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1.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 59(3): E9, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169316
3.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

4.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(6): 864-870, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease occurs more commonly in the obese population and is often diagnosed during the preoperative evaluation for bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed outcomes of laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG), with and without cholecystectomy (LC), using data from the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program. SETTING: Patients reported to Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program participating centers in the United States and Canada in 2015. METHODS: All cases of LGB and SG, with and without LC, were analyzed. A 1:1 propensity-matched cohort was created for both SG and LGB, with and without concomitant LC. Multivariate logistic regression stratified by procedure was used to identify predictors of major complications after SG and LGB, using concomitant LC as a predictor. We also constructed a model for surgical site infections (SSIs) for SG group. RESULTS: Of 98,292 sleeve operations, 2046 (2%) had concomitant LC. Of 44,427 bypass operations, 1426 (3%) had concomitant LC. For the sleeve group, concomitant LC increased operative time by an average of 27 minutes but did not affect length of stay, mortality, or major complications. Concomitant LC was associated with increased SSI (1% versus .4%) and need for reoperation (1.6% versus .7%) in univariate models. After adjusting for other predictors, concomitant LC was associated with increased risk for SSI (odds ratio 2.5, confidence interval 1.0-5.9, P = .04). For the bypass group, concomitant LC increased operative time by an average of 28 minutes to the operation, and postoperative length of stay averaged ∼5 hours longer (2.4 versus 2.2 d, P = .03). Thirty-day complications were similar between the groups. On multivariate analysis, concomitant LC was not a significant risk factor for major complications. Only operative time was an independent factor for major complications. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant LC with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass did not affect mortality or risk of major complication. For sleeve patients, concomitant LC was associated with a .6% increased risk (.4% to 1.0%) of SSI. Concomitant LC with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass is safe when indicated for gallstone disease.

5.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(6): 964-968, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and high breast density both increase breast cancer risk but paradoxically are inversely related. Bariatric surgery decreases breast cancer risk, but its impact on mammographic breast density is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We investigated how mammographic density changes after bariatric surgery and whether this change is related to weight loss. SETTING: University of California, San Francisco Medical Center. METHODS: We reviewed records from 349 prospectively collected patients who underwent bariatric surgery between 2013 and 2015 and identified 42 women with pre- and postoperative screening mammograms within 1.5 years of surgery. We recorded body mass index (BMI), height and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System density and calculated BMI loss and total weight loss. Data were analyzed in Stata 14.2. RESULTS: Average age was 54.2 years, mean preoperative BMI was 43.8 kg/m2, mean BMI lost was 30.9%, and total weight loss was 31.1% at 1.3 years. Over one-third had a change in mammographic breast density, which increased 93.3% of the time (P < .001). Amount of weight loss was not associated with a density change. Patients with the lowest mammographic density preoperatively were most likely to have a density change (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Most women with a mammographic change had an increase in breast density, despite bariatric surgery being associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Baseline breast density was associated with a density change, but amount of weight loss was not. These findings suggest the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery have an effect on breast parenchyma independent of absolute BMI reduction or weight loss.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
7.
Gynecol Oncol ; 152(3): 465-471, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Australia's HPV vaccination and HPV-based cervical screening programs are changing the landscape in cervical cancer prevention. We aim to identify areas which can make the biggest further impact on cervical cancer burden. This protocol describes the first stage of a program of work called Pathways-Cervix that aims to generate evidence from modelled evaluations of interventions across the cervical cancer spectrum. METHODS: Based on evidence from literature reviews and guidance from a multi-disciplinary Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC), the most relevant evaluations for prevention, diagnosis and treatment were identified. RESULTS: Priority evaluations agreed by the SAC included: increasing/decreasing and retaining vaccination uptake at the current level; vaccinating older women; increasing screening participation; methods for triaging HPV-positive women; improving the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer; treating cervical abnormalities and cancer; and vaccinating women treated for CIN2/3 to prevent recurrence. Evaluations will be performed using a simulation model, Policy1-Cervix previously used to perform policy evaluations in Australia. Exploratory modelling of interventions using idealised scenarios will initially be conducted in single birth cohorts. If these have a significant impact on findings then evaluations with more realistic assumptions will be conducted. Promising strategies will be investigated further by multi-cohort simulations predicting health outcomes, resource use and cost outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Pathways-Cervix will assess the relative benefits of strategies and treatment options in a systematic and health economic framework, producing a list of 'best buys' for future decision-making in cervical cancer control.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mult Scler ; 25(6): 758-765, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657008

