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2.
Psychother Psychosom ; 90(6): 403-414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350902

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Self-Help Plus (SH+) is a group-based psychological intervention developed by the World Health Organization for managing stress. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of SH+ in preventing mental disorders in refugees and asylum seekers in Western Europe. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 5 European countries. Refugees and asylum seekers with psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire score ≥3), but without a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) or ICD/10 diagnosis of mental disorder, as assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), were randomized to SH+ or enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU). The primary outcome was the frequency of mental disorders with the MINI at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included the frequency of mental disorders at postintervention, self-identified problems, psychological symptoms, and other outcomes. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-nine individuals were randomly assigned to SH+ or ETAU. For the primary outcome, we found no difference in the frequency of mental disorders at 6 months (Cramer V = 0.007, p = 0.90, RR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.52-1.78), while the difference significantly favored SH+ at after the intervention (secondary outcome, measured within 2 weeks from the last session; Cramer V = 0.13, p = 0.01, RR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.29-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomized indicated prevention study with the aim of preventing the onset of mental disorders in asylum seekers and refugees in Western Europe. As a prevention effect of SH+ was not observed at 6 months, but rather after the intervention only, modalities to maintain its beneficial effect in the long term need to be identified.

3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(6): e24115, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing global need for scalable approaches to training and supervising primary care workers (PCWs) to deliver mental health services. Over the past decade, the World Health Organization Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) and associated training and implementation guidance have been disseminated to more than 100 countries. On the basis of the opportunities provided by mobile technology, an updated electronic Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (e-mhGAP-IG) is now being developed along with a clinical dashboard and guidance for the use of mobile technology in supervision. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the feasibility, acceptability, adoption, and other implementation parameters of the e-mhGAP-IG for diagnosis and management of depression in 2 lower-middle-income countries (Nepal and Nigeria) and to conduct a feasibility cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) to evaluate trial procedures for a subsequent fully powered trial comparing the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the e-mhGAP-IG and remote supervision with standard mhGAP-IG implementation. METHODS: A feasibility cRCT will be conducted in Nepal and Nigeria to evaluate the feasibility of the e-mhGAP-IG for use in depression diagnosis and treatment. In each country, an estimated 20 primary health clinics (PHCs) in Nepal and 6 PHCs in Nigeria will be randomized to have their staff trained in e-mhGAP-IG or the paper version of mhGAP-IG v2.0. The PHC will be the unit of clustering. All PCWs within a facility will receive the same training (e-mhGAP-IG vs paper mhGAP-IG). Approximately 2-5 PCWs, depending on staffing, will be recruited per clinic (estimated 20 health workers per arm in Nepal and 15 per arm in Nigeria). The primary outcomes of interest will be the feasibility and acceptability of training, supervision, and care delivery using the e-mhGAP-IG. Secondary implementation outcomes include the adoption of the e-mhGAP-IG and feasibility of trial procedures. The secondary intervention outcome-and the primary outcome for a subsequent fully powered trial-will be the accurate identification of depression by PCWs. Detection rates before and after training will be compared in each arm. RESULTS: To date, qualitative formative work has been conducted at both sites to prepare for the pilot feasibility cRCT, and the e-mhGAP-IG and remote supervision guidelines have been developed. CONCLUSIONS: The incorporation of mobile digital technology has the potential to improve the scalability of mental health services in primary care and enhance the quality and accuracy of care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04522453; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04522453. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/24115.

