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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 27-72, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646506

RESUMO

Ca2+, Na+ and K+- permeable ion channels as well as GPCRs linked to Ca2+ release are important drug targets. Accordingly, high-throughput fluorescence plate reader assays have contributed substantially to drug discovery efforts and pharmacological characterization of these receptors and ion channels. This chapter describes some of the basic properties of the fluorescent dyes facilitating these assay approaches as well as general methods for establishment and optimisation of fluorescence assays for ion channels and Gq-coupled GPCRs.


Assuntos
Bioensaio , Canais Iônicos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G , Animais , Bioensaio/tendências , Descoberta de Drogas , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/análise , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/análise
2.
J Forensic Sci ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479524

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are by-products of cadaveric decomposition and are responsible for the odor associated with decomposing remains. The direct link between VOC production and individual postmortem microbes has not been well characterized experimentally. The purpose of this study was to profile VOCs released from three postmortem bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis, Ignatzschineria indica, I. ureiclastica) using solid-phase microextraction arrow (SPME Arrow) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Species were inoculated in headspace vials on Standard Nutrient Agar and monitored over 5 days at 24°C. Each species exhibited a different VOC profile that included common decomposition VOCs. VOCs exhibited upward or downward temporal trends over time. Ignatzschineria indica produced a large amount of dimethyldisulfide. Other compounds of interest included alcohols, aldehydes, aromatics, and ketones. This provides foundational data to link decomposition odor with specific postmortem microbes to improve understanding of underlying mechanisms for decomposition VOC production.

3.
J Neurosci ; 39(41): 8038-8050, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471471

RESUMO

Integration and modulation of primary afferent sensory information begins at the first terminating sites within the CNS, where central inhibitory circuits play an integral role. Viscerosensory information is conveyed to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) where it initiates neuroendocrine, behavioral, and autonomic reflex responses that ensure optimal internal organ function. This excitatory input is modulated by diverse, local inhibitory interneurons, whose functions are not clearly understood. Here we show that, in male rats, 65% of somatostatin-expressing (SST) NTS neurons also express GAD67, supporting their likely role as inhibitory interneurons. Using whole-cell recordings of NTS neurons, from horizontal brainstem slices of male and female SST-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and SST-channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-YFP mice, we quantified the impact of SST-NTS neurons on viscerosensory processing. Light-evoked excitatory photocurrents were reliably obtained from SST-ChR2-YFP neurons (n = 16) and the stimulation-response characteristics determined. Most SST neurons (57%) received direct input from solitary tract (ST) afferents, indicating that they form part of a feedforward circuit. All recorded SST-negative NTS neurons (n = 72) received SST-ChR2 input. ChR2-evoked PSCs were largely inhibitory and, in contrast to previous reports, were mediated by both GABA and glycine. When timed to coincide, the ChR2-activated SST input suppressed ST-evoked action potentials at second-order NTS neurons, demonstrating strong modulation of primary viscerosensory input. These data indicate that the SST inhibitory network innervates broadly within the NTS, with the potential to gate viscerosensory input to powerfully alter autonomic reflex function and other behaviors.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sensory afferent input is modulated according to state. For example the baroreflex is altered during a stress response or exercise, but the basic mechanisms underpinning this sensory modulation are not fully understood in any sensory system. Here we demonstrate that the neuronal processing of viscerosensory information begins with synaptic gating at the first central synapse with second-order neurons in the NTS. These data reveal that the somatostatin subclass of inhibitory interneurons are driven by visceral sensory input to play a major role in gating viscerosensory signals, placing them within a feedforward circuit within the NTS.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0217532, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412036