RESUMO

Diverse acute neurological injuries may cause acute cardiopulmonary events including neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) and neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM). The mechanism is probably mediated by sympathetic nervous system activation. Focal central nervous system (CNS) lesions, such as demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS), may also cause cardiopulmonary disturbances. We aim to review the acute cardiopulmonary events associated with MS relapses. We performed a literature search using PubMed, and selected case reports of acute cardiac and/or pulmonary events related to MS exacerbations. We grouped these events into three categories: 1) NPE with normal cardiac function; 2) NSM and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC); 3) coexisting myocardial dysfunction and pulmonary edema. In some cases, cardiac and pulmonary symptoms preceded the onset of neurological symptoms. The majority of cases were associated with acute demyelinating lesions located in the medulla. Acute brainstem MS relapses, with demyelinating lesions affecting the medulla, may cause acute cardiac and pulmonary events presumably secondary to sympathetic hyperstimulation. Specific regions in the medulla that regulate cardiac function, systemic blood pressure and pulmonary hydrostatic pressure seem to be responsible for these events.

9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(3): 711-720, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657952

RESUMO

Context: Bariatric surgery results in reduced muscle mass as weight is lost, but postoperative changes in muscle strength and performance are incompletely understood. Objective: To examine changes in body composition, strength, physical activity, and physical performance following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Design, Participants, Outcomes: In a prospective cohort of 47 adults (37 women, 10 men) aged 45 ± 12 years (mean ± SD) with body mass index (BMI) 44 ± 8 kg/m2, we measured body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, handgrip strength, physical activity, and physical performance (chair stand time, gait speed, 400-m walk time) before and 6 and 12 months after RYGB. Relative strength was calculated as absolute handgrip strength/BMI and as absolute strength/appendicular lean mass (ALM). Results: Participants experienced substantial 12-month decreases in weight (-37 ± 10 kg or 30% ± 7%), fat mass (-48% ± 12%), and total lean mass (-13% ± 6%). Mean absolute strength declined by 9% ± 17% (P < 0.01). In contrast, relative strength increased by 32% ± 25% (strength/BMI) and 9% ± 20% (strength/ALM) (P < 0.01 for both). There were clinically significant postoperative improvements in all physical performance measures, including mean improvement in gait speed of >0.1 m/s (P < 0.01) and decrease in 400-m walk time of nearly a full minute. Conclusions: In the setting of dramatic weight loss, lean mass and absolute grip strength declined after RYGB. However, relative muscle strength and physical function improved meaningfully and are thus noteworthy positive outcomes of gastric bypass.

11.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 14(9): 1221-1232, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154033

RESUMO

The American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery issues the following guidelines for the purpose of enhancing quality of care in hernia treatment through metabolic and bariatric surgery. In this statement, suggestions for management are presented that are derived from available knowledge, peer-reviewed scientific literature, and expert opinion. This was accomplished by performing a review of currently available literature regarding obesity, obesity treatments, and hernia surgery. The intent of issuing such a guideline is to provide objective information regarding the impact of obesity treatment on effective and durable hernia repair. The guideline may be revised in the future should additional evidence become available.

