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1.
Brain Sci ; 11(3)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668815

RESUMO

Neuroaesthetics, the science studying the biological underpinnings of aesthetic experience, recently extended its area of investigation to literary art; this was the humus where neurocognitive poetics blossomed. Divina Commedia represents one of the most important, famous and studied poems worldwide. Poetry stimuli are characterized by elements (meter and rhyme) promoting the processing fluency, a core aspect of neuroaesthetics theories. In addition, given the evidence of different neurophysiological reactions between experts and non-experts in response to artistic stimuli, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in poetry, a different neurophysiological cognitive and emotional reaction between Literature (L) and Non-Literature (NL) students. A further aim was to investigate whether neurophysiological underpinnings would support explanation of behavioral data. Investigation methods employed: self-report assessments (recognition, appreciation, content recall) and neurophysiological indexes (approach/withdrawal (AW), cerebral effort (CE) and galvanic skin response (GSR)). The main behavioral results, according to fluency theories in aesthetics, suggested in the NL but not in the L group that the appreciation/liking went hand by hand with the self-declared recognition and with the content recall. The main neurophysiological results were: (i) higher galvanic skin response in NL, whilst higher CE values in L; (ii) a positive correlation between AW and CE indexes in both groups. The present results extended previous evidence relative to figurative art also to auditory poetry stimuli, suggesting an emotional attenuation "expertise-specific" showed by experts, but increased cognitive processing in response to the stimuli.

2.
Brain Sci ; 11(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670698

RESUMO

Scents have the ability to affect peoples' mental states and task performance with to different extents. It has been widely demonstrated that the lemon scent, included in most all-purpose cleaners, elicits stimulation and activation, while the lavender scent elicits relaxation and sedative effects. The present study aimed at investigating and fostering a novel approach to evaluate users' experience with respect to scents' effects through the joint employment of Virtual Reality and users' neurophysiological monitoring, in particular Electroencephalography. In particular, this study, involving 42 participants, aimed to compare the effects of lemon and lavender scents on the deployment of cognitive resources during a daily life experience consisting in a train journey carried out in virtual reality. Our findings showed a significant higher request of cognitive resources during the processing of an informative message for subjects exposed to the lavender scent with respect to the lemon exposure. No differences were found between lemon and lavender conditions on the self-reported items of pleasantness and involvement; as this study demonstrated, the employment of the lavender scent preserves the quality of the customer experience to the same extent as the more widely used lemon scent.

3.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 1976847, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641346

RESUMO

The new technological advances achieved during the last decade allowed the scientific community to investigate and employ neurophysiological measures not only for research purposes but also for the study of human behaviour in real and daily life situations. The aim of this review is to understand how and whether neuroscientific technologies can be effectively employed to better understand the human behaviour in real decision-making contexts. To do so, firstly, we will describe the historical development of neuromarketing and its main applications in assessing the sensory perceptions of some marketing and advertising stimuli. Then, we will describe the main neuroscientific tools available for such kind of investigations (e.g., measuring the cerebral electrical or hemodynamic activity, the eye movements, and the psychometric responses). Also, this review will present different brain measurement techniques, along with their pros and cons, and the main cerebral indexes linked to the specific mental states of interest (used in most of the neuromarketing research). Such indexes have been supported by adequate validations from the scientific community and are largely employed in neuromarketing research. This review will also discuss a series of papers that present different neuromarketing applications, such us in-store choices and retail, services, pricing, brand perception, web usability, neuropolitics, evaluation of the food and wine taste, and aesthetic perception of artworks. Furthermore, this work will face the ethical issues arisen on the use of these tools for the evaluation of the human behaviour during decision-making tasks. In conclusion, the main challenges that neuromarketing is going to face, as well as future directions and possible scenarios that could be derived by the use of neuroscience in the marketing field, will be identified and discussed.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Olho , Neurofisiologia , Publicidade/métodos , Humanos , Neurofisiologia/métodos , Neurociências/métodos
4.
Hear Res ; 379: 31-42, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042607