4.
Internet Interv ; 24: 100380, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747798

RESUMO

Background: E-mental health interventions may help to bridge the mental health treatment gap. Evidence on their effectiveness is compelling in high-income countries. Not enough evidence has been generated on their use with communities affected by adversity in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO), the National Mental Health Programme (NMMP) at Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) in Lebanon and other partners have adapted a WHO intervention called Step-by-Step for use with Lebanese and displaced people living in Lebanon. Step-by-Step is a minimally guided, internet-based intervention for adults with depression. In this study, a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) and a qualitative process evaluation were conducted to explore the feasibility and the acceptability of the research methods, and the intervention, in preparation for two fully powered trials to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Step-by-Step in Lebanon. Method: Participants were recruited through social media. Inclusion criteria were: being able to understand and speak Arabic or English; access to an internet connected device; aged over 18; living in Lebanon; scores above cut-off on the Patient Health Questionnaire and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or enhanced care as usual. They completed post-assessments eight weeks after baseline, and follow-up assessments another three months later. Primary outcomes were depression and level of functioning, secondary outcomes were anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and well-being. Qualitative interviews were conducted to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the research procedures and the intervention. Results: A total of N = 138 participants, including 33 Syrians, were recruited and randomised into two equal groups. The dropout rate was higher in the control group (73% post- and 82% follow-up assessment) than in the intervention group (63% post- and 72% follow-up assessment). The intervention was perceived as relevant, acceptable and beneficial to those who completed it. Suggestions were made to further adapt the content and to make the intervention more engaging. Statistical analyses were conducted despite the small sample size. Complete cases analysis showed a statistically significant symptom reduction in depression, anxiety, disability, and post-traumatic stress, and statistically significant improvement in well-being and functioning. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed non-significant effects. Conclusion: The research design, methods and procedures are feasible and acceptable in the context of Lebanon and can be applied in the RCTs. Preliminary findings suggest that Step-by-Step may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and improving functioning and well-being.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430893

RESUMO

There is currently a high global demand for mental health professionals, including child and adolescent mental health professionals. In 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) published "Enhancing mental health pre-service training with the mhGAP-Intervention Guide: experiences and lessons learned" to address the proposition of implementing Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) materials and principles as a component of pre-service training. By integrating the mhGAP-IG within pre-service training, future healthcare providers will acquire theoretical knowledge and early exposure to practical knowledge and will be better prepared for their future work.Examples demonstrate that mhGAP-IG pre-service training can be successfully implemented in diverse settings and in various pre-service training programs. It can be used in small group learning activities and short courses, taught through lectures, used as a clinical tool to teach students (i.e. medical, nursing students) and medical doctors in training. We can enhance pre-service training with the mhGAP-IG and contribute to a learning environment, which nurtures knowledge and skills required to help people with mental health needs.

