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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 79, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of work ability (WA) and describe characteristics of the subgroup with poor WA among military police officers. METHODS: A descriptive and cross-sectional study with 329 male military police officers engaged in street patrolling in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, selected by proportionate stratified sampling. The Work Ability Index and a structured form were used to collect information about age, education, marital status, housing, salary, car ownership, work hours, rank (official or enlisted), drinking, smoking, frequency of vigorous physical activity, and obesity. Data were analyzed by uni and bivariate statistical techniques. RESULTS: The work ability of the 329 military police officers was classified as poor (10.3%), moderate (28.9%), good (34.7%), and excellent (26.1%), with mean score of 37.8 and standard deviation of 7.3 points. Policemen with poor work ability, compared with those with moderate, good or excellent WA, presented higher proportions of individuals who did not own their residences (p < 0.001), with work hours above eight hours/day (p < 0.026), and obesity (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of the 26 policemen who concomitantly did not own their residences, worked more than eight 8 hours/day and were obese, the prevalence of poor work ability was 31.0%. The prevalence of poor WA was 31.0% among the 29 policemen who were simultaneously obese and did not own their residences and of 27.9% among the 43 policemen who were obese and work hours above eight hours/day. CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of military police officers from Salvador presented poor or moderate work ability, which may hamper or compromise their policing activities. The prevalence of poor work ability was higher among the policemen who did not own their residences, worked more than 8 hours/day and were obese.


Assuntos
Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 24(3): e392-e397, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185649

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to explore the associations between health-related quality of life and work ability with the oral health status of patients with chronic liver disease. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study included 150 patients with chronic liver disease, consecutively seen at University Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Oral health was evaluated by the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index and by the presence of gingivitis and periodontitis. Salivary flow was "reduced" when <1.0 mL/min. Health-related quality of life was evaluated by using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36); work ability was evaluated by the Work Ability Index questionnaire. Results: All health-related quality of life indicators were systematically lower among the 99 patients with reduced salivary flow than among the 51 patients with normal salivary flow. Physical Functioning, Role-Physical, and Physical Component Summary scores were strongly correlated (P < 0.005 or less) with the number of Missing Teeth and with DMFT index. Reduced salivary flow was associated (P < 0.05) with poor work ability. Patients with poor or moderate work ability presented higher (P < 0.001) means of the DMFT index than those with good or excellent work ability. Conclusions: Patients with chronic liver disease who present poor oral health presented low health-related quality of life and poor work ability. These findings reinforce the need of these patients for specialized stomatological care


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Assuntos
Humanos , Hepatopatias , Saúde Bucal , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Qualidade de Vida , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho
3.
Saúde Soc ; 28(1): 193-206, jan.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-991682

RESUMO

Resumo Buscou-se avaliar os limites da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) a partir do cotidiano de trabalho de seus profissionais. Neste estudo qualitativo, realizaram-se entrevistas individuais semiestruturadas com 16 profissionais da equipe de Saúde da Família de um município da região metropolitana de Salvador, Bahia. O exame dos dados utilizou a análise de conteúdo proposta por Bardin e os referenciais da Política Nacional de Atenção Básica e da Política Nacional de Humanização para Atenção Básica. Identificaram-se duas categorias: a atenção básica (AB) do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e a cogestão e humanização na AB. Na primeira categoria, evidenciou-se o contexto atual que permeia a AB, caracterizando os desafios que se apresentam no cotidiano de trabalho dos profissionais da ESF e as dificuldades encontradas para mudar o modelo de atenção à saúde. Na segunda categoria, destacaram-se as condições concretas em que se realizam as práticas no cotidiano de trabalho, indo de encontro aos pressupostos da humanização. Os problemas apresentados evidenciam descaracterização da AB, contradizem os preceitos da ESF e revelam dificuldades na proposta de reorientação do modelo de saúde.


Abstract The aim of this qualitative study was at evaluating the limitations of the Family Health Strategy (FSH) based on the daily work of its professionals. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 professionals from the Family Health team of a municipality in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Bahia. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, and the references of the National Policy of Primary Care and the National Policy of Humanization for Primary Care were used. Two categories were identified: primary care (PC) of the Unified Health System (SUS), and co-management and humanization in PC. For the first category, the current context of the PC was emphasized, characterizing hardships present in the daily work of FHS professionals and the challenges in changing the health care model. For the second category, the concrete conditions wherein these practices take place in daily work were highlighted, going against humanization premises. The problems presented demonstrated lack of characterization in PC, contradicted the precepts of the FHS, and revealed challenges in the proposal for reorienting the health care model.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Humanização da Assistência , Administração de Serviços de Saúde
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 79, jan. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1043334