RESUMO

Unilateral hearing loss constitutes a field of growing interest in the scientific community. In fact, this kind of patients represent a unique and physiological way to investigate how neuroplasticity overcame unilateral deafferentation by implementing particular strategies that produce apparently next- to- normal hearing behavioural performances. This explains why such patients have been underinvestigated for a long time. Thanks to the availability of techniques able to study the cerebral activity underlying the mentioned behavioural outcomes, the aim of the present research was to elucidate whether different electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns occurred in unilateral hearing loss (UHL) children in comparison to normal hearing (NH) controls during speech-in-noise listening. Given the intrinsic lateralized nature of such patients, due to the unilateral side of hearing impairment, the experimental question was to assess whether this would reflect a different EEG pattern while performing a word in noise recognition task varying the direction of the noise source. Results showed a correlation between the period of deafness and the cortical activity asymmetry toward the hearing ear side in the frontal, parietal and occipital areas in all the experimental conditions. Concerning alpha and beta activity in the frontal and central areas highlighted that in the NH group, the lateralization was always left-sided during the Quiet condition, while it was right-sided in noise conditions; this evidence was not, however, detected also in the UHL group. In addition, focusing on the theta and alpha activity in the frontal areas (Broca area) during noise conditions, while the activity was always left-lateralized in the NH group, it was ipsilateral to the direction of the background noise in the UHL group, and of a weaker extent than in NH controls. Furthermore, in noise conditions, only the UHL group showed a higher theta activity in the temporal areas ipsilateral to the side where the background noise was directed to. Finally, in the case of bilateral noise (background noise and word signal both coming from the same two sources), the theta and alpha activity in the frontal areas (Broca area) was left-lateralized in the case of the NH group and lateralized towards the side of the better hearing ear in the case of the UHL group. Taken together, this evidence supports the establishment of a particular EEG pattern occurrence in UHL children taking place in the frontal (Broca area), temporal and parietal lobes, probably physiologically established in order to deal with different sound and noise source directions.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído
5.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 7348795, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143204

RESUMO

Human factors' aim is to understand and evaluate the interactions between people and tasks, technologies, and environment. Among human factors, it is possible then to include the subjective reaction to external stimuli, due to individual's characteristics and states of mind. These processes are also involved in the perception of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs), the main tool for governments to contrast the first cause of preventable deaths in the world: tobacco addiction. In the light of that, in the present article, it has been investigated through the comparison of different electroencephalographic (EEG) indices a typical item known to be able of influencing PSA perception, that is gender. In order to investigate the neurophysiological underpinnings of such different perception, we tested two PSAs: one with a female character and one with a male character. Furthermore, the experimental sample was divided into men and women, as well as smokers and nonsmokers. The employed EEG indices were the mental engagement (ME: the ratio between beta activity and the sum of alpha and theta activity); the approach/withdrawal (AW: the frontal alpha asymmetry in the alpha band); and the frontal theta activity and the spectral asymmetry index (SASI: the ratio between beta minus theta and beta plus theta). Results suggested that the ME and the AW presented an opposite trend, with smokers showing higher ME and lower AW than nonsmokers. The ME and the frontal theta also evidenced a statistically significant interaction between the kind of the PSA and the gender of the observers; specifically, women showed higher ME and frontal theta activity for the male character PSA. This study then supports the usefulness of the ME and frontal theta for purposes of PSAs targeting on the basis of gender issues and of the ME and the AW and for purposes of PSAs targeting on the basis of smoking habits.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2018: 9721561, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327667

