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1.
Eur Thyroid J ; 11(1)2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981750

RESUMO

Objectives: Over 1.9 billion people worldwide are living in areas estimated to be iodine insufficient. Strategies for iodine supplementation include campaigns targeting vulnerable groups, such as women in pre-conception, pregnancy and lactation. Portuguese women of childbearing age and pregnant women were shown to be mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient. As a response, in 2013, the National Health Authority (NHA) issued a recommendation that all women considering pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding, take a daily supplement of 150-200 µg iodine. This study explored how the iodine supplementation recommendation has been fulfilled among pregnant and lactating women in Portugal, and whether the reported iodine supplements intake impacted on adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Design and methods: Observational retrospective study on pregnant women who delivered or had a fetal loss in the Braga Hospital and had their pregnancies followed in Family Health Units. Results: The use of iodine supplements increased from 25% before the recommendation to 81% after the recommendation. This was mostly due to an increase in the use of supplements containing iodine only. Iodine supplementation was protective for the number of adverse obstetric outcomes (odds ratio (OR) = 0.791, P = 0.018) and for neonatal morbidities (OR = 0.528, P = 0.024) after controlling for relevant confounding variables. Conclusion: The recommendation seems to have succeeded in implementing iodine supplementation during pregnancy. National prospective studies are now needed to evaluate the impact of iodine supplementation on maternal thyroid homeostasis and offspring psychomotor development and on whether the time of the beginning of iodine supplementation (how early during preconception or pregnancy) is relevant to consider.

2.
Bioorg Chem ; 113: 104982, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020277

RESUMO

ERK1/2 inhibitors have attracted special attention concerning the ability of circumventing cases of innate or log-term acquired resistance to RAF and MEK kinase inhibitors. Based on the 4-aminoquinazoline pharmacophore of kinases, herein we describe the synthesis of 4-aminoquinazoline derivatives bearing a 1,2,3-triazole stable core to bridge different aromatic and heterocyclic rings using copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC) as a Click Chemistry strategy. The initial screening of twelve derivatives in tumoral cells (CAL-27, HN13, HGC-27, and BT-20) revealed that the most active in BT-20 cells (25a, IC50 24.6 µM and a SI of 3.25) contains a more polar side chain (sulfone). Furthermore, compound 25a promoted a significant release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), suggesting the induction of cell death by necrosis. In addition, this compound induced G0/G1 stalling in BT-20 cells, which was accompanied by a decrease in the S phase. Western blot analysis of the levels of p-STAT3, p-ERK, PARP, p53 and cleaved caspase-3 revealed p-ERK1/2 and p-STA3 were drastically decreased in BT-20 cells under 25a incubation, suggesting the involvement of these two kinases in the mechanisms underlying 25a-induced cell cycle arrest, besides loss of proliferation and viability of the breast cancer cell. Molecular docking simulations using the ERK-ulixertinib crystallographic complex showed compound 25a could potentially compete with ATP for binding to ERK in a slightly higher affinity than the reference ERK1/2 inhibitor. Further in silico analyses showed comparable toxicity and pharmacokinetic profiles for compound 25a in relation to ulixertinib.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Quinazolinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/química
4.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496269

RESUMO

The Portuguese Newborn Screening Program is a public health program that started in 1979, screening for PKU, being totally supported by public funds. It's a non-mandatory well implemented program that testes about 99.9% of Portuguese newborns. In the actual screening panel encompasses 26 disorders, including inborn errors of metabolism, congenital hypothyroidism and cystic fibrosis. Sample collection is advised to be made at 3rd day of life and treatment begins in average by the 10th day. Every testes are performed in one single national laboratory, that processes about 88,000 samples/year. In the 41 years of program existence, more than 3,800,000 newborns were screened and 2,130 affected newborns detected, reflecting the positive impact of the Program in the population. Future perspectives include the increase of program value in terms of public health by optimizing the screening of the disorders already screened and evaluation the possibility of adding others.