6.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e21585, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of availability of evidence-based services for people exposed to adversity globally has led to the development of psychological interventions with features that will likely make them more scalable. The evidence for the efficacy of e-mental health from high-income countries is compelling, and the use of these interventions could be a way to increase the coverage of evidence-based psychological interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Step-by-Step is a brief (5-session) intervention proposed by the World Health Organization as an innovative approach to reducing the suffering and disability associated with depression. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a locally adapted version of Step-by-Step with Syrian nationals (trial 1) and Lebanese nationals and other populations residing in Lebanon (trial 2). METHODS: This Step-by-Step trial involves 2 parallel, two-armed, randomized controlled trials comparing the e-intervention Step-by-Step to enhanced care as usual in participants with depressive symptoms and impaired functioning. The randomized controlled trials are designed and powered to detect effectiveness in 2 populations: Syrians in Lebanon (n=568) and other people residing in Lebanon (n=568; Lebanese nationals and other populations resident in Lebanon). The primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and functioning (measured with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0). Secondary outcomes include anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, personalized measures of psychosocial problems, subjective well-being, and economic effectiveness. Participants are mainly recruited through online advertising. Additional outreach methods will be used if required, for example through dissemination of information through partner agencies and organizations. They can access the intervention on a computer, tablet, and mobile phone through a hybrid app. Step-by-Step has 5 sessions, and users are guided by trained nonspecialist "e-helpers" providing phone-based or message-based support for around 15 minutes a week. RESULTS: The trials were funded in 2018. The study protocol was last verified June 20, 2019 (WHO ERC.0002797) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03720769). The trials started recruitment as of December 9, 2019, and all data collection was completed in December 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The Step-by-Step trials will provide evidence about the effectiveness of an e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. If the intervention proves to be effective, this will inform future scale-up of this and similar interventions in Lebanon and in other settings across the world. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03720769; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03720769. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21585.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: User experience (UX) plays a key role in uptake and usage of mental health smartphone interventions, yet remains underinvestigated. This review aimed to characterize and compare UX evaluation approaches that have been applied in this specific context, and to identify implications for research and practice. METHODS: A narrative review was conducted of UX-themed studies published in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus up to February 2019. Eligible studies reported on data reflecting users' interactions with a smartphone intervention for any mental health condition. Studies were categorized into "situated" versus "construct-based" methods according to whether or not an established UX construct was used to acquire and analyze data. RESULTS: Situated approaches used bespoke UX metrics, including quantitative measures of usage and performance, as well as grounded interview data. Construct-based approaches such as assessments of usability and acceptability were based on conceptual frameworks, with methodologically stronger versions featuring construct definitions, validated measurement tools, and an ability to compare data across studies. Constructs and measures were sometimes combined to form bespoke construct-based approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Both situated and construct-based UX data may provide benefits during design and implementation of a mental health smartphone intervention by helping to clarify the needs of users and the impact of new features. Notable however was the omission of UX methods, such as split testing. Future research should consider these unaddressed methods, aim to improve the rigor of UX assessment, integrate their use alongside clinical outcomes, and explore UX assessment of more complex, adaptive interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Aplicativos Móveis , Participação do Paciente , Projetos de Pesquisa , Smartphone , Telemedicina/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Satisfação do Paciente , Interface Usuário-Computador
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(2): e254-e263, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovative solutions are required to provide mental health support at scale in low-resource humanitarian contexts. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a facilitator-guided, group-based, self-help intervention (Self-Help Plus) to reduce psychological distress in female refugees. METHODS: We did a cluster randomised trial in rural refugee settlements in northern Uganda. Participants were female South Sudanese refugees with at least moderate levels of psychological distress (cutoff ≥5 on the Kessler 6). The intervention comprised access to usual care and five 2-h audio-recorded stress-management workshops (20-30 refugees) led by briefly trained lay facilitators, accompanied by an illustrated self-help book. Villages were randomly assigned to either intervention (Self-Help Plus or enhanced usual care) on a 1:1 basis. Within 14 villages, randomly selected households were approached. Screening of women in households continued until 20-30 eligible participants were identified per site. The primary outcome was individual psychological distress, assessed using the Kessler 6 symptom checklist 1 week before, 1 week after, and 3 months after intervention, in the intention-to-treat population. All outcomes were measured at the individual (rather than cluster) level. Secondary outcomes included personally identified problems, post-traumatic stress, depression symptoms, feelings of anger, social interactions with other ethnic groups, functional impairment, and subjective wellbeing. Assessors were masked to allocation. This trial was prospectively registered at ISRCTN, number 50148022. FINDINGS: Of 694 eligible participants (331 Self-Help Plus, 363 enhanced usual care), 613 (88%) completed all assessments. Compared with controls, we found stronger improvements for Self-Help Plus on psychological distress 3 months post intervention (ß -1·20, 95% CI -2·33 to -0·08; p=0·04; d -0·26). We also found larger improvements for Self-Help Plus 3 months post-intervention for five of eight secondary outcomes (effect size range -0·30 to -0·36). Refugees with different trauma exposure, length of time in settlements, and initial psychological distress benefited similarly. With regard to safety considerations, the independent data safety management board responded to six adverse events, and none were evaluated to be concerns in response to the intervention. INTERPRETATION: Self-Help Plus is an innovative, facilitator-guided, group-based self-help intervention that can be rapidly deployed to large numbers of participants, and resulted in meaningful reductions in psychological distress at 3 months among South Sudanese female refugees. FUNDING: Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) Programme.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Refugiados/psicologia , Autocuidado/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Behav Cogn Ther ; 30(3): 165-186, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308387

RESUMO

Delivery of psychological and psychosocial treatments by non-specialists in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC) is a growing strategy to address the global mental health treatment gap. However, little is known about which competencies are essential for non-specialists to effectively deliver treatment. Psychotherapy research in high-income countries suggests that effective treatment requires competency in common factors. Therefore, our objective was to identify how common factors are described in evidence-supported non-specialist interventions in LMICs. To meet this objective, we identified and coded common factors by reviewing 16 evidence-supported manuals for psychological treatments delivered by non-specialists in LMICs. World Health Organization (WHO) manuals and other non-proprietary manuals, with positive randomized control outcomes, were included in the review. Fifteen common factors were identified and described in most manuals: 'promoting hope and realistic expectancy of change' and 'confidentiality' were described in 15 manuals (94%), followed by 'giving praise' and 'psychoeducation' (88% of manuals), and 'rapport building' (81% of manuals). Descriptions of common factors were similar across manuals, suggesting that training and competency evaluation approaches can be harmonized across interventions. Compiling these descriptions from the manuals can inform foundational training in common factors for diverse cadres of non-specialists around the world.