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of work ability (WA) and describe characteristics of the subgroup with poor WA among military police officers. METHODS A descriptive and cross-sectional study with 329 male military police officers engaged in street patrolling in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, selected by proportionate stratified sampling. The Work Ability Index and a structured form were used to collect information about age, education, marital status, housing, salary, car ownership, work hours, rank (official or enlisted), drinking, smoking, frequency of vigorous physical activity, and obesity. Data were analyzed by uni and bivariate statistical techniques. RESULTS The work ability of the 329 military police officers was classified as poor (10.3%), moderate (28.9%), good (34.7%), and excellent (26.1%), with mean score of 37.8 and standard deviation of 7.3 points. Policemen with poor work ability, compared with those with moderate, good or excellent WA, presented higher proportions of individuals who did not own their residences (p < 0.001), with work hours above eight hours/day (p < 0.026), and obesity (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of the 26 policemen who concomitantly did not own their residences, worked more than eight 8 hours/day and were obese, the prevalence of poor work ability was 31.0%. The prevalence of poor WA was 31.0% among the 29 policemen who were simultaneously obese and did not own their residences and of 27.9% among the 43 policemen who were obese and work hours above eight hours/day. CONCLUSIONS A high percentage of military police officers from Salvador presented poor or moderate work ability, which may hamper or compromise their policing activities. The prevalence of poor work ability was higher among the policemen who did not own their residences, worked more than 8 hours/day and were obese.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Determinar a prevalência da capacidade para o trabalho (CT) e descrever características do subgrupo com baixa CT em policiais militares. MÉTODOS Estudo descritivo, de corte transversal, investigando 329 policiais militares do sexo masculino que faziam policiamento ostensivo em Salvador, BA, Brasil, selecionados por amostragem estratificada com partilha proporcional. Utilizaram-se o índice de capacidade para o trabalho e um questionário estruturado para coletar informações sobre idade, escolaridade, estado civil, moradia, salário, posse de carro, jornada de trabalho, classe (oficial ou praça), consumo frequente de álcool e tabaco, frequência de atividade física vigorosa e obesidade. Os dados foram analisados com o uso de técnicas estatísticas uni e bivariadas. RESULTADOS A capacidade para o trabalho dos 329 policiais foi classificada como baixa (10,3%), moderada (28,9%), boa (34,7%) ou ótima (26,1%), com escore médio de 37,8 e desvio-padrão de 7,3 pontos. Policiais com baixa capacidade para o trabalho, comparados àqueles com CT moderada, boa ou ótima, apresentaram maiores proporções de indivíduos com moradia não própria (p < 0,001), com jornada de trabalho maior que oito horas por dia (p < 0,026) e obesos (p < 0,001). No subgrupo dos 26 policiais que concomitantemente residiam em moradia não própria, tinham jornada de trabalho maior que oito horas por dia e eram obesos, a prevalência de baixa CT foi de 31,0%. A prevalência de baixa CT foi de 31,0% nos 29 policiais que, simultaneamente, eram obesos e residiam em moradia não própria e de 27,9% nos 43 policiais obesos com jornada de trabalho maior que oito horas por dia. CONCLUSÕES Elevada proporção dos policiais militares de Salvador apresentou baixa ou moderada capacidade para o trabalho, o que pode dificultar ou comprometer o desempenho de sua ocupação. A prevalência de baixa capacidade para o trabalho foi maior em policiais que residiam em moradia não própria, trabalhavam mais que oito horas por dia e, principalmente, eram obesos.

5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(1): 150-154, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457094

RESUMO

We investigated the association between fatal snakebite envenoming and agricultural work in Brazil, considering the effects of relevant covariables. A nested case-control study was performed using 1,119 fatal cases of snakebite envenoming among persons aged ≥ 10 years, notified to the Brazilian official reporting system, from 2004 to 2015. As controls, 4,476 cases were randomly selected from the 115,723 nonfatal cases of snakebite, without missing data, that occurred in the same time period. The main predictor was occupation in the agriculture sector; the main outcome was death by snakebite envenoming. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the main association, controlling for the effects of relevant covariables. Fatal cases had a 20% greater chance (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.39) of being among farmers than the controls. However, late (≥ 6 hours) time to treatment (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.70-2.36); adequate antivenom with an insufficient (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.50) or excessive (OR = 4.89; 95% CI: 4.10-6.03) number of vials; inadequate antivenom and insufficient or excessive number of vials (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 2.40-6.24); no use of antivenom (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.60-2.64); and age ≥ 60 years (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.61-2.44) were more strongly associated with lethality. Lethality was 1.0% in the period, being 0.47% among those receiving early and adequate treatment. We concluded that in Brazil, fatal snakebite envenoming was associated with agricultural work, controlling for relevant covariates. However, quality of health care provided and greater age were much more strongly associated with lethality.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/mortalidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Mordeduras de Serpentes/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Agricultura , Animais , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/terapia , Razão de Chances , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev. bras. med. trab ; 16(3): 318-326, out.2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-966074

RESUMO

Introdução: A face exerce papel central nas relações interpessoais. Pessoas com deformidades faciais adquiridas ou congênitas tendem a apresentar dificuldades nas relações interpessoais. O tratamento desses pacientes deve visar à melhoria de sua qualidade de vida e da capacidade para o trabalho. Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde e a capacidade para o trabalho de pessoas com deformidades faciais. Método: Estudo misto de abordagem qualitativa e quantitativa. Entrevistas semiestruturadas sobre qualidade de vida em saúde e implicações no trabalho foram realizadas com 16 pessoas com deformidades faciais, oito congênitas e oito adquiridas, procedentes de serviços de atenção especializada de Salvador, Bahia. Aplicaram-se os questionários Índice de Capacidade para o Trabalho (ICT) e 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Resultados: A análise temática permitiu identificar duas categorias associadas às deformidades faciais: relações interpessoais e capacidade para o trabalho; e qualidade de vida e acesso a tratamento. Indivíduos com deformidades faciais adquiridas apresentaram menor escolaridade, renda e índices mais baixos nos indicadores de qualidade de vida e ICT, quando comparados aos do grupo com deformidades congênitas. Todos com deformidades congênitas receberam algum tipo de reabilitação e apresentaram menor comprometimento das relações sociais. Conclusões: Pessoas com deformidades faciais adquiridas apresentam maior comprometimento da sua capacidade para o trabalho e qualidade de vida do que aquelas com deformidades faciais congênitas. A reabilitação precoce das anormalidades congênitas parece exercer papel importante na melhora dos índices de ICT e de qualidade de vida em saúde


