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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237614

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome is characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, hemivertebrae, and genital hypoplasia. Due to low prevalence and considerable phenotypic variability, it has been challenging to definitively characterize features of Robinow syndrome. While craniofacial abnormalities associated with Robinow syndrome have been broadly described, there is a lack of detailed descriptions of genotype-specific phenotypic craniofacial features. Patients with Robinow syndrome were invited for a multidisciplinary evaluation conducted by specialist physicians at our institution. A focused assessment of the craniofacial manifestations was performed by a single expert examiner using clinical examination and standard photographic images. A total of 13 patients with clinical and molecular diagnoses consistent with either dominant Robinow syndrome (DRS) or recessive Robinow syndrome (RRS) were evaluated. On craniofacial examination, gingival hyperplasia was nearly ubiquitous in all patients. Orbital hypertelorism, a short nose with anteverted and flared nares, a triangular mouth with a long philtrum, cleft palate, macrocephaly, and frontal bossing were not observed in all individuals but affected individuals with both DRS and RRS. Other anomalies were more selective in their distribution in this patient cohort. We present a comprehensive analysis of the craniofacial findings in patients with Robinow Syndrome, describing associated morphological features and correlating phenotypic manifestations to underlying genotype in a manner relevant for early recognition and focused evaluation of these patients.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048444

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome (RS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by skeletal dysplasia and a distinctive facial appearance. Previous studies have revealed locus heterogeneity with rare variants in DVL1, DVL3, FZD2, NXN, ROR2, and WNT5A underlying the etiology of RS. The aforementioned "Robinow-associated genes" and their gene products all play a role in the WNT/planar cell polarity signaling pathway. We performed gene-targeted Sanger sequencing, exome sequencing, genome sequencing, and array comparative genomic hybridization on four subjects with a clinical diagnosis of RS who had not had prior DNA testing. Individuals in our cohort were found to carry pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in three RS related genes: DVL1, ROR2, and NXN. One subject was found to have a nonsense variant (c.817C > T [p.Gln273*]) in NXN in trans with an ~1 Mb telomeric deletion on chromosome 17p containing NXN, which supports our contention that biallelic NXN variant alleles are responsible for a novel autosomal recessive RS locus. These findings provide increased understanding of the role of WNT signaling in skeletal development and maintenance. These data further support the hypothesis that dysregulation of the noncanonical WNT pathway in humans gives rise to RS.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(11): 2632-2640, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888393

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome (RS) is a genetically heterogeneous skeletal dysplasia with recent reports suggesting an osteosclerotic form of the disease. We endeavored to investigate the full spectrum of skeletal anomalies in a genetically diverse cohort of RS patients with a focus on the bone micro-architecture. Seven individuals with molecularly confirmed RS, including four with DVL1 variants and single individuals with variants in WNT5A, ROR2, and GPC4 underwent a musculoskeletal focused physical examination, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan, and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Skeletal examination revealed variability in limb shortening anomalies consistent with recent reports. DEXA scan measures revealed increased total body bone mineral density (BMD) (3/7), cranial BMD (5/7), and non-cranial BMD (1/7). Cranial osteosclerosis was only observed in DVL1-RS (4/4) and GPC4-RS (1/1) subjects and in one case was complicated by choanal atresia, bilateral conductive hearing loss, and cranial nerve III, VI, and VII palsy. HR-pQCT revealed a unique pattern of low cortical BMD, increased trabecular BMD, decreased number of trabeculations, and increased thickness of the trabeculations for the DVL1-RS subjects. The spectrum of skeletal anomalies including the micro-architecture of the bones observed in RS has considerable variability with some osteosclerosis genotype-phenotype correlations more frequent with DVL1 variants.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954672