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) have been used by governments to promote healthy behaviours in citizens, for instance, against drinking before the drive and against smoke. Effectiveness of such PSAs has been suggested especially for young persons. By now, PSAs efficacy is still mainly assessed through traditional methods (questionnaires and metrics) and could be performed only after the PSAs broadcasting, leading to waste of economic resources and time in the case of Ineffective PSAs. One possible countermeasure to such ineffective use of PSAs could be promoted by the evaluation of the cerebral reaction to the PSA of particular segments of population (e.g., old, young, and heavy smokers). In addition, it is crucial to gather such cerebral activity in front of PSAs that have been assessed to be effective against smoke (Effective PSAs), comparing results to the cerebral reactions to PSAs that have been certified to be not effective (Ineffective PSAs). The eventual differences between the cerebral responses toward the two PSA groups will provide crucial information about the possible outcome of new PSAs before to its broadcasting. This study focused on adult population, by investigating the cerebral reaction to the vision of different PSA images, which have already been shown to be Effective and Ineffective for the promotion of an antismoking behaviour. Results showed how variables as gender and smoking habits can influence the perception of PSA images, and how different communication styles of the antismoking campaigns could facilitate the comprehension of PSA's message and then enhance the related impact.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Comunicação Persuasiva , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/psicologia
7.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2018: 9616301, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344600

RESUMO

It is well known that the evaluation of a product from the shelf considers the simultaneous cerebral and emotional evaluation of the different qualities of the product such as its colour, the eventual images shown, and the envelope's texture (hereafter all included in the term "product experience"). However, the measurement of cerebral and emotional reactions during the interaction with food products has not been investigated in depth in specialized literature. The aim of this paper was to investigate such reactions by the EEG and the autonomic activities, as elicited by the cross-sensory interaction (sight and touch) across several different products. In addition, we investigated whether (i) the brand (Major Brand or Private Label), (ii) the familiarity (Foreign or Local Brand), and (iii) the hedonic value of products (Comfort Food or Daily Food) influenced the reaction of a group of volunteers during their interaction with the products. Results showed statistically significantly higher tendency of cerebral approach (as indexed by EEG frontal alpha asymmetry) in response to comfort food during the visual exploration and the visual and tactile exploration phases. Furthermore, for the same index, a higher tendency of approach has been found toward foreign food products in comparison with local food products during the visual and tactile exploration phase. Finally, the same comparison performed on a different index (EEG frontal theta) showed higher mental effort during the interaction with foreign products during the visual exploration and the visual and tactile exploration phases. Results from the present study could deepen the knowledge on the neurophysiological response to food products characterized by different nature in terms of hedonic value familiarity; moreover, they could have implications for food marketers and finally lead to further study on how people make food choices through the interactions with their commercial envelope.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Filosofia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 12: 231, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210322

RESUMO

Tobacco constitutes a global emergency with totally preventable millions of deaths per year and smoking-related illnesses. Public service announcements (PSAs) are the main tool against smoking and by now their efficacy is still assessed through questionnaires and metrics, only months after their circulation. The present study focused on the young population, because at higher risk of developing tobacco addiction, investigating the reaction to the vision of Effective, Ineffective and Awarded antismoking PSAs through: electroencephalography (EEG), autonomic activity variation (Galvanic skin response-GSR- and Heart Rate-HR-) and Eye-Tracking (ET). The employed indices were: the EEG frontal alpha band asymmetry and the frontal theta; the Emotional Index (EI), deriving from the GSR and HR signals matching; the ET Visual Attention (VA) index, based on the ratio between the total time spent fixating an area of interest (AOI) and its area. Smokers expressed higher frontal alpha asymmetry values in comparison to non-smokers. Concerning frontal theta, Awarded PSAs reported the highest values in comparison to both Effective and Ineffective PSAs. EI results highlighted that lowest values were expressed by Heavy Smokers (HS), and Effective PSAs obtained the highest EI values. Finally, concerning the Effective PSAs, regression analysis highlighted a correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked by participants (independent variable) and frontal alpha asymmetry, frontal theta and EI values. ET results suggested that for the Ineffective PSAs the main focus were texts, while for the Effective and Awarded PSAs were the visual elements. Results support the use of methods aimed at assessing the physiological reaction for the evaluation of PSAs images, in particular when considering the smoking habits of target populations.