Background: The face plays a central role in interpersonal relationships. Individuals with congenital or acquired facial deformities might experience difficulties with interpersonal relationships. Treatment should seek to improve their quality of life and work ability. Objective: To analyze the health-related quality of life and work ability of individuals with facial deformities. Method: Study with mixed, quantitative and qualitative methods. We conducted semi-structured interviews on health-related quality of life and its implications for work with 16 individuals with facial deformities, eight cases of congenital and eight of acquired deformities, cared at specialized services in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The Work Ability Index (WAI) and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were administered. Results: Thematic analysis led us to detect two categories of themes associated with facial deformities: interpersonal relationships and work ability; and quality of life and access to treatment. The participants with acquired facial deformities exhibited lower educational level and income, and lower quality of life and WAI scores compared to the ones with congenital deformities. All the participants with congenital deformities had received some form of rehabilitation and their social relationships were less impaired. Conclusions: Individuals with acquired facial deformities exhibited poorer work ability and quality of life compared to the ones with congenital deformities. Early rehabilitation of congenital deformities seems to considerably improve work ability and health-related quality of life


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho , Anormalidades Maxilofaciais/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Coleta de Dados , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34968

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To analyze the relationship between time to treatment and severity of snakebite envenomation in Brazil. Methods. This case-series retrospective study analyzed 144 251 snakebite cases in Brazil between 2007 and 2015, as reported to the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System. The main dependent variable was snakebite envenomation severity (mild/moderate/severe). The main predictor was time to treatment (early (< 6 hours) vs. delayed (≥ 6 hours)). Covariables were snake type (Bothrops/Crotalus/Micrurus/ Lachesis), patient's age and sex, bite site, and treatment at a specialized care center (center/noncenter). Polytomous logistic regression techniques were used to control the covariates and assess confounding and effect modification. Results. The time to treatment variable was strongly associated with the severity of snakebite envenomation. Snake type and treatment at specialized care center modified the main association effect. The association between delayed time to treatment and envenomation severity was consistently stronger among patients treated at specialized care centers than among those who were not treated at such centers. Odds ratios tended to increase significantly from moderate to severe envenomation for cases within the subgroups “Center + Bothrops” (1.37 to 2.05), “No center + Bothrops” (1.25 to 1.47), “Center + Crotalus” (1.35 to 3.03), “No center + Crotalus” (0.97 to 2.72), and “Center + Lachesis” (1.22 to 1.89). Discussion. This study confirmed the classical hypothesis that the time between snakebite and initiation of medical care is associated with severity of snakebite envenomation. It is therefore necessary to provide snakebite victims early access to specialized medical care, particularly to antivenom therapy.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Analizar la relación entre el tiempo transcurrido hasta el tratamiento y la gravedad del envenenamiento por mordedura de serpiente (ofidismo) en el Brasil. Métodos. En este estudio retrospectivo de una serie de casos se analizaron 144 251 casos de mordedura de serpiente en el Brasil entre el 2007 y el 2015, notificados al Sistema Brasileño de Información sobre Enfermedades de Notificación Obligatoria. La principal variable dependiente fue la gravedad del ofidismo (leve, moderado o grave). El principal factor predictivo fue el tiempo hasta el tratamiento (temprano [menos de 6 horas] o tardío [6 horas o más]). Las covariables fueron el tipo de serpiente (Bothrops, Crotalus, Micrurus o Lachesis), la edad y el sexo del paciente, la localización de la mordedura y el tratamiento en un centro de atención especializada (sí o no). Se usaron técnicas de regresión logística politómica para controlar las covariables y evaluar el fenómeno de confusión y la modificación del efecto. Resultados. La variable de tiempo hasta el tratamiento se asoció estrechamente con la gravedad del ofidismo. El tipo de serpiente y el tratamiento en un centro especializado modificaron el principal efecto de asociación. La asociación entre el tratamiento tardío y la gravedad del ofidismo fue sistemáticamente más estrecha en los pacientes tratados en los centros especializados de atención que entre los no tratados en tales centros. Las razones de posibilidades tendieron a aumentar significativamente del ofidismo moderado al ofidismo grave para los casos en los subgrupos “centro + Bothrops” (1,37 a 2,05), “no tratados en un centro + Bothrops” (1,25 a 1,47), “centro + Crotalus” (1,35 a 3,03), “no tratados en un centro + Crotalus” (0,97 a 2,72) y “centro + Lachesis” (1,22 a 1,89). Discusión. Este estudio confirmó la hipótesis clásica de que el lapso entre la mordedura de serpiente y el inicio de la atención médica se asocia con la gravedad del ofidismo. Por consiguiente, es necesario dar a las víctimas de mordeduras de serpiente acceso temprano a la atención médica especializada, en particular al tratamiento con el antídoto.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Examinar a relação entre tempo para tratamento e gravidade do envenenamento ofídico no Brasil. Métodos. Neste estudo retrospectivo de série de casos foram analisados 144.251 casos de picadas de cobras registrados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação do Brasil entre 2007 e 2015. A principal variável dependente foi gravidade do envenenamento ofídico (leve/moderado/grave). O principal fator de predição foi tempo para tratamento (rápido <6 horas ou demorado ≥6 horas). As covariáveis foram genêro da serpente (Bothrops/Crotalus/Micrurus/ Lachesis), idade e sexo do paciente, local da picada e tratamento em centro especializado de atendimento (em centro/não em centro). Um modelo de regressão logística politômica foi usado para controlar as covariáveis e avaliar os fatores de confusão e modificadores de efeito. Resultados. A variável tempo para tratamento apresentou marcante associação com gravidade do envenenamento ofídico. O gênero da serpente e o tratamento em centro especializado modificaram o principal efeito da associação. A associação entre demora para o tratamento e gravidade do envenenamento foi consistentemente mais marcante nos casos tratados em centros especializados em comparação aos casos não tratados nestes centros. Os odds ratios tenderam a aumentar significativamente nos casos de envenenamento moderado a grave nos subgrupos “em centro + Bothrops” (1,37 a 2,05), “não em centro + Bothrops” (1,25 a 1,47), “em centro + Crotalus” (1,35 a 3,03), “não em centro + Crotalus” (0,97 a 2,72) e “em centro + Lachesis” (1,22 a 1,89). Discussão/Conclusão. Este estudo confirmou a clássica hipótese de que o tempo decorrido entre a picada de cobra e o início do atendimento médico está associado à gravidade do envenenamento ofídico. Portanto, é necessário prover às vítimas de acidentes ofídicos acesso rápido à atenção médica especializada, sobretudo o acesso ao tratamento com soro antiofídico.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes , Gravidade do Paciente , Tempo para o Tratamento , Brasil , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Gravidade do Paciente , Tempo para o Tratamento , Brasil , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Gravidade do Paciente , Tempo para o Tratamento
8.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42: e52, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093080