RESUMO

It has been estimated that 10-15% of people with Robinow syndrome (RS) show delayed development, but no studies have formally assessed developmental domains. The objective of this study is to provide the first description of cognitive, adaptive, and psychological functioning in RS. Thirteen participants (10 males) aged 4-51 years were seen for neuropsychological screening. Eight had autosomal-dominant RS (DVL1, n = 5; WNT5A, n = 3), four had autosomal-recessive RS (NXN, n = 2; ROR2, n = 2), and one had a mutation on an RS candidate gene (GPC4). Participants completed measures of intellectual, fine-motor, adaptive, executive, and psychological functioning. Findings indicated generally average intellectual functioning and low-average visuomotor skills. Adaptive functioning was average in autosomal-recessive RS (RRS) but low average in autosomal-dominant RS (DRS). Parent-report indicated executive dysfunction and attention problems in 4/8 children, 3/4 of whom had a DVL1 variant; adult self-report did not indicate similar difficulties. Learning disabilities were also reported in 4/8 individuals with DRS, 3/4 of whom had a DVL1 variant. Peer problems were reported for a majority of participants, many of whom also reported emotional concerns. Altogether, the findings indicate average neurocognitive functioning in RRS. In contrast, DRS, especially DVL1 pathogenic alleles, may confer specific risk for neurodevelopmental disability.

6.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 20(10): 995-1002, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954863

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The human genome contains the instructions for the development and biological homeostasis of the human organism and the genetic transmission of traits. Genome variation in human populations is the basis of evolution; individual or personal genomes vary tremendously, making each of us truly unique. AREAS COVERED: Assaying this individual variation using genomic technologies has many applications in clinical medicine, from elucidating the biology of disease to designing strategies to ameliorate perturbations from homeostasis. Detecting pathogenic rare variation in a genome may provide a molecular diagnosis that can be informative for patient management and family healthcare. EXPERT OPINION: Despite the increasing clinical use of unbiased genomic testing, including chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) or SNP arrays, clinical exome sequencing (cES), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), to survey genome-wide for molecular aberrations, clinical acumen paired with an understanding of the limitations of each testing type will be needed to achieve molecular diagnoses. Potential opportunities for improving case solved rates, functionally annotating the majority of genes in the human genome, and further understanding genetic contributions to disease will empower clinical genomics and the precision medicine initiative.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974972

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome, a rare genetic disorder, is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with, among other anomalies, extremity and hand anomalies. There is locus heterogeneity and both dominant and recessive inheritance. A detailed description of associated extremity and hand anomalies does not currently exist due to the rarity of this syndrome. This study seeks to document the hand anomalies present in Robinow syndrome to allow for improved rates of timely and accurate diagnosis. A focused assessment of the extremities and stature was performed using clinical examination and standard photographic images. A total of 13 patients with clinical and molecular diagnosis consistent with dominant Robinow syndrome or recessive Robinow syndrome were evaluated. All patients had limb shortening, the most common of which was mesomelia; however, rhizomelia and micromelia were also seen. These findings are relevant to clinical characterization, particularly as Robinow syndrome has classically been defined as a "mesomelic disorder." A total of eight distinct hand anomalies were identified in 12 patients with both autosomal recessive and dominant forms of Robinow syndrome. One patient did not present with any hand differences. The most common hand findings included brachydactyly, broad thumbs, and clinodactyly. A thorough understanding of the breadth of Robinow syndrome-associated extremity and hand anomalies can aid in early patient identification, improving rates of timely diagnosis and allowing for proactive management of sequelae.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 41(11): 1979-1998, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906200

RESUMO

Cytogenetically detected inversions are generally assumed to be copy number and phenotypically neutral events. While nonallelic homologous recombination is thought to play a major role, recent data suggest the involvement of other molecular mechanisms in inversion formation. Using a combination of short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS), 10X Genomics Chromium WGS, droplet digital polymerase chain reaction and array comparative genomic hybridization we investigated the genomic structure of 18 large unique cytogenetically detected chromosomal inversions and achieved nucleotide resolution of at least one chromosomal inversion junction for 13/18 (72%). Surprisingly, we observed that seemingly copy number neutral inversions can be accompanied by a copy-number gain of up to 350 kb and local genomic complexities (3/18, 17%). In the resolved inversions, the mutational signatures are consistent with nonhomologous end-joining (8/13, 62%) or microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (5/13, 38%). Our study indicates that short-read 30x coverage WGS can detect a substantial fraction of chromosomal inversions. Moreover, replication-based mechanisms are responsible for approximately 38% of those events leading to a significant proportion of inversions that are actually accompanied by additional copy-number variation potentially contributing to the overall phenotypic presentation of those patients.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 41(1): 150-168, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448840

