body weight, insulin resistance and inflammation in different mouse models, but its relevance for the development of type 2 diabetes in humans is unknown. We aimed to identify correlates of serum IL-22 levels and to test the hypothesis that higher IL-22 levels are associated with lower diabetes incidence. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations between serum IL-22, cardiometabolic risk factors and glucose tolerance status were investigated in 1107 persons of the population-based KORA F4 study. The prospective association between serum IL-22 and incident type 2 diabetes was assessed in 504 initially non-diabetic study participants in both the KORA F4 study and its 7-year follow-up examination KORA FF4, 76 of whom developed diabetes. RESULTS: Male sex, current smoking, lower HDL cholesterol, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were associated with higher IL-22 levels after adjustment for confounders (all P < 0.05). Serum IL-22 showed no associations with glucose tolerance status, prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Baseline serum IL-22 levels (median, 25th/75th percentiles) for incident type 2 diabetes cases and non-cases were 6.28 (1.95; 12.35) and 6.45 (1.95; 11.80) pg/ml, respectively (age and sex-adjusted P = 0.744). The age and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) per doubling of IL-22 for incident type 2 diabetes of 1.02 (0.85; 1.23) was almost unchanged after consideration of further confounders. CONCLUSIONS: High serum levels of IL-22 were positively rather than inversely associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors. However, these associations did not translate into an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Thus, our data argue against the utility of IL-22 as biomarker for prevalent or incident type 2 diabetes in humans, but identify potential determinants of IL-22 levels which merits further research in the context of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Interleucinas/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
15.
Gastroenterology ; 152(3): 571-585.e8, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27765690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of hepatic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. High-protein diets, rich in methionine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), apparently reduce liver fat, but can induce insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of diets high in animal protein (AP) vs plant protein (PP), which differ in levels of methionine and BCAAs, in patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. We examined levels of liver fat, lipogenic indices, markers of inflammation, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and activation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of individuals with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD at a tertiary medical center in Germany from June 2013 through March 2015. We analyzed data from 37 subjects placed on a diet high in AP (rich in meat and dairy foods; n = 18) or PP (mainly legume protein; n = 19) without calorie restriction for 6 weeks. The diets were isocaloric with the same macronutrient composition (30% protein, 40% carbohydrates, and 30% fat). Participants were examined at the start of the study and after the 6-week diet period for body mass index, body composition, hip circumference, resting energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient. Body fat and intrahepatic fat were detected by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, respectively. Levels of glucose, insulin, liver enzymes, and inflammation markers, as well as individual free fatty acids and free amino acids, were measured in collected blood samples. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps were performed to determine whole-body insulin sensitivity. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected and analyzed for gene expression patterns and phosphorylation of signaling proteins. RESULTS: Postprandial levels of BCAAs and methionine were significantly higher in subjects on the AP vs the PP diet. The AP and PP diets each reduced liver fat by 36%-48% within 6 weeks (for AP diet P = .0002; for PP diet P = .001). These reductions were unrelated to change in body weight, but correlated with down-regulation of lipolysis and lipogenic indices. Serum level of FGF21 decreased by 50% in each group (for AP diet P < .0002; for PP diet P < .0002); decrease in FGF21 correlated with loss of hepatic fat. In gene expression analyses of adipose tissue, expression of the FGF21 receptor cofactor ß-klotho was associated with reduced expression of genes encoding lipolytic and lipogenic proteins. In patients on each diet, levels of hepatic enzymes and markers of inflammation decreased, insulin sensitivity increased, and serum level of keratin 18 decreased. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study of patients with type 2 diabetes, we found diets high in protein (either animal or plant) significantly reduced liver fat independently of body weight, and reduced markers of insulin resistance and hepatic necroinflammation. The diets appear to mediate these changes via lipolytic and lipogenic pathways in adipose tissue. Negative effects of BCAA or methionine were not detectable. FGF21 level appears to be a marker of metabolic improvement. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02402985.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Carne , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/uso terapêutico , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo , Idoso , Animais , Composição Corporal , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta , Regulação para Baixo , Metabolismo Energético , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Humanos , Inflamação , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipogênese , Fígado/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Nature ; 541(7635): 81-86, 2017 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002404