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the relationship between time to treatment and severity of snakebite envenomation in Brazil. Methods: This case-series retrospective study analyzed 144 251 snakebite cases in Brazil between 2007 and 2015, as reported to the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System. The main dependent variable was snakebite envenomation severity (mild/moderate/severe). The main predictor was time to treatment (early (< 6 hours) vs. delayed (≥ 6 hours)). Covariables were snake type (Bothrops/Crotalus/Micrurus/Lachesis), patient's age and sex, bite site, and treatment at a specialized care center (center/noncenter). Polytomous logistic regression techniques were used to control the covariates and assess confounding and effect modification. Results: The time to treatment variable was strongly associated with the severity of snakebite envenomation. Snake type and treatment at specialized care center modified the main association effect. The association between delayed time to treatment and envenomation severity was consistently stronger among patients treated at specialized care centers than among those who were not treated at such centers. Odds ratios tended to increase significantly from moderate to severe envenomation for cases within the subgroups "Center + Bothrops" (1.37 to 2.05), "No center + Bothrops" (1.25 to 1.47), "Center + Crotalus" (1.35 to 3.03), "No center + Crotalus" (0.97 to 2.72), and "Center + Lachesis" (1.22 to 1.89). Discussion: This study confirmed the classical hypothesis that the time between snakebite and initiation of medical care is associated with severity of snakebite envenomation. It is therefore necessary to provide snakebite victims early access to specialized medical care, particularly to antivenom therapy.

9.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e52, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-961714

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the relationship between time to treatment and severity of snakebite envenomation in Brazil. Methods This case-series retrospective study analyzed 144 251 snakebite cases in Brazil between 2007 and 2015, as reported to the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System. The main dependent variable was snakebite envenomation severity (mild/moderate/severe). The main predictor was time to treatment (early (< 6 hours) vs. delayed (≥ 6 hours)). Covariables were snake type (Bothrops/Crotalus/Micrurus/Lachesis), patient's age and sex, bite site, and treatment at a specialized care center (center/noncenter). Polytomous logistic regression techniques were used to control the covariates and assess confounding and effect modification. Results The time to treatment variable was strongly associated with the severity of snakebite envenomation. Snake type and treatment at specialized care center modified the main association effect. The association between delayed time to treatment and envenomation severity was consistently stronger among patients treated at specialized care centers than among those who were not treated at such centers. Odds ratios tended to increase significantly from moderate to severe envenomation for cases within the subgroups "Center + Bothrops" (1.37 to 2.05), "No center + Bothrops" (1.25 to 1.47), "Center + Crotalus" (1.35 to 3.03), "No center + Crotalus" (0.97 to 2.72), and "Center + Lachesis" (1.22 to 1.89). Discussion This study confirmed the classical hypothesis that the time between snakebite and initiation of medical care is associated with severity of snakebite envenomation. It is therefore necessary to provide snakebite victims early access to specialized medical care, particularly to antivenom therapy.


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar la relación entre el tiempo transcurrido hasta el tratamiento y la gravedad del envenenamiento por mordedura de serpiente (ofidismo) en el Brasil. Métodos En este estudio retrospectivo de una serie de casos se analizaron 144 251 casos de mordedura de serpiente en el Brasil entre el 2007 y el 2015, notificados al Sistema Brasileño de Información sobre Enfermedades de Notificación Obligatoria. La principal variable dependiente fue la gravedad del ofidismo (leve, moderado o grave). El principal factor predictivo fue el tiempo hasta el tratamiento (temprano [menos de 6 horas] o tardío [6 horas o más]). Las covariables fueron el tipo de serpiente (Bothrops, Crotalus, Micrurus o Lachesis), la edad y el sexo del paciente, la localización de la mor­dedura y el tratamiento en un centro de atención especializada (sí o no). Se usaron técnicas de regresión logística politómica para controlar las covariables y evaluar el fenómeno de confusión y la modificación del efecto. Resultados La variable de tiempo hasta el tratamiento se asoció estrechamente con la gravedad del ofidismo. El tipo de serpiente y el tratamiento en un centro especia­lizado modificaron el principal efecto de asociación. La asociación entre el tratamiento tardío y la gravedad del ofidismo fue sistemáticamente más estrecha en los pacientes tratados en los centros especializados de atención que entre los no tratados en tales centros. Las razones de posibilidades tendieron a aumentar significativamente del ofidismo moderado al ofidismo grave para los casos en los subgrupos "centro + Bothrops" (1,37 a 2,05), "no tratados en un centro + Bothrops" (1,25 a 1,47), "centro + Crotalus" (1,35 a 3,03), "no tratados en un centro + Crotalus" (0,97 a 2,72) y "centro + Lachesis" (1,22 a 1,89). Discusión Este estudio confirmó la hipótesis clásica de que el lapso entre la mordedura de serpiente y el inicio de la atención médica se asocia con la gravedad del ofidismo. Por consiguiente, es necesario dar a las víctimas de mordeduras de serpiente acceso temprano a la atención médica especializada, en particular al tratamiento con el antídoto.