RESUMO

Xq22 deletions that encompass PLP1 (Xq22-PLP1-DEL) are notable for variable expressivity of neurological disease traits in females ranging from a mild late-onset form of spastic paraplegia type 2 (MIM# 312920), sometimes associated with skewed X-inactivation, to an early-onset neurological disease trait (EONDT) of severe developmental delay, intellectual disability, and behavioral abnormalities. Size and gene content of Xq22-PLP1-DEL vary and were proposed as potential molecular etiologies underlying variable expressivity in carrier females where two smallest regions of overlap (SROs) were suggested to influence disease. We ascertained a cohort of eight unrelated patients harboring Xq22-PLP1-DEL and performed high-density array comparative genomic hybridization and breakpoint-junction sequencing. Molecular characterization of Xq22-PLP1-DEL from 17 cases (eight herein and nine published) revealed an overrepresentation of breakpoints that reside within repeats (11/17, ~65%) and the clustering of ~47% of proximal breakpoints in a genomic instability hotspot with characteristic non-B DNA density. These findings implicate a potential role for genomic architecture in stimulating the formation of Xq22-PLP1-DEL. The correlation of Xq22-PLP1-DEL gene content with neurological disease trait in female cases enabled refinement of the associated SROs to a single genomic interval containing six genes. Our data support the hypothesis that genes contiguous to PLP1 contribute to EONDT.

10.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(1): e1023, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The molecular and genetic mechanisms by which different single nucleotide variant alleles in specific genes, or at the same genetic locus, cause distinct disease phenotypes often remain unclear. Allelic truncating mutations of FBN1 could cause either classical Marfan syndrome (MFS) or a more complicated phenotype associated with Marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy syndrome (MPLS). METHODS: We investigated a small cohort, encompassing two classical MFS and one MPLS subjects from China, whose clinical presentation included scoliosis potentially requiring surgical intervention. Targeted next generation sequencing was performed on all the participants. We analyzed the molecular diagnosis, clinical features, and the potential molecular mechanism involved in the MPLS subject in our cohort. RESULTS: We report a novel de novo FBN1 mutation for the first Chinese subject with MPLS, a more complicated fibrillinopathy, and two subjects with more classical MFS. We further predict that the MPLS truncating mutation, and others previously reported, is prone to escape the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), while MFS mutations are predicted to be subjected to NMD. Also, the MPLS mutation occurs within the glucogenic hormone asprosin domain of FBN1. In vitro experiments showed that the single MPLS mutation p.Glu2759Cysfs*9 appears to perturb proper FBN1 protein aggregation as compared with the classical MFS mutation p.Tyr2596Thrfs*86. Both mutations appear to upregulate SMAD2 phosphorylation in vitro. CONCLUSION: We provide direct evidence that a dominant-negative interaction of FBN1 potentially explains the complex MPLS phenotypes through genetic and functional analysis. Our study expands the mutation spectrum of FBN1 and highlights the potential molecular mechanism for MPLS.