12.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 58(4): 474-477, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851066

RESUMO

In Australia, ovarian cancer remains the most common cause of death among all the gynaecological malignancies, largely due to the fact that patients present at an advanced stage. Cytoreductive surgery has for a number of decades been the cornerstone of initial treatment for patients with advanced disease, where a smaller volume of residual disease (optimal cytoreduction) results in an improved outcome. Evidence indicates that optimal cytoreduction is best achieved by a certified gynaecological oncologist, and that subsequent management by a dedicated multidisciplinary team (MDT) results in patients more likely to receive 'evidenced based guideline care' and be offered participation in clinical trials. Patients managed by an MDT have been shown to have improved survival, their care to be cost effective and that they experience a high level of satisfaction and improved quality of life. Centralisation of care for patients with ovarian cancer should be considered gold standard care.

13.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 219(1): 81.e1-81.e9, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive-aged women represent about half of those undergoing bariatric surgery in the United States. Obstetric and bariatric professional societies recommend that women avoid pregnancy for 12-18 months postoperatively due to concern for increased pregnancy risks, and that providers should counsel women about these recommendations and their contraceptive options. However, knowledge about women's experience with perioperative counseling and postoperative contraceptive use is limited. OBJECTIVE: We sought to: (1) determine prevalence of perioperative contraceptive and pregnancy interval discussions among women who have recently undergone bariatric surgery; and (2) describe postoperative contraceptive use within the first year of surgery in this population. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional study of US women, aged 18-45 years and recruited through Facebook, who underwent bariatric surgery within the last 24 months. RESULTS: We enrolled 363 geographically diverse women. Three-quarters recalled perioperative pregnancy or contraceptive discussions, the majority with a bariatric provider. Half felt it was "very important" to discuss these issues perioperatively, and 41% of those who reported discussions wished they had had more. Of the 66% of women who reported using contraception in the first 12 months postoperatively, 27% used oral contraceptives and 26% used an intrauterine device. One third of contraceptive users who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, a combined restrictive-malabsorptive procedure, were using oral contraceptives. Perioperative contraceptive or pregnancy discussions were independently associated with increased postoperative contraceptive use (odds ratios, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-4.3, P < .001). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of women who had undergone bariatric surgery reported having had no perioperative pregnancy or contraception counseling, and many women who had felt the discussions were insufficient. Those who had had perioperative discussions were more likely to use contraception postoperatively. Reproductive-aged women should be routinely counseled perioperatively about pregnancy and contraception in the context of their reproductive desires, so they can make informed decisions about perioperative pregnancy prevention and contraceptive method use.

14.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 14(3): 264-269, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become popular due to its technical ease and excellent short-term results. Understanding the risk profile of LSG compared with the gold standard laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is critical for patient selection. OBJECTIVES: To use traditional regression techniques and random forest classification algorithms to compare LSG with LRYGB using the 2015 Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Data Registry. SETTING: United States. METHODS: Outcomes were leak, morbidity, and mortality within 30 days. Variable importance was assessed using random forest algorithms. Multivariate models were created in a training set and evaluated on the testing set with receiver operating characteristic curves. The adjusted odds of each outcome were compared. RESULTS: Of 134,142 patients, 93,062 (69%) underwent LSG and 41,080 (31%) underwent LRYGB. One hundred seventy-eight deaths occurred in 96 (.1%) of LSG patients compared with 82 (.2%) of LRYGB patients (P<.001). Morbidity occurred in 8% (5.8% in LSG versus 11.7% in LRYGB, P<.001). Leaks occurred in 1% (.8% in LSG versus 1.6% in LRYGB, P<.001). The most important predictors of all outcomes were body mass index, albumin, and age. In the adjusted multivariate models, LRYGB had higher odds of all complications (leak: odds ratio 2.10, P<.001; morbidity: odds ratio 2.02, P<.001; death: odds ratio 1.64, P<.01). CONCLUSION: In the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvements data registry for 2015, LSG had half the risk-adjusted odds of death, serious morbidity, and leak in the first 30 days compared with LRYGB.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/mortalidade , Feminino , Gastrectomia/mortalidade , Derivação Gástrica/mortalidade , Humanos , Laparoscopia/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/cirurgia , Segurança do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(6): 975-986, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29281126