9.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 12: 294, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100869

RESUMO

Investment decisions are largely based on the information investors received from the target firm. Thaler introduced the hedonic editing framework, in which suggests that integration/segregation of information influence individual's perceived value. Meanwhile, when evaluating the evidence and information in a sequence, order effect and biases have been found to have an impact in various areas. In this research, the influence of the Organization of Information (Integration vs. Segregation) and the Sequence of Information (Negative-Positive order vs. Positive-Negative order) on individual's investment decision-making both at the behavioral level (decision) and neurometrix level (measured by an individual's emotion and Approach Withdraw tendency) was assessed for the three groups of information: a piece of Big Positive Information and a piece of Small Negative Information, a piece of Big Negative Information and a piece of Small Positive Information, and a piece of Small Negative information. The behavioral results, which are an individual's final investment decision, were consistent for all three scenarios. In general, individuals will invest more/retire less when receiving two pieces of information in a Negative-Positive order. However, the neurometric results (Emotional Index, Approach Withdraw Index and results from LORETA) show differences among information groups. An effect of the Sequence of Information and the Organization of Information was found for the different scenarios. The results suggest that in the scenarios that involve large-scale information, the organization of information (Integration vs. Segregation) influences the emotion and Approach Withdraw tendency. The results of this investigation should provide insight for effective communication of information, especially when large-scale information is involved.

10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 4483-4486, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060893

RESUMO

Every day we face visual stimuli able to catch our attention, but this aspect becomes crucial if the visual material has the purpose to spread a message aimed at engaging the observer. In this framework, a worthy aspect is how to measure the "visual engagement" produced by visual stimuli exposure. To this purpose, in the present study, employing the eye tracking technique, an index of visual attention (VA) has been proposed, and applied to pictures belonging to antismoking public service announcements, so to investigate the saliency of health-promoting messages in a young sample. The VA index is a non-dimensional index, defined as the ratio between the percentage of the total time spent fixating an area of interest (AOI) weighted on the total time the picture is showed on the screen, and the percentage of the area occupied by the AOI weighted on the total dimension of the picture. It could be predicted that AOI reporting higher VA values will be the ones having more saliency. Three antismoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs) images have been selected for the study and for each of them were identified: i) "picture" (such as a young man with a sarcastic expression depicted while smoking a cigarette, or the image of a lady who underwent a tracheotomy) and ii) "writing" (text of the antismoking message) AOIs. Main results of the analysis revealed that writing AOIs obtained statistically significant higher VA values than visual AOIs (p=0.03), but these held true only for an ineffective PSA, probably because the text was not perceived as pertinent with the surrounding image. On the other hand, an effective PSA obtained higher VA values in response to visual than writing AOIs observation (p=0.02). The VA index appears therefore to represent a useful tool to measure the saliency of visual stimuli elements.


Assuntos
Olho , Atenção , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Fumar , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 2470-2473, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060399

RESUMO

Advanced methodologies used for the biomedical signal interpretation allow using cerebral signals to assess important cognitive functions in humans. In the present study, as parameter of cerebral effort, has been employed the isolated effective coherence, in order to estimate the effective connectivity and network organization. The hypothesis was that the lower the number of inter-connections engaged, the lower the cerebral effort induced by the experimental condition. In the present research this index has been applied to test the reaction to the use of different cochlear implant processors (Freedom, CP810 and CP910 - Cochlear Ltd), with the aim to identify the most performing device during a word in noise recognition task. Results support the capability of identifying the device eliciting less brain area connections. In particular, the CP910 was the processor inducing the lower number of inter-connections among the tested ones. This investigation appeared to be worthy, since representing a tool to identify devices that would make available user's cognitive resources for additional tasks, a matter susceptible of generalization to various fields of application. The employment of the cerebral signals therefore open the way to the evaluation of the impact of different sensors and prosthetic devices, also using connectivity measures.