11.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 80, 2019 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the features of the genomic rearrangements in a cohort of 50 male individuals with proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) copy number gain events who were ascertained with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD; MIM: 312080). We then compared our new data to previous structural variant mutagenesis studies involving the Xq22 region of the human genome. The aggregate data from 159 sequenced join-points (discontinuous sequences in the reference genome that are joined during the rearrangement process) were studied. Analysis of these data from 150 individuals enabled the spectrum and relative distribution of the underlying genomic mutational signatures to be delineated. METHODS: Genomic rearrangements in PMD individuals with PLP1 copy number gain events were investigated by high-density customized array or clinical chromosomal microarray analysis and breakpoint junction sequence analysis. RESULTS: High-density customized array showed that the majority of cases (33/50; ~ 66%) present with single duplications, although complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) are also frequent (17/50; ~ 34%). Breakpoint mapping to nucleotide resolution revealed further previously unknown structural and sequence complexities, even in single duplications. Meta-analysis of all studied rearrangements that occur at the PLP1 locus showed that single duplications were found in ~ 54% of individuals and that, among all CGR cases, triplication flanked by duplications is the most frequent CGR array CGH pattern observed. Importantly, in ~ 32% of join-points, there is evidence for a mutational signature of microhomeology (highly similar yet imperfect sequence matches). CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal a high frequency of CGRs at the PLP1 locus and support the assertion that replication-based mechanisms are prominent contributors to the formation of CGRs at Xq22. We propose that microhomeology can facilitate template switching, by stabilizing strand annealing of the primer using W-C base complementarity, and is a mutational signature for replicative repair.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Rearranjo Gênico , Mutação , Proteína Proteolipídica de Mielina/genética , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Duplicação Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Instabilidade Genômica , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 68, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since different types of genetic variants, from single nucleotide variants (SNVs) to large chromosomal rearrangements, underlie intellectual disability, we evaluated the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) rather than chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as a first-line genetic diagnostic test. METHODS: We analyzed three cohorts with short-read WGS: (i) a retrospective cohort with validated copy number variants (CNVs) (cohort 1, n = 68), (ii) individuals referred for monogenic multi-gene panels (cohort 2, n = 156), and (iii) 100 prospective, consecutive cases referred to our center for CMA (cohort 3). Bioinformatic tools developed include FindSV, SVDB, Rhocall, Rhoviz, and vcf2cytosure. RESULTS: First, we validated our structural variant (SV)-calling pipeline on cohort 1, consisting of three trisomies and 79 deletions and duplications with a median size of 850 kb (min 500 bp, max 155 Mb). All variants were detected. Second, we utilized the same pipeline in cohort 2 and analyzed with monogenic WGS panels, increasing the diagnostic yield to 8%. Next, cohort 3 was analyzed by both CMA and WGS. The WGS data was processed for large (> 10 kb) SVs genome-wide and for exonic SVs and SNVs in a panel of 887 genes linked to intellectual disability as well as genes matched to patient-specific Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) phenotypes. This yielded a total of 25 pathogenic variants (SNVs or SVs), of which 12 were detected by CMA as well. We also applied short tandem repeat (STR) expansion detection and discovered one pathologic expansion in ATXN7. Finally, a case of Prader-Willi syndrome with uniparental disomy (UPD) was validated in the WGS data. Important positional information was obtained in all cohorts. Remarkably, 7% of the analyzed cases harbored complex structural variants, as exemplified by a ring chromosome and two duplications found to be an insertional translocation and part of a cryptic unbalanced translocation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The overall diagnostic rate of 27% was more than doubled compared to clinical microarray (12%). Using WGS, we detected a wide range of SVs with high accuracy. Since the WGS data also allowed for analysis of SNVs, UPD, and STRs, it represents a powerful comprehensive genetic test in a clinical diagnostic laboratory setting.