12.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e030259, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092670

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This article describes two randomised controlled trials that will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Self-Help Plus (SH+), a group self-help intervention developed by the WHO to reduce distress. In these trials SH+ is being tested as a preventative intervention to lower the incidence of mental disorders in asylum seekers and refugees with psychological distress resettled in Europe and Turkey. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Two prospective, multicentre, randomised, rater-blinded, parallel-group studies will follow participants over a period of 12 months. One trial will be conducted in Europe and one in Turkey. In each trial, 600 asylum seekers and refugees screening positive on the General Health Questionnaire (≥3), but without a formal diagnosis of any mental disorders according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, will be randomly allocated to SH+or to enhanced treatment-as-usual. The primary outcome will be a lower incidence of mental disorders at 6 month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will include the evaluation of psychological symptoms, functioning, well-being, treatment acceptability and indicators of intervention cost-effectiveness. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The two trials received ethical clearance from the local Ethics Committees of the participating sites (seven sites), as well as from the WHO Ethics Committee. All participants will provide informed consent before screening and before study inclusion (a two-step procedure). The results of the trials will be disseminated in agreement with a dissemination plan that includes publication(s) in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at relevant national and international conferences and meetings. TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT03571347, NCT03587896.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Refugiados , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/economia , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/economia , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Refugiados/psicologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 986, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116815

RESUMO

Background: E-mental health is an established mode of delivering treatment for common mental disorders in many high income countries. However, evidence of its effectiveness in lower income countries is lacking. This mixed methods study presents lessons learned and preliminary data on the feasibility of a minimally guided e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. The aim was to pilot test Step-by-Step, a WHO guided e-mental health intervention, and research methods prior to future, controlled testing. Methods: Participants were recruited using social media and advertisements in primary care clinics. Participants completed baseline and post-intervention questionnaires on depression symptoms (primary outcome, PHQ-8), anxiety symptoms, well-being, disability and self-perceived problem severity, and a client satisfaction questionnaire. In addition, seven completers, four drop-outs, 11 study staff, and four clinic managers were interviewed with responses thematically analyzed. Website analytics were used to understand participant behavior when using the website. Results: A total of 129 participants signed up via the Step-by-Step website. Seventy-four participants started session 1 after completing pre-test questionnaires and 26 completed both baseline and post-intervention data. Among those who completed post-assessments, depression symptoms improved (PHQ-8 scores (t=5.62, p < 0.001 two-tailed, df = 25). Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed a significant difference between baseline and post-Step-by-Step scores on all secondary outcome measures. Client satisfaction data was positive. Interview responses suggested that the intervention could be made more appropriate for younger, single people, more motivating, and easier to use. Those who utilized the support element of the intervention were happy with their relationship with the non-specialist support person (e-helper), though some participants would have preferred specialist support. E-helpers would have liked more training on complex cases. Website analytics showed that many users dropped out before intervention start, and that some re-entered screening data having been excluded from the study. Conclusion: Step-by-Step skills and techniques, model of service integration, and its non-specialist support element are acceptable. Though the sample was small and non-controlled and drop-out was high, results suggest that it may be effective in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms and increasing well-being. Lessons learned will inform content revision, the development of an app version of Step-by-Step, and the research methodology of upcoming effectiveness studies.