RESUMO

Transcriptome analyses show a surprisingly large proportion of the mammalian genome is transcribed; much more than can be accounted for by genes and introns alone. Most of this transcription is non-coding in nature and arises from intergenic regions, often overlapping known protein-coding genes in sense or antisense orientation. The functional relevance of this widespread transcription is unknown. Here we characterize a promoter responsible for initiation of an intergenic transcript located approximately 3.3 kb and 10.7 kb upstream of the adult-specific human ß-globin genes. Mutational analyses in ß-YAC transgenic mice show that alteration of intergenic promoter activity results in ablation of H3K4 di- and tri-methylation and H3 hyperacetylation extending over a 30 kb region immediately downstream of the initiation site, containing the adult δ- and ß-globin genes. This results in dramatically decreased expression of the adult genes through position effect variegation in which the vast majority of definitive erythroid cells harbor inactive adult globin genes. In contrast, expression of the neighboring ε- and γ-globin genes is completely normal in embryonic erythroid cells, indicating a developmentally specific variegation of the adult domain. Our results demonstrate a role for intergenic non-coding RNA transcription in the propagation of histone modifications over chromatin domains and epigenetic control of ß-like globin gene transcription during development.

5.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 67: 37-48, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419763

RESUMO

Previous studies have begun to characterize the microbial community dynamics of the skin, soil, gut, and oral cavities of decomposing remains. One area that has yet to be explored in great detail is the microbiome of the fly larval mass, the community of immature flies that plays a significant role in decomposition. The current study aimed to characterize the microbiology and chemistry of larval masses established on pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses and to determine if these characteristics have potential as temporal evidence. Carcasses (n = 3) were decomposed on the soil surface of a tropical habitat on Oahu, Hawaii, USA and sampled over three days at 74 h, 80 h, 98 h, 104 h, 122 h, and 128 h (∼85-142 Accumulated Degree Days) postmortem. Larval masses were analyzed via high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing and in situ chemical measurements (pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential). A trend was observed that resulted in three distinct microbial communities (pre-98 h, 98 h, and post-98 h). The oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) of larval masses apparently regulated microbial community structure with the most negative Eh being associated with the least rich and diverse microbial communities. Overall, a significant interaction between time and taxa was observed, particularly with bacterial phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The current results provide new insight into the microbial community and chemical parameters of larval masses and indicate a temporal shift that could be further studied as a PMI estimator.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Larva/química , Larva/microbiologia , Microbiota , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Entomologia , Patologia Legal , Hawaii , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Animais , Oxirredução , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Suínos
6.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 144: 50-56, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419585

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small lipid-enclosed particles that can carry various types of cargo, including proteins, nucleic acids and metabolites. They are known to be released by all cell types and can be taken up by other cells, leading to the transfer of the cargo they carry. As such, they represent an important type of intercellular signalling and a natural mechanism for transferring macromolecules between cells. This ability to transfer cargo could be harnessed to deliver therapeutic molecules. Indeed, a growing body of work has described the attempt by the field to utilise EVs to deliver a range of therapeutics including RNAi, CRISPR/Cas9 and chemotherapeutics, to a specific target tissue. However, there are numerous barriers associated with the use of EVs as therapeutic vehicles, including the challenge of efficiently loading therapeutics into EVs, avoiding clearance of the EVs from circulation, targeting the correct tissue type and the inefficiency of internalisation and functional delivery of the cargo. Despite these difficulties, EVs represent a tremendous therapeutic opportunity, both for the delivery of exogenous cargo, as well as the therapeutic benefit of targeting aberrant EV signalling or treating patients with natural EVs, such as those released by mesenchymal stem cells. This review describes current knowledge on the therapeutic potential of EVs and the challenges faced by the field. Many of these challenges are due to a lack of complete understanding of EV function, but further research in this area should continue to yield new solutions that will lead to the use of EVs in the clinic.