RESUMO

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is a highly effective treatment for obesity but negatively affects the skeleton. Studies of skeletal effects have generally examined areal bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), but DXA may be inaccurate in the setting of marked weight loss. Further, as a result of modestly sized samples of mostly premenopausal women and very few men, effects of RYGB by sex and menopausal status are unknown. We prospectively studied the effects of RYGB on skeletal health, including axial and appendicular volumetric BMD and appendicular bone microarchitecture and estimated strength. Obese adults (N = 48; 27 premenopausal and 11 postmenopausal women, 10 men) with mean ± SD body mass index (BMI) 44 ± 7 kg/m2 were assessed before and 6 and 12 months after RYGB. Participants underwent spine and hip DXA, spine QCT, radius and tibia HR-pQCT, and laboratory evaluation. Mean 12-month weight loss was 37 kg (30% of preoperative weight). Overall median 12-month increase in serum collagen type I C-telopeptide (CTx) was 278% (p < 0.0001), with greater increases in postmenopausal than premenopausal women (p = 0.049). Femoral neck BMD by DXA decreased by mean 5.0% and 8.0% over 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). Spinal BMD by QCT decreased by mean 6.6% and 8.1% (p < 0.0001); declines were larger among postmenopausal than premenopausal women (11.6% versus 6.0% at 12 months, p = 0.02). Radial and tibial BMD and estimated strength by HR-pQCT declined. At the tibia, detrimental changes in trabecular microarchitecture were apparent at 6 and 12 months. Cortical porosity increased at the radius and tibia, with more dramatic 12-month increases among postmenopausal than premenopausal women or men at the tibia (51.4% versus 18.3% versus 3.0%, p < 0.01 between groups). In conclusion, detrimental effects of RYGB on axial and appendicular bone mass and microarchitecture are detectable as early as 6 months postoperatively. Postmenopausal women are at highest risk for skeletal consequences and may warrant targeted screening or interventions. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

16.
Am J Surg ; 215(1): 23-27, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Joint Commission's SCIP Inf-9 mandated early removal of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs), but the impact of compliance on catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) and postoperative urinary retention (POUR) are unknown. METHODS: Retrospective pre- and post-intervention study at a single tertiary academic medical center of all patients undergoing general surgery procedures with an IUC placed at the time of surgery who were admitted for at least two days before and after a Best Practice Advisory was put in place to improve compliance with SCIP Inf-9. RESULTS: A total of 1036 patients were included (468 pre-intervention; 568 post-intervention). POUR occurred in 13% of patients and CAUTI in 0.8%. There was no change in POUR, CAUTI, or catheter utilization after the Best Practice Advisory was initiated. Both POUR and CAUTI predicted longer lengths of stay. CONCLUSIONS: Near-perfect SCIP Inf-9 compliance had no effect on the CAUTI rate at our institution.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo Urinário/estatística & dados numéricos , Retenção Urinária/prevenção & controle , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Cateteres de Demora , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Assistência Perioperatória/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Cateterismo Urinário/instrumentação , Cateterismo Urinário/normas , Cateteres Urinários , Retenção Urinária/epidemiologia , Retenção Urinária/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
ACS Nano ; 11(12): 12067-12076, 2017 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165995