RESUMO Objetivo Examinar a relação entre tempo para tratamento e gravidade do envenenamento ofídico no Brasil. Métodos Neste estudo retrospectivo de série de casos foram analisados 144.251 casos de picadas de cobras registrados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação do Brasil entre 2007 e 2015. A principal variável dependente foi gravidade do envenenamento ofídico (leve/moderado/grave). O principal fator de predição foi tempo para tratamento (rápido <6 horas ou demorado ≥6 horas). As covariáveis foram genêro da serpente (Bothrops/Crotalus/Micrurus/Lachesis), idade e sexo do paciente, local da picada e tratamento em centro especializado de atendimento (em centro/não em centro). Um modelo de regressão logística politômica foi usado para controlar as covariáveis e avaliar os fatores de confusão e modificadores de efeito. Resultados A variável tempo para tratamento apresentou marcante associação com gravidade do envenenamento ofídico. O gênero da serpente e o tratamento em centro especializado modificaram o principal efeito da associação. A associação entre demora para o tratamento e gravidade do envenenamento foi consistentemente mais marcante nos casos tratados em centros especializados em comparação aos casos não tratados nestes centros. Os odds ratios tenderam a aumentar significativamente nos casos de envenenamento moderado a grave nos subgrupos "em centro + Bothrops" (1,37 a 2,05), "não em centro + Bothrops" (1,25 a 1,47), "em centro + Crotalus" (1,35 a 3,03), "não em centro + Crotalus" (0,97 a 2,72) e "em centro + Lachesis" (1,22 a 1,89). Discussão/Conclusão Este estudo confirmou a clássica hipótese de que o tempo decorrido entre a picada de cobra e o início do atendimento médico está associado à gravidade do envenenamento ofídico. Portanto, é necessário prover às vítimas de acidentes ofídicos acesso rápido à atenção médica especializada, sobretudo o acesso ao tratamento com soro antiofídico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Tempo para o Tratamento , Gravidade do Paciente , Brasil
10.
Trab. educ. saúde ; 15(3): 725-744, set.-dez. 2017.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-904468

RESUMO

Resumo A pesquisa buscou identificar e avaliar os problemas bioéticos envolvidos no cotidiano de trabalho de profissionais de duas equipes da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Neste estudo qualitativo, realizaram-se entrevistas individuais semiestruturadas com 16 profissionais da equipe de saúde da família de Salvador, Bahia, de fevereiro a outubro de 2015. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo proposta por Bardin, assim como a bioética principialista e o pensamento complexo de Edgar Morin. Identificaram-se duas categorias: 'Problemas bioéticos no cotidiano de trabalho da equipe de saúde da família' e 'A relação interprofissional na equipe de saúde da família'. Na primeira categoria, evidenciaram-se falta de companheirismo e colaboração entre os membros da equipe; ações verticalizadas da gestão; dificuldades em preservar a privacidade do usuário e dos profissionais. Na segunda, destacaram-se a disparidade de poder nas relações interprofissionais e o encontro 'frio' entre núcleo de apoio e assistência à saúde da família e equipe. Concluiu-se que a equipe de saúde da família não tem avançado no aperfeiçoamento do trabalho em equipe interdisciplinar. Os problemas identificados ferem os princípios do enfoque principialista da bioética, esgarçam o tecido social do trabalho na Estratégia Saúde da Família e contribuem para a descaracterização da atenção básica.


Abstract This study sought to identify and evaluate the bioethical issues involved in the daily work of professionals comprising two Family Health Strategy teams. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 16 professionals from the Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, family health team from February to October 2015. Content analysis proposed by Bardin was used, as was mainstream bioethics and the complex thinking of Edgar Morin. Two categories were identified: 'Bioethical issues in the daily work of the family health team' and 'Interprofessional relationships in the family health team.' In the first category, there was evidence of a lack of fellowship and collaboration among team members; vertical management actions, and difficulties in preserving the privacy of users and professionals. In the second one, standing out were power disparity in interprofessional relations and the 'cold' meeting between the support center and family health care and team. It was concluded that the family health team has not advanced in improving interdisciplinary teamwork. The issues that were identified undermine the principles of the mainstream approach of bioethics, they tear the social fabric of work in the Family Health Strategy, and contribute to the de-characterization of basic care.