7.
J Pain ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260808

RESUMO

Vincristine, oxaliplatin, and cisplatin are commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of many tumors. However, a main side effect is chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), which may lead to changes in chemotherapeutic treatment. Although symptoms associated with CIPN are recapitulated by mouse models, there is limited knowledge of how these drugs affect the expression of genes in sensory neurons. The present study carried out a transcriptomic analysis of dorsal root ganglia following vincristine, oxaliplatin, and cisplatin treatment with a view to gain insight into the comparative pathophysiological mechanisms of CIPN. RNA-Seq revealed 368, 295, and 256 differential expressed genes induced by treatment with vincristine, oxaliplatin, and cisplatin, respectively, and only 5 shared genes were dysregulated in all 3 groups. Cell type enrichment analysis and gene set enrichment analysis showed predominant effects on genes associated with the immune system after treatment with vincristine, while oxaliplatin treatment affected mainly neuronal genes. Treatment with cisplatin resulted in a mixed gene expression signature. PERSPECTIVE: These results provide insight into the recruitment of immune responses to dorsal root ganglia and indicate enhanced neuroinflammatory processes following administration of vincristine, oxaliplatin, and cisplatin. These gene expression signatures may provide insight into novel drug targets for treatment of CIPN.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0204712, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We present a new family of ECG biomarkers for assessing drug effects on ventricular repolarization. We show that drugs blocking inward (depolarizing) ion currents cause a relative increase of the T vector velocity (TVV) and accelerate repolarization, while drugs blocking outward ion currents cause a relative decrease of the TVV and delay repolarization. The results suggest a link between the TVV and the instantaneous change of the cellular action potentials that may contribute to bridge the gap between the surface ECG and myocardial cellular processes. METHODS: We measure TVV as the time required to reach X% of the total Trajectory length of the T vector loop, denoted as TrX. Applied to data from two FDA funded studies (22+22 subjects, 5232+4208 ECGs) which target ECG effects of various ion-channel blocking drugs, the TrX effect profiles indicate increasingly delayed electrical activity over the entire repolarization process for drugs solely reducing outward potassium current (dofetilide, moxifloxacin). For drugs eliciting block of the inward sodium or calcium currents (mexiletine, lidocaine), the TrX effect profiles were consistent with accelerated electrical activity in the initial repolarization phase. For multichannel blocking drugs (ranolazine) or drug combinations blocking multiple ion currents (dofetilide + mexiletine, dofetilide + lidocaine), the overall TrX effect profiles indicate a superposition of the individual TrX effect profiles. RESULTS: The parameter Tr40c differentiates pure potassium channel blocking drugs from multichannel blocking drugs with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.90, CI = [0.88 to 0.92]. This is significantly better than the performance of J-Tpeakc (0.81, CI = [0.78 to 0.84]) identified as the best parameter in the second FDA study. Combining the ten parameters Tr10c to Tr100c in a logistic regression model further improved the AUC to 0.94, CI = [0.92 to 0.96]. CONCLUSIONS: TVV analysis substantially improves assessment of drug effects on cardiac repolarization, providing a plausible and improved mechanistic link between drug effects on ionic currents and overall ventricular repolarization reflected in the body surface ECG. TVV contributes to an enhanced appraisal of the proarrhythmic risk of drugs beyond QTc prolongation and J-Tpeakc.

9.
FEBS Lett ; 593(15): 1957-1973, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144305

RESUMO

Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here, we investigated how the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) signaling cascade acts in parallel with the UPR to regulate ER stress sensitivity. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that TORC1 signaling is attenuated during ER stress and constitutive activation of TORC1 increases sensitivity to ER stressors independently of the UPR. Transcriptome analysis revealed that TORC1 hyperactivation results in cell wall remodelling. Conversely, hyperactive TORC1 sensitizes cells to cell wall stressors, including the antifungal caspofungin. Elucidating the crosstalk between the UPR, cell wall integrity, and TORC1 signaling may uncover new paradigms through which the response to protein misfolding is regulated.