Assuntos
Implantes Cocleares , Encéfalo , Implante Coclear , Audição , Humanos , Percepção da Fala
12.
J Vis Exp ; (126)2017 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28872117

RESUMO

The evaluation of advertising, products, and packaging is traditionally performed through methods based on self-reports and focus groups, but these approaches often appear poorly accurate in scientific terms. Neuroscience is increasingly applied to the investigation of the neurophysiological bases of the perception of and reaction to commercial stimuli to support traditional marketing methods. In this context, a particular sector or marketing is represented by public service announcements (PSAs). The objective of this protocol is to apply electroencephalography (EEG) and autonomic signal analysis to study responses to selected antismoking PSAs. Two EEG indices were employed: the frontal alpha band EEG asymmetry (the Approach Withdrawal (AW) index) and the frontal theta (effort index). Furthermore, the autonomic Emotional Index (EI) was calculated, as derived from the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and Heart Rate (HR) signals. The present protocol describes a series of operational and computational steps required to properly estimate, through the aforementioned indices, the emotional and cerebral reaction of a group of subjects towards a selected number of antismoking PSAs. In particular, a campaign characterized by a symbolic communication style (classified as "awarded" on the basis of the prizes received by specialized committees) obtained the highest approach values, as estimated by the AW index. A spot and an image belonging to the same PSA campaign based on the "fear arousing appeal" and with a narrative/experiential communication style (classified as "effective" on the basis of the economical/health-related improvements promoted) reported the lowest and highest effort values, respectively. This is probably due to the complexity of the storytelling (spot) and to the immediateness of the image (a lady who underwent a tracheotomy). Finally, the same "effective" campaign showed the highest EI values, possibly because of the empathy induced by the testimonial and the explicitness of the message.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Deaf subjects with hearing aids or cochlear implants generally find it challenging to understand speech in noisy environments where a great deal of listening effort and cognitive load are invested. In prelingually deaf children, such difficulties may have detrimental consequences on the learning process and, later in life, on academic performance. Despite the importance of such a topic, currently, there is no validated test for the assessment of cognitive load during audiological tasks. Recently, alpha and theta EEG rhythm variations in the parietal and frontal areas, respectively, have been used as indicators of cognitive load in adult subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by means of EEG, the cognitive load of pediatric subjects affected by asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss as they were engaged in a speech-in-noise identification task. METHODS: Seven children (4F and 3M, age range = 8-16 years) affected by asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss (i.e. profound degree on one side, mild-to-severe degree on the other side) and using a hearing aid only in their better ear, were included in the study. All of them underwent EEG recording during a speech-in-noise identification task: the experimental conditions were quiet, binaural noise, noise to the better hearing ear and noise to the poorer hearing ear. The subjects' Speech Recognition Thresholds (SRT) were also measured in each test condition. The primary outcome measures were: frontal EEG Power Spectral Density (PSD) in the theta band and parietal EEG PSD in the alpha band, as assessed before stimulus (word) onset. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were noted among frontal theta power levels in the four test conditions. However, parietal alpha power levels were significantly higher in the "binaural noise" and in the "noise to worse hearing ear" conditions than in the "quiet" and "noise to better hearing ear" conditions (p < 0.001). SRT scores were consistent with task difficulty, but did not correlate with alpha and theta power level variations. CONCLUSION: This is the first time that EEG has been applied to children with sensorineural hearing loss with the purpose of studying the cognitive load during effortful listening. Significantly higher parietal alpha power levels in two of three noisy conditions, compared to the quiet condition, are consistent with increased cognitive load. Specifically, considering the time window of the analysis (pre-stimulus), parietal alpha power levels may be a measure of cognitive functions such as sustained attention and selective inhibition. In this respect, the significantly lower parietal alpha power levels in the most challenging listening condition (i.e. noise to the better ear) may be attributed to loss of attention and to the subsequent fatigue and "withdrawal" from the task at hand.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Percepção Auditiva , Criança , Implante Coclear/métodos , Feminino , Audição , Auxiliares de Audição , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 547, 2017 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28373684

RESUMO

Several models defining different types of cognitive human behaviour are available. For this work, we have selected the Skill, Rule and Knowledge (SRK) model proposed by Rasmussen in 1983. This model is currently broadly used in safety critical domains, such as the aviation. Nowadays, there are no tools able to assess at which level of cognitive control the operator is dealing with the considered task, that is if he/she is performing the task as an automated routine (skill level), as procedures-based activity (rule level), or as a problem-solving process (knowledge level). Several studies tried to model the SRK behaviours from a Human Factor perspective. Despite such studies, there are no evidences in which such behaviours have been evaluated from a neurophysiological point of view, for example, by considering brain activity variations across the different SRK levels. Therefore, the proposed study aimed to investigate the use of neurophysiological signals to assess the cognitive control behaviours accordingly to the SRK taxonomy. The results of the study, performed on 37 professional Air Traffic Controllers, demonstrated that specific brain features could characterize and discriminate the different SRK levels, therefore enabling an objective assessment of the degree of cognitive control behaviours in realistic settings.