Resumen La investigación buscó identificar y evaluar los problemas bioéticos involucrados en el trabajo cotidiano de profesionales de dos equipos de la Estrategia Salud de la Familia. En este estudio cualitativo, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con 16 profesionales del equipo de salud de la familia de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil, de febrero a octubre de 2015. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido propuesto por Bardin, así como la bioética principalista y el pensamiento complejo de Edgar Morin. Se identificaron dos categorías: "Problemas bioéticos en el trabajo cotidiano del equipo de salud de la familia" y "La relación interprofesional en el equipo de salud de la familia". En la primera categoría, se pusieron de manifiesto la falta de compañerismo y colaboración entre los miembros del equipo; acciones verticales de gestión; dificultades en preservar la privacidad del usuario y de los profesionales. En la segunda, se destacaron la disparidad de poder en las relaciones interprofesionales y el encuentro 'frío' entre núcleo de apoyo y asistencia a la salud de la familia y equipo. Se concluyó que el equipo de salud de la familia no ha avanzado en el perfeccionamiento del trabajo en equipo interdisciplinario. Los problemas identificados lesionan los principios del enfoque principalista de la bioética, desgarran el tejido social del trabajo en la Estrategia Salud de la Familia y contribuyen para la descaracterización de la atención básica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Bioética , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Relações Interprofissionais
11.
BMJ Open ; 7(5): e013596, 2017 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28515185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Job Content Questionnaire(JCQ) performance using the latent class model. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional studies conducted in Brazil and examined three occupational categories: petroleum industry workers (n=489), teachers (n=4392) and primary healthcare workers (3078)and 1552 urban workers from a representative sample of the city of Feira de Santana in Bahia, Brazil. An appropriate number of latent classes was extracted and described each occupational category using latent class analysis, a multivariate method that evaluates constructs and takes into accountthe latent characteristics underlying the structure of measurement scales. The conditional probabilities of workers belonging to each class were then analysed graphically. RESULTS: Initially, the latent class analysis extracted four classes corresponding to the four job types (active, passive, low strain and high strain) proposed by the Job-Strain model (JSM) and operationalised by the JCQ. However, after taking into consideration the adequacy criteria to evaluate the number of extracted classes, three classes (active, low strain and high strain) were extracted from the studies of urban workers and teachers and four classes (active, passive, low strain and high strain) from the study of primary healthcare and petroleum industry workers. CONCLUSION: The four job types proposed by the JSM were identified among primary healthcare and petroleum industry workers-groups with relatively high levels of skill discretion and decision authority. Three job types were identified for teachers and urban workers; however, passive job situations were not found within these groups. The latent class analysis enabled us to describe the conditional standard responses of the job types proposed by the model, particularly in relation to active jobs and high and low strain situations.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Saúde do Trabalhador , Ocupações/classificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Fatores de Risco , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Recursos Humanos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
SAGE Open Med ; 4: 2050312116671725, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27757230

RESUMO

According to the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire developers, a global measure of health-related quality of life such as the "SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score" cannot be generated from the questionnaire. However, studies keep on reporting such measure. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and to describe some characteristics of articles reporting the SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score in the scientific literature. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method was adapted to a scoping review. We performed searches in PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, BVS, and Cochrane Library databases for articles using such scores. We found 172 articles published between 1997 and 2015; 110 (64.0%) of them were published from 2010 onwards; 30.0% appeared in journals with Impact Factor 3.00 or greater. Overall, 129 (75.0%) out of the 172 studies did not specify the method for calculating the "SF-36 Total Score"; 13 studies did not specify their methods but referred to the SF-36 developers' studies or others; and 30 articles used different strategies for calculating such score, the most frequent being arithmetic averaging of the eight SF-36 domains scores. We concluded that the "SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score" has been increasingly reported in the scientific literature. Researchers should be aware of this procedure and of its possible impacts upon human health.

13.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 24(2): 344-354, maio-ago. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-792920

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o conhecimento e a opinião dos estudantes de medicina acerca dos aspectos éticos relacionados à temática dos transplantes de órgãos em diferentes períodos (1º e 4º ano) do curso médico e compará-los. Por meio da aplicação e análise de questionário pré-codificado a amostra composta por 190 estudantes de medicina (95 do 1º ano e 95 do 4º ano) em uma faculdade da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, abrangendo aspectos sociodemográficos e relacionados a transplantes e doação de órgãos, concluiu-se que o nível de conhecimento dos participantes acerca desses temas foi insatisfatório em ambos os grupos. Houve notável predileção por aspectos práticos dos transplantes em detrimento dos antropológicos, e, em alguns momentos, os estudantes manifestaram atitude antiética perante os dilemas relacionados à temática.


The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the knowledge and opinion of medical students from different years (1st and 4th year) of medical school regarding the ethical aspects related to the topic of organ transplantation. A pre-coded questionnaire covering sociodemographic aspects and matters related to transplants and organ donation was applied to a sample of 190 medical students (95 from 1st year and 95 from 4th year) from a college in Salvador (Brazil). It was concluded that the level of students’ knowledge regarding transplantation and organ donation was unsatisfactory in both groups. There was remarkable preference for practical aspects of transplantation to the detriment of anthropological ones, and at times students expressed unethical attitudes towards the dilemmas related to the theme in question.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el conocimiento y la opinión de los estudiantes de medicina sobre los aspectos éticos relacionados con el tema de los trasplantes de órganos y compararlos de acuerdo a los diferentes períodos (primero y cuarto año) de la escuela de medicina. Mediante la aplicación y el análisis de un cuestionario pre-codificado para una muestra compuesta por 190 estudiantes de medicina (95 de 1º año y 95 de 4º año), en una facultad de la ciudad de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, incluyendo aspectos sociodemográficos y relacionados a los trasplantes y a la donación de órganos, se concluyó que el nivel de conocimiento de los estudiantes sobre el trasplante y la donación de órganos fue insatisfactorio en ambos grupos. Hubo una notable predilección por los aspectos prácticos de los trasplantes en detrimento de los antropológicos y, en ocasiones, los estudiantes manifestaron una actitud antiética frente a los dilemas relacionados con la temática en cuestión.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes de Medicina , Bioética , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Morte Encefálica , Transplante de Órgãos , Ética Médica , Religião
14.
Perspect Med Educ ; 5(4): 197-204, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27438057