10.
Clin Transl Sci ; 12(5): 470-480, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021448

RESUMO

This work characterized the time-course, circadian rhythm, and inherent variability in key cardiovascular variables (heart rate, corrected QT interval, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure) that are routinely collected as part of safety monitoring in phase I trials. Longitudinal data from 1,035 healthy volunteers who received placebo in 65 single-dose and multiple-dose phase I trials conducted by AbbVie were compiled and analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. An independent nonlinear mixed-effects model was developed for each variable, and combinations of cosine functions were used to capture circadian oscillations. Gender, race, age, and body weight were significant covariates for variability in baseline measures, and the contributions of these covariates were quantitatively characterized. Based on the extensive data set analyzed, the developed models represent valuable tools to help contextualize and differentiate inherent variability that can be expected in a typical phase I setting from true drug-related cardiovascular safety signals. In addition, these placebo models can be used to support exposure-response analyses that estimate treatment-related effects on the evaluated cardiovascular measures.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745397

RESUMO

AN12855 is a direct, cofactor-independent inhibitor of InhA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis In the C3HeB/FeJ mouse model with caseous necrotic lung lesions, AN12855 proved efficacious with a significantly lower resistance frequency than isoniazid. AN12855 drug levels were better retained in necrotic lesions and caseum where the majority of hard to treat, extracellular bacilli reside. Owing to these combined attributes, AN12855 represents a promising alternative to the frontline antituberculosis agent isoniazid.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 224, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NHS Health Check is a primary prevention programme offering cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment to adults in England aged 40-74. Uptake remains a challenge and invitation method is a strong predictor of uptake. There is evidence of low uptake when using invitation letters. Telephone invitations might increase uptake, but are not widely used. We explored the potential to improve uptake through personalising letters to patient's CVD risk, and to compare this with generic letters and telephone invitations. METHODS: HEalth Check TRial (HECTR) was a three-arm randomised controlled trial in nine general practices in Staffordshire (UK). Eligible patients were randomised to be invited to a NHS Health Check using one of three methods: standard letter (control); telephone invitation; letter personalised to the patient's CVD risk. The primary outcome was attendance/non-attendance. Data were collected on a range of patient- and practice-level factors (e.g., patient socio-demographics, CVD risk, practice size, Health Checks outside usual working hours). Multi-level logistic regression estimated the marginal effects to explore whether invitation method predicted attendance. Invitation costs were collated from practices to estimate cost benefit. RESULTS: In total, 4614 patients were included in analysis (mean age 50.2 ± 8.0 yr.; 52.4% female). Compared with patients invited by standard letter (30.9%), uptake was significantly higher in those invited by telephone (47.6%, P < .001), but not personalised letter (31.3%, p = .812). In multi-level analysis, compared with the standard letter arm, likelihood of attendance was 18 percentage points higher in the telephone arm and 4 percentage points higher in the personalised letter arm. The effect of telephone calls appeared strongest in patients who were younger and had lower CVD risk. We estimated per 1000 patients invited, risk-personalised letters could result in 40 additional attended Health Checks (at no extra cost) and telephone invitations could result in 180 additional Health Checks at an additional cost of £240. CONCLUSIONS: Telephone invitations should be advocated to address the substantial deficit between current and required levels of NHS uptake, and could be targeted at younger and lower CVD risk adults. Risk-personalised letters should be explored further in a larger sample of high risk individuals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration number: ISRCTN15840751 date of registration: 24/10/2017.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Serviços Postais , Prevenção Primária , Telefone , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Medicina Estatal
13.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 47(1): 295-304, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700499

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the deadliest gynecological malignancy. Most patients are diagnosed when they are already in the later stages of the disease. Earlier detection of OC dramatically improves the overall survival, but this is rarely achieved as there is a lack of clinically implemented biomarkers of early disease. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small cell-derived vesicles that have been extensively studied in recent years. They contribute to various aspects of cancer pathology, including tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. EVs are released from all cell types and the macromolecular cargo they carry reflects the content of the cells from which they were derived. Cancer cells release EVs with altered cargo into biofluids, and so, they represent an excellent potential source of novel biomarkers for the disease. In this review, we describe the latest developments in EVs as potential biomarkers for earlier detection of OC. The field is still relatively young, but many studies have shown that EVs and the cargo they carry, including miRNAs and proteins, can be used to detect OC. They could also give insights into the stage of the disease and predict the likely therapeutic outcome. There remain many challenges to the use of EVs as biomarkers, but, through ongoing research and innovation in this exciting field, there is great potential for the development of diagnostic assays in the clinic that could improve patient outcome.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Vesículas Extracelulares/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
14.
Aust J Prim Health ; 25(1): 13-18, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721645