Assuntos
Aviação , Controle Comportamental , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Ocupações , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Análise de Variância , Nível de Alerta , Humanos , Conhecimento , Aprendizado de Máquina , Resolução de Problemas
15.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2016: 3795325, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27313602

RESUMO

The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Inquéritos e Questionários , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2016: 4597-4600, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28269299

RESUMO

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and smoking-related illness worldwide. Research has shown that antismoking advertising may help reduce this habit. Nowadays, public service announcements (PSAs) are considered "Effective" or "Ineffective" on the base of official reports concerning behavioral/attitudinal changes toward healthier patterns and health-related savings following the exposure to the PSA. In this pilot study, we described the results of the use of three neurometric indexes for the evaluation of the efficacy of a couple of antismoking PSAs in a reduced sample of voluntary participants. The study applied the gathering of the electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms variations, as well as the heart rate (HR) and galvanic skin response (GSR). The neurometric indicators here employed were the Approach-Withdrawal (AW), the Effort (EfI) and the Emotional (EI) indexes. Results suggest a significant higher values for AW, Effort and Emotional indexes (p=0,02; p= 0,03 and p= 0,01 respectively) related to the perception of the "Effective" antismoking PSAs against the perception of the "Ineffective" one. Since this is a pilot study, the results obtained need further investigation, in terms of enlarged stimuli sample and number of participants to provide indications concerning the relevant features to be included in the realization of effective anti-smoking PSAs.


Assuntos
Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Comportamento , Emoções , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2015: 1654-7, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26736593