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life of medical students participating in a large Brazilian government loan programme for undergraduate students in private schools.A cross-sectional study in a stratified sample of students from a private medical school in Salvador, Brazil, evaluated their health-related quality of life by using a Brazilian Portuguese version of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36).Students supported by the loan programme consistently presented lower mean scores in all SF-36 domains and in the physical and mental component summary scores than those who were not in the programme. Students supported by the loan programme presented systematically lower physical and mental component mean scores, after stratification by age, gender, school year, physical activity, sleepiness, headache, having a car, having a housemaid, living with family, and living in a rented house.The loan programme has enabled less wealthy undergraduate students to attend private medical schools in Brazil. However, this support is insufficient to improve students' health-related quality of life during medical school, as compared with students who do not participate in the programme. Because of a poorer health-related quality of life, students supported by the loan programme deserve special attention from private medical schools.

15.
Rev Saude Publica ; 50: 6, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the internal consistency of the measurements of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) in different occupational groups. METHODS: A validation study was conducted with data from four surveys with groups of workers, using similar methods. A total of 9,959 workers were studied. In all surveys, the common mental disorders were assessed via SRQ-20. The internal consistency considered the items belonging to dimensions extracted by tetrachoric factor analysis for each study. Item homogeneity assessment compared estimates of Cronbach's alpha (KD-20), the alpha applied to a tetrachoric correlation matrix and stratified Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: The SRQ-20 dimensions showed adequate values, considering the reference parameters. The internal consistency of the instrument items, assessed by stratified Cronbach's alpha, was high (> 0.80) in the four studies. CONCLUSIONS: The SRQ-20 showed good internal consistency in the professional categories evaluated. However, there is still a need for studies using alternative methods and additional information able to refine the accuracy of latent variable measurement instruments, as in the case of common mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Brasil , Escolaridade , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962251

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the internal consistency of the measurements of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) in different occupational groups. METHODS A validation study was conducted with data from four surveys with groups of workers, using similar methods. A total of 9,959 workers were studied. In all surveys, the common mental disorders were assessed via SRQ-20. The internal consistency considered the items belonging to dimensions extracted by tetrachoric factor analysis for each study. Item homogeneity assessment compared estimates of Cronbach's alpha (KD-20), the alpha applied to a tetrachoric correlation matrix and stratified Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS The SRQ-20 dimensions showed adequate values, considering the reference parameters. The internal consistency of the instrument items, assessed by stratified Cronbach's alpha, was high (> 0.80) in the four studies. CONCLUSIONS The SRQ-20 showed good internal consistency in the professional categories evaluated. However, there is still a need for studies using alternative methods and additional information able to refine the accuracy of latent variable measurement instruments, as in the case of common mental disorders.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a consistência interna das medidas do Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) em diferentes grupos ocupacionais. MÉTODOS Realizou-se estudo de validação com dados de quatro inquéritos de grupos de trabalhadores, utilizando procedimentos metodológicos semelhantes. Foram estudados 9.959 trabalhadores. Em todos os inquéritos, os transtornos mentais comuns foram avaliados por meio do SRQ-20. A consistência interna considerou os itens pertencentes às dimensões extraídas por análise fatorial tetracórica, para cada estudo. A avaliação da homogeneidade dos itens comparou estimativas alpha de Cronbach (KD-20), o alpha aplicado a uma matriz de correlações tetracóricas e do alpha de Cronbach estratificado. RESULTADOS As dimensões do SRQ-20 apresentaram valores adequados, considerando os parâmetros de referência. A consistência interna dos itens do instrumento, avaliada pelo escore do alpha de Cronbach estratificado, foi elevada (> 0,80) nos quatro estudos. CONCLUSÕES O SRQ-20 apresentou boa consistência interna nas categorias profissionais avaliadas. Entretanto, ainda são necessários estudos que utilizem métodos alternativos e informações adicionais que possam refinar a precisão dos instrumentos de mensuração de construtos latentes, como no caso dos transtornos mentais comuns.

17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 12(11): 14084-93, 2015 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26540067