RESUMO

This large (>1000) cross-sectional study investigates patient-reported primary care experiences of older people with chronic illness. Previous research has found that approximately half of patients with chronic illness receive optimal chronic illness care and outcomes in Australian general practice. A survey was administered via a double opt-in panel method to people aged ≥55 years who have one or more self-reported major chronic diseases (diabetes and/or chronic heart, kidney, lung, mental health and/or musculoskeletal conditions). Health professionals were found to be important to the majority of Australians surveyed. Well-known chronic illness support resources such as care plans and recalls/reminders were reported to be wanting by up to 50 per cent of respondents. Across all chronic illness groups, <42 per cent of respondents reported the provision of information on community resources and 25 per cent reported not having a sound understanding about their medications. Regular local surveys for older people with chronic illness would allow a timely understanding of primary care experiences, needs and preferences of this group, to support quality improvement and drive enhanced patient outcomes.

15.
J Med Chem ; 62(5): 2521-2540, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730745

RESUMO

A series of pleuromutilins modified by introduction of a boron-containing heterocycle on C(14) of the polycyclic core are described. These analogs were found to be potent anti- Wolbachia antibiotics and, as such, may be useful in the treatment of filarial infections caused by Onchocerca volvulus, resulting in Onchocerciasis or river blindness, or Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi and related parasitic nematodes resulting in lymphatic filariasis. These two important neglected tropical diseases disproportionately impact patients in the developing world. The lead preclinical candidate compound containing 7-fluoro-6-oxybenzoxaborole (15, AN11251) was shown to have good in vitro anti- Wolbachia activity and physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties providing high exposure in plasma. The lead was effective in reducing the Wolbachia load in filarial worms following oral administration to mice.

16.
BMC Fam Pract ; 20(1): 11, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NHS Health Check is a national cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment programme for 40-74 year olds in England, in which practitioners should assess and communicate CVD risk, supported by appropriate risk-management advice and goal-setting. This requires effective communication, to equip patients with knowledge and intention to act. Currently, the QRISK®2 10-year CVD risk score is most common way in which CVD risk is estimated. Newer tools, such as JBS3, allow manipulation of risk factors and can demonstrate the impact of positive actions. However, the use, and relative value, of these tools within CVD risk communication is unknown. We will explore practitioner and patient CVD risk perceptions when using QRISK®2 or JBS3, the associated advice or treatment offered by the practitioner, and patients' responses. METHODS: RIsk COmmunication in NHS Health Check (RICO) is a qualitative study with quantitative process evaluation. Twelve general practices in the West Midlands of England will be randomised to one of two groups: usual practice, in which practitioners use QRISK®2 to assess and communicate CVD risk; intervention, in which practitioners use JBS3. Twenty Health Checks per practice will be video-recorded (n = 240, 120 per group), with patients stratified by age, gender and ethnicity. Post-Health Check, video-stimulated recall (VSR) interviews will be conducted with 48 patients (n = 24 per group) and all practitioners (n = 12-18), using video excerpts to enhance participant recall/reflection. Patient medical record reviews will detect health-protective actions in the first 12-weeks following a Health Check (e.g., lifestyle referrals, statin prescription). Risk communication, patient response and intentions for health-protective behaviours in each group will be explored through thematic analysis of video-recorded Health Checks (using Protection Motivation Theory as a framework) and VSR interviews. Process evaluation will include between-group comparisons of quantitatively coded Health Check content and post-Health Check patient outcomes. Finally, 10 patients with the most positive intentions or behaviours will be selected for case study analysis (using all data sources). DISCUSSION: This study will produce novel insights about the utility of QRISK®2 and JBS3 to promote patient and practitioner understanding and perception of CVD risk and associated implications for patient intentions with respect to health-protective behaviours (and underlying mechanisms). Recommendations for practice will be developed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN ISRCTN10443908 . Registered 7th February 2017.