RESUMO

Despite of technological innovations, noisy environments still constitute a challenging and stressful situation for words recognition by hearing impaired subjects. The evaluation of the mental workload imposed by the noisy environments for the recognition of the words in prelingually deaf children is then of paramount importance since it could affect the speed of the learning process during scholar period.The aim of the present study was to investigate different electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectral density (PSD) components (in theta 4-8 Hz - and alpha - 8-12 Hz - frequency bands) to estimate the mental workload index in different noise conditions during a word recognition task in prelingually deaf children, a population not yet investigated in relation to the workload index during auditory tasks. A pilot study involving a small group of prelingually deaf children was then subjected to EEG recordings during an auditory task composed by a listening and a successive recognition of words with different noise conditions. Results showed that in the pre-word listening phase frontal EEG PSD in theta band and the ratio of the frontal EEG PSD in theta band and the parietal EEG PSD in alpha band (workload index; IWL) reported highest values in the most demanding noise condition. In addition, in the phase preceding the word forced-choice task the highest parietal EEG PSD in alpha band and IWL values were reported at the presumably simplest condition (noise emitted in correspondence of the subject's deaf ear). These results could suggest the prominence of EEG PSD theta component activity in the pre-word listening phase. In addition, a more challenging noise situation in the pre-choice phase would be so "over-demanding" to fail to enhance both the alpha power and the IWL in comparison to the already demanding "simple" condition.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Auxiliares de Audição , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído
18.
Audiol Neurootol ; 19(4): 225-33, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24992949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the therapeutic effectiveness of an intratympanic (IT) steroid protocol compared to a systemic steroid protocol. METHODS: A total of 265 consecutive patients presenting unilateral idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss were divided into 2 groups. One group comprised 131 patients enrolled between May 2009 and May 2010, and the other consisted of 134 patients enrolled between June 2010 and June 2011; a total of 48 patients were excluded among the 2 groups. The first group received oral prednisone for 8 days in tapering doses; the second group had IT prednisolone at a dose of 62.5 mg/ml once a day for 3 consecutive days. Audiological examinations were performed at study entry and 30 days after the beginning of therapy. Mean pure tone audiometry (PTA) of both groups and hearing outcomes following the criteria of Furuhashi et al. [Clin Otolaryngol 2002;27:458-463] and Siegel [Otolaryngol Clin North Am 1975;8:467-473] were investigated. RESULTS: The strong efficacy of steroid therapy was evident in both groups, observing both PTA and hearing threshold improvement. The evaluation of the hearing outcomes shows a significantly better result for the short-term IT protocol; this result is ascribable to two types of audiometric curves: down- and up-sloping. CONCLUSION: The results show a significant efficacy of both steroid therapeutic approaches. There was no significant difference in PTA improvement between the 2 study groups; the short-term IT protocol led to better results in the evaluation of the hearing outcomes (following the criteria of Siegel and Furuhashi et al.) for up- and down-sloping audiometric curves.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Orelha Média , Perda Auditiva Súbita/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Ear Hear ; 34(4): 503-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24005841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the sleep architecture and its possible alterations in chronic tinnitus patients, and investigate any possible correlation between sleep architecture modifications and tinnitus perception, adaptation, and the degree of discomfort in these patients. DESIGN: In a prospective, case-control, nonrandomized study, 18 patients affected by chronic tinnitus were compared with a homogeneous control group consisting of 15 healthy subjects. The experimental group was enrolled at the Tinnitus ambulatory at Policlinico Umberto I Department of Sensory Organs, and the control group was composed of voluntary subjects. A full overnight polysomnography was performed on both groups. Tinnitus patients answered two questionnaires: the tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) and a questionnaire concerning their subjective sleep quality, tinnitus intensity before bedtime, tinnitus intensity at remembered nocturnal wake-up periods, and tinnitus intensity at morning wake-up. Controls completed only the sleep quality questionnaire. RESULTS: All tinnitus patients had a statistically significant alteration in sleep stages. Average percentage of stage 1 + stage 2 was 85.4% ± 6.3, whereas, in the control group, the average percentage of stage 1 + stage 2 was 54.9 ± 11.2 (p < 0.001). Stages 3 and 4 and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was lacking in all tinnitus patients with an average percentage of 6.4 ± 4.9 of REM sleep, and 6.4 ± 4.9 of stages 3 + 4. The control group showed an average percentage of 21.5 ± 3.6 of REM sleep and 21.5 ± 3.6 of stages 3 + 4 (p < 0.001). No correlation was found between the decrease of REM and the increase of the THI score in the tinnitus group (r = 0.04). However, a mild correlation was found between the increase of light sleep (stage 1 + stage 2) and the THI score reported by the tinnitus group. Therefore, patients with light sleep report a higher THI score (r = 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: The significant alteration of sleep parameters assessed in tinnitus patients underlines the necessity to consider an adequate therapy that could improve patients' sleep quality and also opens avenues for further investigations.


Assuntos
Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Sono REM/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zumbido/complicações , Adulto Jovem
20.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 133(9): 900-4, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23692396

RESUMO

CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the stability of the efficacy over time of the intratympanic prednisolone protocol and they suggest that the spontaneous recovery does not significantly influence the long-term evaluation of intratympanic therapy. A 10-day follow-up after 3 days of intratympanic prednisolone administration can be considered a sufficient period to evaluate the effectiveness of the undertaken therapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the stability of the efficacy over time of intratympanic steroid therapy for patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: A total of 122 patients received an intratympanic steroid injection of prednisolone daily for 3 days. Audiograms were performed before therapy and at 10 days and 1 year after therapy. Successful recovery was defined as complete and partial recovery using Siegel's criteria and complete and marked recovery following Furuhashi's criteria. RESULTS: The comparison of audiometric data at study entry, at 10 days, and at 1 year after the treatment showed a statistically significant improvement of the mean pure tone audiometry. The evaluation of the hearing outcomes demonstrated a statistically significant improvement, with similar success rates when evaluated 10 days and 1 year after the treatment. Comparing the hearing outcomes at 1 year with the results at 10 days, no significant difference was detected between these two time points.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Injeções , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Membrana Timpânica
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