RESUMO

Approximately 1.5 billion people worldwide are overweight or affected by obesity, and are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic and inflammatory disturbances. Although the mechanisms linking adiposity to associated clinical conditions are poorly understood, recent studies suggest that adiposity may influence DNA methylation, a key regulator of gene expression and molecular phenotype. Here we use epigenome-wide association to show that body mass index (BMI; a key measure of adiposity) is associated with widespread changes in DNA methylation (187 genetic loci with P < 1 × 10-7, range P = 9.2 × 10-8 to 6.0 × 10-46; n = 10,261 samples). Genetic association analyses demonstrate that the alterations in DNA methylation are predominantly the consequence of adiposity, rather than the cause. We find that methylation loci are enriched for functional genomic features in multiple tissues (P < 0.05), and show that sentinel methylation markers identify gene expression signatures at 38 loci (P < 9.0 × 10-6, range P = 5.5 × 10-6 to 6.1 × 10-35, n = 1,785 samples). The methylation loci identify genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, substrate transport and inflammatory pathways. Finally, we show that the disturbances in DNA methylation predict future development of type 2 diabetes (relative risk per 1 standard deviation increase in methylation risk score: 2.3 (2.07-2.56); P = 1.1 × 10-54). Our results provide new insights into the biologic pathways influenced by adiposity, and may enable development of new strategies for prediction and prevention of type 2 diabetes and other adverse clinical consequences of obesity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Metilação de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Obesidade/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sangue/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/genética
17.
Heart ; 103(1): 63-70, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27481890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is a common but underestimated diabetes-related disorder. Associations between cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and subclinical inflammation, both risk factors of diabetic comorbidities and mortality, have been proposed in non-diabetic populations, while data for type 1 and type 2 diabetes are conflicting. Our aim was to investigate associations between inflammation-related biomarkers and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with diabetes. METHODS: We characterised the associations between seven biomarkers of subclinical inflammation and cardiac autonomic dysfunction based on heart rate variability and cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests (CARTs) in 161 individuals with type 1 and 352 individuals with type 2 diabetes (time since diagnosis of diabetes <1 year). Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, anthropometric, metabolic and lifestyle factors, medication and cardiovascular comorbidities. RESULTS: In individuals with type 2 diabetes, higher serum interleukin (IL)-18 was associated with lower vagal activity (p≤0.015 for association with CARTs), whereas higher levels of total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin showed associations with very low frequency power, an indicator of reduced sympathetic activity (p≤0.014). Higher levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were associated with indicators of both lower vagal (p=0.025) and sympathetic (p=0.008) tone, soluble E-selectin with one indicator of lower vagal activity (p=0.047). Serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 were also related to cardiac autonomic dysfunction, but these associations were explained by confounding factors. No consistent associations were found in individuals with type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers of inflammation were differentially associated with diminished cardiac autonomic dysfunction in recent-onset type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/sangue , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 175(5): 367-77, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher systemic levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers and low adiponectin are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but their associations with changes in glycaemic deterioration before onset of diabetes are poorly understood. We aimed to study whether inflammation-related biomarkers are associated with 5-year changes in glucose and insulin, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function before the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and whether these associations may be bidirectional. DESIGN AND METHODS: We used multiple repeat measures (17 891 person-examinations from 7683 non-diabetic participants) from the Whitehall II study to assess whether circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL6), IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) and adiponectin are associated with subsequent changes in glycaemia, insulin, insulin resistance and beta-cell function (based on oral glucose tolerance tests). We examined bidirectionality by testing if parameters of glucose metabolism at baseline are associated with changes in inflammation-related biomarkers. RESULTS: Higher hsCRP and IL6 were associated with increases in fasting insulin, insulin resistance and, for IL6, with beta-cell function after adjustment for confounders. Higher adiponectin was associated with decreases in fasting glucose, HbA1c, fasting insulin, insulin resistance and beta-cell function. The reverse approach showed that 2-h glucose and insulin sensitivity were associated with changes in IL1Ra. Fasting insulin and insulin resistance showed inverse associations with changes in adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical inflammation is associated with development of increased glycaemia, insulin resistance and beta-cell function in non-diabetic individuals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that inflammation-related processes may increase insulin resistance and lead to a compensatory upregulation of beta-cell function.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0152314, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27019061

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation has been postulated to affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for measures of glucose metabolism in whole blood samples of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We identified a total of 31 CpG sites where methylation level was associated with measures of glucose metabolism after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and estimated white blood cell proportions and correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H) method (four for fasting glucose, seven for fasting insulin, 25 for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]; B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5) and 0.047). In addition, DNA methylation at cg06500161 (annotated to ABCG1) was associated with all the aforementioned phenotypes and 2-hour glucose (B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5) and 3.0x10(-3)). Methylation status of additional three CpG sites showed an association with fasting insulin only after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (B-H-adjusted p-values = 0.047). Overall, effect strengths were reduced by around 30% after additional adjustment for BMI, suggesting that this variable has an influence on the investigated phenotypes. Furthermore, we found significant associations between methylation status of 21 of the aforementioned CpG sites and 2-hour insulin in a subset of samples with seven significant associations persisting after additional adjustment for BMI. In a subset of 533 participants, methylation of the CpG site cg06500161 (ABCG1) was inversely associated with ABCG1 gene expression (B-H-adjusted p-value = 1.5x10(-9)). Additionally, we observed an enrichment of the top 1,000 CpG sites for diabetes-related canonical pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that DNA methylation and diabetes-related traits are associated and that these associations are partially BMI-dependent. Furthermore, the interaction of ABCG1 with glucose metabolism is modulated by epigenetic processes.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glucose/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/análise , DNA/sangue , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Alemanha , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
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