17.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(5): 1412-1420, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664801

RESUMO

Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses were decomposed on the soil surface of a terrestrial habitat on the island of Oahu, Hawaii to begin characterizing the decomposer community. Results showed that carcasses can decompose rapidly on Oahu, primarily due to the activity of fly larvae, with ~80% of mass lost by 8 days (~220 ADD) postmortem. Scavenging was conducted exclusively by the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus), first feeding on larvae then feeding on the remains. Carcasses were habitats of warm temperature, little to no oxygen, slightly acidic/neutral pH, and high sodium concentration. Larval masses selected for a microbial community comprised of multiple bacterial taxa from phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, particularly genera Clostridium, Proteus, and Providencia. These larval masses were well established from 3 to 8 days (~90 to ~220 ADD) postmortem. These data provide helpful, novel insight into the structure and activity of carcass decomposer communities on Oahu.

18.
Health Promot J Austr ; 29(3): 257-264, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511485

RESUMO

ISSUE ADDRESSED: This study investigates the current nature, levels and perceived need for workplace support among mature age Australian workers with chronic illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted via a double opt-in panel sample of Australian workers aged 45 years and older with one or more of six major chronic diseases (diabetes and/or chronic heart, kidney, lung, mental health and/or musculoskeletal conditions). RESULTS: Three hundred and fourteen respondents reported being in the workforce and having at least one of the chronic conditions under investigation, of which almost one third reported having more than one of the conditions. The findings reveal a number of considerable gaps in Australian workplace support for employees 45 years and older with chronic illness, including workplace flexibility, supportive policies and co-worker support. CONCLUSIONS: This research adds to a scarce existing literature base on workplace support for workers with chronic illness in Australia. Future research is needed to identify opportunities for effective public policy and implementation of workplace interventions to better support this cohort. SO WHAT?: If timely progress is not made in this area, the projected increase in the aged population and scheduled public policy changes impacting retirement age will multiply potential adverse effects on the health of employees with chronic illness and Australia's labour market productivity.

19.
J Forensic Sci ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408195

RESUMO

Microbes can be used effectively as trace evidence, at least in research settings. However, it is unknown whether skin microbiomes change prior to autopsy and, if so, whether these changes interfere with linking objects to decedents. The current study included microbiomes from 16 scenes of death in the City and County of Honolulu and tested whether objects at the scenes can be linked to individual decedents. Postmortem skin microbiomes were stable during repeated sampling up to 60 h postmortem and were similar to microbiomes of an antemortem population. Objects could be traced to decedents approximately 75% of the time, with smoking pipes and medical devices being especially accurate (100% match), house and car keys being poor (0%), and other objects like phones intermediate (~80%). These results show that microbes from objects at death scenes can be matched to individual decedents, opening up a new method of establishing associations and identifications.

20.
Life Sci Alliance ; 1(3): e201800025, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456352

RESUMO

New antitubercular agents are needed to combat the spread of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The frontline antitubercular drug isoniazid (INH) targets the mycobacterial enoyl-ACP reductase, InhA. Resistance to INH is predominantly through mutations affecting the prodrug-activating enzyme KatG. Here, we report the identification of the diazaborines as a new class of direct InhA inhibitors. The lead compound, AN12855, exhibited in vitro bactericidal activity against replicating bacteria and was active against several drug-resistant clinical isolates. Biophysical and structural investigations revealed that AN12855 binds to and inhibits the substrate-binding site of InhA in a cofactor-independent manner. AN12855 showed good drug exposure after i.v. and oral delivery, with 53% oral bioavailability. Delivered orally, AN12855 exhibited dose-dependent efficacy in both an acute and chronic murine model of tuberculosis infection that was comparable with INH. Combined, AN12855 is a promising candidate for the development of new antitubercular agents.

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