Assuntos
Análise Citogenética/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Criança , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(7): 523-535, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increased mutational burden for rare structural genomic variants in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders has so far not yielded therapies targeting the biological effects of specific mutations. We identified two carriers (mother and son) of a triplication of the gene encoding glycine decarboxylase, GLDC, presumably resulting in reduced availability of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor coagonists glycine and D-serine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction. Both carriers had a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. METHODS: We carried out two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor augmentation of psychotropic drug treatment in these two individuals. Glycine was used in the first clinical trial, and D-cycloserine was used in the second one. RESULTS: Glycine or D-cycloserine augmentation of psychotropic drug treatment each improved psychotic and mood symptoms in placebo-controlled trials. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide two independent proof-of-principle demonstrations of symptom relief by targeting a specific genotype and explicitly link an individual mutation to the pathophysiology of psychosis and treatment response.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos Afetivos/genética , Glicinérgicos/farmacologia , Glicina Desidrogenase (Descarboxilante)/genética , Glicina/farmacologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Adulto , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Método Duplo-Cego , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicinérgicos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Estudos de Caso Único como Assunto
14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 60, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital malformations associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 16, upd(16)mat, resemble those observed in newborns with the lethal developmental lung disease, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV). Interestingly, ACDMPV-causative deletions, involving FOXF1 or its lung-specific upstream enhancer at 16q24.1, arise almost exclusively on the maternally inherited chromosome 16. Given the phenotypic similarities between upd(16)mat and ACDMPV, together with parental allelic bias in ACDMPV, we hypothesized that there may be unknown imprinted loci mapping to chromosome 16 that become functionally unmasked by chromosomal structural variants. RESULTS: To identify parent-of-origin biased DNA methylation, we performed high-resolution bisulfite sequencing of chromosome 16 on peripheral blood and cultured skin fibroblasts from individuals with maternal or paternal upd(16) as well as lung tissue from patients with ACDMPV-causative 16q24.1 deletions and a normal control. We identified 22 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with ≥ 5 consecutive CpG methylation sites and varying tissue-specificity, including the known DMRs associated with the established imprinted gene ZNF597 and DMRs supporting maternal methylation of PRR25, thought to be paternally expressed in lymphoblastoid cells. Lastly, we found evidence of paternal methylation on 16q24.1 near LINC01082 mapping to the FOXF1 enhancer. CONCLUSIONS: Using high-resolution bisulfite sequencing to evaluate DNA methylation across chromosome 16, we found evidence for novel candidate imprinted loci on chromosome 16 that would not be evident in array-based assays and could contribute to the birth defects observed in patients with upd(16)mat or in ACDMPV.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Células Cultivadas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/química , Fibroblastos/citologia , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pele/química , Pele/citologia
15.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 25, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrachromosomal triplications (TRP) can contribute to disease etiology via gene dosage effects, gene disruption, position effects, or fusion gene formation. Recently, post-zygotic de novo triplications adjacent to copy-number neutral genomic intervals with runs of homozygosity (ROH) have been shown to result in uniparental isodisomy (UPD). The genomic structure of these complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) shows a consistent pattern of an inverted triplication flanked by duplications (DUP-TRP/INV-DUP) formed by an iterative DNA replisome template-switching mechanism during replicative repair of a single-ended, double-stranded DNA (seDNA), the ROH results from an interhomolog or nonsister chromatid template switch. It has been postulated that these CGRs may lead to genetic abnormalities in carriers due to dosage-sensitive genes mapping within the copy-number variant regions, homozygosity for alleles at a locus causing an autosomal recessive (AR) disease trait within the ROH region, or imprinting-associated diseases. METHODS: Here, we report a family wherein the affected subject carries a de novo 2.2-Mb TRP followed by 42.2 Mb of ROH and manifests clinical features overlapping with those observed in association with chromosome 14 maternal UPD (UPD(14)mat). UPD(14)mat can cause clinical phenotypic features enabling a diagnosis of Temple syndrome. This CGR was then molecularly characterized by high-density custom aCGH, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and methylation arrays, exome sequencing (ES), and the Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing technology. RESULTS: We confirmed the postulated DUP-TRP/INV-DUP structure by multiple orthogonal genomic technologies in the proband. The methylation status of known differentially methylated regions (DMRs) on chromosome 14 revealed that the subject shows the typical methylation pattern of UPD(14)mat. Consistent with these molecular findings, the clinical features overlap with those observed in Temple syndrome, including speech delay. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide experimental evidence that, in humans, triplication can lead to segmental UPD and imprinting disease. Importantly, genotype/phenotype analyses further reveal how a post-zygotically generated complex structural variant, resulting from a replication-based mutational mechanism, contributes to expanding the clinical phenotype of known genetic syndromes. Mechanistically, such events can distort transmission genetics resulting in homozygosity at a locus for which only one parent is a carrier as well as cause imprinting diseases.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Impressão Genômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Replicação do DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cell ; 176(6): 1310-1324.e10, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827684

RESUMO

DNA rearrangements resulting in human genome structural variants (SVs) are caused by diverse mutational mechanisms. We used long- and short-read sequencing technologies to investigate end products of de novo chromosome 17p11.2 rearrangements and query the molecular mechanisms underlying both recurrent and non-recurrent events. Evidence for an increased rate of clustered single-nucleotide variant (SNV) mutation in cis with non-recurrent rearrangements was found. Indel and SNV formation are associated with both copy-number gains and losses of 17p11.2, occur up to ∼1 Mb away from the breakpoint junctions, and favor C > G transversion substitutions; results suggest that single-stranded DNA is formed during the genesis of the SV and provide compelling support for a microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR) mechanism for SV formation. Our data show an additional mutational burden of MMBIR consisting of hypermutation confined to the locus and manifesting as SNVs and indels predominantly within genes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Mutação , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA , Rearranjo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recombinação Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética
17.
Commun Biol ; 2: 70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793048