RESUMO

Little is known about the health-related quality of life of former lead workers. Using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), a cross-section design study evaluated the health-related quality of life of 186 former workers of a lead smelter that operated in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Brazil, from 1960 to 1993, when it closed down. The smelter had very poor occupational and environmental hygiene standards. The health-related quality of life of former lead workers was low, compared to population-based and other nosological groups from Brazil. Former lead workers who indicated metal poisoning, difficulty getting another job and who could not get another job after dismissal by the smelter presented poorer health-related quality of life. Former lead workers with poor health-related quality of life form part of the huge occupational liability left by the Santo Amaro lead smelter.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metalurgia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envenenamento , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 49: 67, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26465664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of two speech therapy interventions, vocal warm-up and breathing training, focusing on teachers' voice quality.METHODS A single-blind, randomized, parallel clinical trial was conducted. The research included 31 20 to 60-year old teachers from a public school in Salvador, BA, Northeasatern Brazil, with minimum workloads of 20 hours a week, who have or have not reported having vocal alterations. The exclusion criteria were the following: being a smoker, excessive alcohol consumption, receiving additional speech therapy assistance while taking part in the study, being affected by upper respiratory tract infections, professional use of the voice in another activity, neurological disorders, and history of cardiopulmonary pathologies. The subjects were distributed through simple randomization in groups vocal warm-up (n = 14) and breathing training (n = 17). The teachers' voice quality was subjectively evaluated through the Voice Handicap Index (Índice de Desvantagem Vocal, in the Brazilian version) and computerized voice analysis (average fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, noise, and glottal-to-noise excitation ratio) by speech therapists.RESULTS Before the interventions, the groups were similar regarding sociodemographic characteristics, teaching activities, and vocal quality. The variations before and after the intervention in self-assessment and acoustic voice indicators have not significantly differed between the groups. In the comparison between groups before and after the six-week interventions, significant reductions in the Voice Handicap Index of subjects in both groups were observed, as wells as reduced average fundamental frequencies in the vocal warm-up group and increased shimmer in the breathing training group. Subjects from the vocal warm-up group reported speaking more easily and having their voices more improved in a general way as compared to the breathing training group.CONCLUSIONS Both interventions were similar regarding their effects on the teachers' voice quality. However, each contribution has individually contributed to improve the teachers' voice quality, especially the vocal warm-up.TRIAL RECORD NCT02102399, "Vocal Warm-up and Respiratory Muscle Training in Teachers".


Assuntos
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Voz , Treinamento da Voz , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Autoavaliação , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 49: 67, 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of two speech therapy interventions, vocal warm-up and breathing training, focusing on teachers' voice quality.METHODS A single-blind, randomized, parallel clinical trial was conducted. The research included 31 20 to 60-year old teachers from a public school in Salvador, BA, Northeasatern Brazil, with minimum workloads of 20 hours a week, who have or have not reported having vocal alterations. The exclusion criteria were the following: being a smoker, excessive alcohol consumption, receiving additional speech therapy assistance while taking part in the study, being affected by upper respiratory tract infections, professional use of the voice in another activity, neurological disorders, and history of cardiopulmonary pathologies. The subjects were distributed through simple randomization in groups vocal warm-up (n = 14) and breathing training (n = 17). The teachers' voice quality was subjectively evaluated through the Voice Handicap Index (Índice de Desvantagem Vocal, in the Brazilian version) and computerized voice analysis (average fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, noise, and glottal-to-noise excitation ratio) by speech therapists.RESULTS Before the interventions, the groups were similar regarding sociodemographic characteristics, teaching activities, and vocal quality. The variations before and after the intervention in self-assessment and acoustic voice indicators have not significantly differed between the groups. In the comparison between groups before and after the six-week interventions, significant reductions in the Voice Handicap Index of subjects in both groups were observed, as wells as reduced average fundamental frequencies in the vocal warm-up group and increased shimmer in the breathing training group. Subjects from the vocal warm-up group reported speaking more easily and having their voices more improved in a general way as compared to the breathing training group.CONCLUSIONS Both interventions were similar regarding their effects on the teachers' voice quality. However, each contribution has individually contributed to improve the teachers' voice quality, especially the vocal warm-up.TRIAL RECORD NCT02102399, "Vocal Warm-up and Respiratory Muscle Training in Teachers".


OBJETIVO Comparar a efetividade de duas intervenções fonoaudiológicas, aquecimento vocal e treino respiratório, na qualidade vocal de professores.MÉTODOS Realizou-se ensaio clínico randomizado, cego ao avaliador, com delineamento em paralelo 1:1. Participaram da pesquisa 31 professores da rede estadual de ensino de Salvador, BA, entre 20 e 60 anos de idade, carga laboral mínima de 20h semanais, com ou sem alteração vocal autorreferida. Os critérios de exclusão foram: tabagismo, elevada frequência de consumo de álcool, acompanhamento fonoaudiológico simultâneo à participação no estudo, estado de infecções de trato respiratório superior, uso profissional da voz em outra atividade, distúrbios neurológicos e histórico de patologias cardiopulmonares. Os indivíduos foram alocados por randomização simples nos grupos aquecimento vocal (n = 14) e treino respiratório (n = 17). A qualidade vocal dos professores foi avaliada subjetivamente pelo Índice de Desvantagem Vocal e pela análise acústica computadorizada da voz (frequência fundamental média, jitter, shimmer, ruído e proporção glottal-to-noise excitation), realizada por fonoaudiólogos.RESULTADOS Antes das intervenções, os grupos eram semelhantes quanto às características sociodemográficas, atividade docente e qualidade vocal. As variações pré e pós-intervenção nos indicadores de autoavaliação e acústicos da voz não diferiram significantemente entre os grupos. Na comparação intragrupos, pré e pós-intervenções de seis semanas, observou-se redução significativa do Índice de Desvantagem Vocal nos participantes dos dois grupos, redução da frequência fundamental média no grupo aquecimento vocal e aumento doshimmer no grupo treino respiratório. Indivíduos do grupo aquecimento vocal referiram maior facilidade para falar e maior benefício em relação à melhoria geral da voz, comparado ao grupo treino respiratório.CONCLUSÕES Ambas intervenções foram similares quanto a seus efeitos sobre a qualidade vocal dos professores. Entretanto, cada intervenção isoladamente, em especial o aquecimento vocal, contribuiu para melhorar a qualidade vocal dos professores.REGISTRO DO ENSAIO NCT02102399, "Vocal Warm-up and Respiratory Muscle Training in Teachers".

20.
J Bioeth Inq ; 11(3): 283-7, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24952507

RESUMO

This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.


Assuntos
Fraude , Editoração/ética , Ciência/ética , Má Conduta Científica , Brasil , Ética em Pesquisa , Humanos
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