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding causes more than 300 000 hospitalizations per year in the United States. Imaging plays a crucial role in accurately locating the source of the bleed for timely intervention. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging clinically translatable imaging modality that images superparamagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) tracers with extraordinary contrast and sensitivity. This linearly quantitative modality has zero background tissue signal and zero signal depth attenuation. MPI is also safe: there is zero ionizing radiation exposure to the patient and clinically approved tracers can be used with MPI. In this study, we demonstrate the use of MPI along with long-circulating, PEG-stabilized SPIOs for rapid in vivo detection and quantification of GI bleed. A mouse model genetically predisposed to GI polyp development (ApcMin/+) was used for this study, and heparin was used as an anticoagulant to induce acute GI bleeding. We then injected MPI-tailored, long-circulating SPIOs through the tail vein, and tracked the tracer biodistribution over time using our custom-built high resolution field-free line (FFL) MPI scanner. Dynamic MPI projection images captured tracer accumulation in the lower GI tract with excellent contrast. Quantitative analysis of the MPI images show that the mice experienced GI bleed rates between 1 and 5 µL/min. Although there are currently no human scale MPI systems, and MPI-tailored SPIOs need to undergo further development and evaluation, clinical translation of the technique is achievable. The robust contrast, sensitivity, safety, ability to image anywhere in the body, along with long-circulating SPIOs lends MPI outstanding promise as a clinical diagnostic tool for GI bleeding.

18.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(11): 2239-2247, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791737

RESUMO

Bone marrow fat is a unique fat depot that may regulate bone metabolism. Marrow fat is increased in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes. However, longitudinal effects of weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis on marrow fat are unclear, as is the relationship between marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) changes. We hypothesized that after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, marrow fat changes are associated with BMD loss. We enrolled 30 obese women, stratified by diabetes status. Before and 6 months after RYGB, we measured BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and vertebral marrow fat content by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At baseline, those with higher marrow fat had lower BMD. Postoperatively, total body fat declined dramatically in all participants. Effects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (p = 0.03). Nondiabetic women showed no significant mean change in marrow fat (+1.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.8% to +5.4%, p = 0.29), although those who lost more total body fat were more likely to have marrow fat increases (r = -0.70, p = 0.01). In contrast, diabetic women demonstrated a mean marrow fat change of -6.5% (95% CI -13.1% to 0%, p = 0.05). Overall, those with greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c had decreases in marrow fat (r = 0.50, p = 0.01). Increases in IGF-1, a potential mediator of the marrow fat-bone relationship, were associated with marrow fat declines (r = -0.40, p = 0.05). Spinal volumetric BMD decreased by 6.4% ± 5.9% (p < 0.01), and femoral neck areal BMD decreased by 4.3% ± 4.1% (p < 0.01). Marrow fat and BMD changes were negatively associated, such that those with marrow fat increases had more BMD loss at both spine (r = -0.58, p < 0.01) and femoral neck (r = -0.49, p = 0.01), independent of age and menopause. Our findings suggest that glucose metabolism and weight loss may influence marrow fat behavior, and marrow fat may be a determinant of bone metabolism. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Derivação Gástrica , Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão
19.
Br J Cancer ; 116(12): 1627-1637, 2017 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28463959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between diet and survival after ovarian cancer diagnosis is unclear as a result of a limited number of studies and inconsistent findings. METHODS: We examined the association between pre-diagnostic diet and overall survival in a population-based cohort (n=811) of Australian women diagnosed with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer between 2002 and 2005. Diet was measured by validated food frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained up to 31 August 2014 via medical record review and Australian National Death Index linkage. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, controlling for diagnosis age, tumour stage, grade and subtype, residual disease, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, marital status, and energy intake. RESULTS: We observed improved survival with highest compared with lowest quartile of fibre intake (hazard ratio (HR)=0.69, 95% CI: 0.53-0.90, P-trend=0.002). There was a suggestion of better survival for women with highest compared with lowest intake category of green leafy vegetables (HR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.62-0.99), fish (HR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.57-0.95), poly- to mono-unsaturated fat ratio (HR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.59-0.98), and worse survival with higher glycaemic index (HR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.01-1.65, P-trend=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The associations we observed between healthy components of diet pre-diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival raise the possibility that dietary choices after diagnosis may improve survival.


Assuntos
Dieta , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Alimentos Marinhos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida , Verduras
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