RESUMO

A persistent concern with CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing has been the potential to generate mutations at off-target genomic sites. While CRISPR-engineering mice to delete a ~360 bp intronic enhancer, here we discovered a founder line that had marked immune dysregulation caused by a 24 kb tandem duplication of the sequence adjacent to the on-target deletion. Our results suggest unintended repair of on-target genomic cuts can cause pathogenic "bystander" mutations that escape detection by routine targeted genotyping assays.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes/métodos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/genética , Mutação , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Células Cultivadas , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Genet ; 15(2): e1007858, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735495

RESUMO

Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rearrangements involving more than two chromosomes or more than two breakpoints. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) allows for outstanding high resolution characterization on the nucleotide level in unique sequences of such rearrangements, but problems remain for mapping breakpoints in repetitive regions of the genome, which are known to be prone to rearrangements. Hence, multiple complementary WGS experiments are sometimes needed to solve the structures of CCRs. We have studied three individuals with CCRs: Case 1 and Case 2 presented with de novo karyotypically balanced, complex interchromosomal rearrangements (46,XX,t(2;8;15)(q35;q24.1;q22) and 46,XY,t(1;10;5)(q32;p12;q31)), and Case 3 presented with a de novo, extremely complex intrachromosomal rearrangement on chromosome 1. Molecular cytogenetic investigation revealed cryptic deletions in the breakpoints of chromosome 2 and 8 in Case 1, and on chromosome 10 in Case 2, explaining their clinical symptoms. In Case 3, 26 breakpoints were identified using WGS, disrupting five known disease genes. All rearrangements were subsequently analyzed using optical maps, linked-read WGS, and short-read WGS. In conclusion, we present a case series of three unique de novo CCRs where we by combining the results from the different technologies fully solved the structure of each rearrangement. The power in combining short-read WGS with long-molecule sequencing or optical mapping in these unique de novo CCRs in a clinical setting is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/genética , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Variação Estrutural do Genoma/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
19.
Genet Med ; 21(4): 798-812, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655598

RESUMO

Identifying genes and variants contributing to rare disease phenotypes and Mendelian conditions informs biology and medicine, yet potential phenotypic consequences for variation of >75% of the ~20,000 annotated genes in the human genome are lacking. Technical advances to assess rare variation genome-wide, particularly exome sequencing (ES), enabled establishment in the United States of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported Centers for Mendelian Genomics (CMGs) and have facilitated collaborative studies resulting in novel "disease gene" discoveries. Pedigree-based genomic studies and rare variant analyses in families with suspected Mendelian conditions have led to the elucidation of hundreds of novel disease genes and highlighted the impact of de novo mutational events, somatic variation underlying nononcologic traits, incompletely penetrant alleles, phenotypes with high locus heterogeneity, and multilocus pathogenic variation. Herein, we highlight CMG collaborative discoveries that have contributed to understanding both rare and common diseases and discuss opportunities for future discovery in single-locus Mendelian disorder genomics. Phenotypic annotation of all human genes; development of bioinformatic tools and analytic methods; exploration of non-Mendelian modes of inheritance including reduced penetrance, multilocus variation, and oligogenic inheritance; construction of allelic series at a locus; enhanced data sharing worldwide; and integration with clinical genomics are explored. Realizing the full contribution of rare disease research to functional annotation of the human genome, and further illuminating human biology and health, will lay the foundation for the Precision Medicine Initiative.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/tendências , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Linhagem , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
20.
J Endocr Soc ; 2(10): 1100-1108, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525125

RESUMO

We describe a 4-year-old boy with developmental delay who was found to carry by clinical grade (CG) molecular cytogenetics (MCs) a chromosome Xq26 microduplication. The report prompted a referral of the patient for possible X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG), a well-defined condition (MIM300942) due to chromosomal microduplication of a nearby region. The patient was evaluated clinically and investigated for endocrine abnormalities related to X-LAG and not only did he not have acrogigantism, but his growth parameters and other hormones were all normal. We then performed high definition MCs and the duplication copy number variant (CNV) was confirmed to precisely map outside the X-LAG critical region and definitely did not harbor the X-LAG candidate gene, GPR101. The patient's phenotype resembled that of other patients with Xq26 CNVs. The case is instructive for the need for high definition MCs when CG MCs' results are inconsistent with the patient's phenotype. It is also useful for further supporting the contention that GPR101 is the gene responsible for X-LAG.

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