15.
Mhealth ; 4: 34, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225240

RESUMO

The World Health Organization is developing a range of interventions, including technology supported interventions, to help address the mental health treatment gap, particularly in low and middle-income countries. One of these, Step-by-Step, is a guided, technology supported, intervention for depression. It provides psychoeducation and training in behavioural activation through an illustrated narrative with additional therapeutic techniques such as stress management (slow breathing), identifying strengths, positive self-talk, increasing social support and relapse prevention. Step-by-Step has been designed so that it can be adapted for use in settings with different cultural contexts and resource availability and to be meaningful in communities affected by adversity. This paper describes the process of developing Step-by-Step and highlights particular design features aimed at increasing feasibility of implementation in a wide variety of settings.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 663, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740065

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study is to describe the initial stages of the iterative and user-centered mobile mental health adaptation process of Step-by-Step (SbS), a modularized and originally web-based e-mental health intervention developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Given the great need for improving the responsiveness and accessibility of health systems in host countries, the EU-funded STRENGTHS consortium studies the adaptation, implementation and scaling-up of SbS for Syrian refugees in Germany, Sweden and Egypt. Using early prototyping, usability testing and identification of barriers to implementation, the study demonstrates a user-centered process of contextual adaptation to the needs and expectations of Syrian refugees. Materials and Methods: N = 128 adult Syrian refugees residing in Germany, Sweden and Egypt took part in qualitative assessments. Access, usage, and potential barriers regarding information and communication technologies (ICTs) were assessed in free list interviews. Interactive prototypes of the app were presented in key informant interviews and evaluated on usability, user experience and dissemination strategies. Focus groups were conducted to verify the results. The interview protocols were analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Results: The use of digital technologies was found to be widespread among Syrian refugees. Technical literacy and problems with accessing the internet were common barriers. The majority of the respondents reacted positively to the presented app prototypes, stressing the potential health impact of the intervention (n = 28; 78%), its flexibility and customizability (n = 19; 53%) as well as the easy learnability of the app (n = 12; 33%). Aesthetic components (n = 12; 33%) and the overall length and pace of the intervention sessions (n = 9; 25%) were criticized in regard to their negative impact on user motivation. Acceptability, credibility, and technical requirements were identified as main barriers to implementation. Discussion: The study provided valuable guidance for adapting the app version of SbS and for mobile mental health adaptation in general. The findings underline the value of contextual adaptation with a focus on usability, user experience, and context specific dissemination strategies. Related factors such as access, acceptability and adherence have major implications for scaling-up digital interventions.

18.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 8(sup2): 1388102, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163867

RESUMO

The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria's neighbouring countries as well as in Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most refugees do not have access to mental health services for these problems because of multiple barriers in national and refugee specific health systems, including limited availability of mental health professionals. To counter some of challenges arising from limited mental health system capacity the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a range of scalable psychological interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving functioning in people living in communities affected by adversity. These interventions, including Problem Management Plus (PM+) and its variants, are intended to be delivered through individual or group face-to-face or smartphone formats by lay, non-professional people who have not received specialized mental health training, We provide an evidence-based rationale for the use of the scalable PM+ oriented programmes being adapted for Syrian refugees and provide information on the newly launched STRENGTHS programme for adapting, testing and scaling up of PM+ in various modalities in both neighbouring and European countries hosting Syrian refugees.

20.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 46(4): 546-55, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23507129

RESUMO

CONTEXT: There are limited studies and few theoretical models addressing the interaction between pain and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, with none concerning this interaction in survivors of torture, who frequently report persistent pain. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the relationship between persistent pain and re-experiencing of traumatic events in survivors of torture. METHODS: Nine torture survivors were interviewed about their experiences of pain and re-experiencing, and the results analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Levels of pain and post-traumatic stress were assessed. RESULTS: Four superordinate themes emerged, namely "pain is the enemy," "pain and intrusive memories are connected," "changed identity," and "resilience and resources." These themes showed a complex relationship between torture, pain, re-experiencing, and other aspects of individual experience, such as the multiple losses experienced by torture survivors. Both pain and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were shown to have profound impacts on the everyday lives of participants. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the relationship between pain and re-experiencing requires a broad model that considers the impact of a range of individual, social, and environmental factors on the interaction between pain and traumatic stress symptoms in survivors of torture. The study has clinical implications, most notably the need to attempt more integrated treatment of pain and traumatic symptoms where they occur together, and to consider the meaning and impact of pain when treating survivors of torture. Further investigation of the relationship between pain and traumatic stress symptoms in torture survivors is needed, as are studies of combined treatment for pain and trauma.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Tortura/psicologia , Tortura/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Dor Crônica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Reino Unido
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