El Programa Portugués de Cribado Neonatal es un programa de Salud Pública a nivel nacional, que tuvo su inicio en 1979 con el cribado de la fenilcetonuria y es financiado totalmente por el Estado portugués. Se trata de un programa no obligatorio, con una tasa de cobertura del 99,8%, en el que hoy en día se criban veintiséis enfermedades, incluyendo metabolopatías, hipotiroidismo congénito y fibrosis quística. La toma de muestra se hace al 3er día de vida y el tratamiento de los neonatos afectos empieza en torno al 10º día. Todos los análisis están centralizados en un único laboratorio, que procesa aproximadamente 88.000 muestras al año. En los últimos cuarenta y un años se cribaron más de 3.800.000 neonatos y se detectaron 2.130 niños afectados, lo que es un indicador del impacto del programa en la población. Los desafíos futuros incluyen la búsqueda de nuevas estrategias para incrementar el valor del programa, donde se evalúen nuevas enfermedades a cribar y la optimización del cribado actual.


Assuntos
Triagem Neonatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Portugal , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
5.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem ; 21(12): 1602-1611, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several metal-based molecules that display cytotoxicity against multiple cell lines have been pursued in an attempt to fight against cancer and to overcome the typical side effects of drugs like cisplatin. In this scenario, ruthenium complexes have been extensively studied due to their activity in both in vitro and in vivo biological systems, including various cancer cell strains. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop a method to synthesize novel [Ru(NO)(bpy)2L2]2+ complexes containing amino acid ligands by using an alternative Click Chemistry approach, namely the copper azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC reaction), to construct nitrosyl/nitrite complexes bearing a modified lysine residue. METHODS: We synthesized a new ligand by Click Chemistry approach and new compounds bearing the unprecedented ligand. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the classical MTT colorimetric assay. MCF-7 and MDAMB- 231 cells were used as breast cancer cell models. MCF-10 was used as a model of healthy cells. RESULTS: Amino acid ligands related to N3-Lys(Fmoc) and the new pyLys were successfully synthesized by the diazotransfer reaction and the CuAAC reaction, respectively. The latter reaction involves coupling between N3-Lys(Fmoc) and 3ethynylpyridine. Both N3-Lys(Fmoc) and the new pyLys were introduced into the ruthenium bipyridine complex I, or cis-[RuII(NO)(NO2)(bpy)2]2+, to generate the common nitro-based complex III, which was further converted to the final complex IV. Results of the MTT assay proved the cytotoxic effect of cis- [RuII(NO)(pyLysO-)(bpy)2](PF6)2 against the mammalian breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB231. CONCLUSION: The viability assays revealed that complex IV, bearing a NO group and a modified lysine residue, was able to release NO and cross tumor cell membranes. In this work, Complex IV was observed to be the most active ruthenium bipyridine complex against the mammalian breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB231: it was approximately twice as active as cisplatin, whilst complexes I-III proved to be less cytotoxic than complex IV. Additional tests using healthy MCF 10A cells showed that complexes II-IV were three- to sixfold less toxic than cisplatin, which suggested that complex IV was selective against cancer cells.


Assuntos
2,2'-Dipiridil/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Rutênio/farmacologia , 2,2'-Dipiridil/química , Aminoácidos/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Ligantes , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/química , Rutênio/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Carbohydr Res ; 498: 108155, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010570

RESUMO

The synthesis of MUC1 glycopeptides bearing modified tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) represents an effective strategy to develop potential antitumor vaccines that trigger strong immune response. In this context, we present herein the multistep synthesis of the triazole glycosyl amino acid Neu5Ac-α/ß2-triazole-6-ßGalNAc-ThrOH 1 as STn antigen analog, along with its assembly on the corresponding MUC1 peptide to give NAcProAsp [Neu5Acα/ß2-triazole-6-ßGalNAc]ThrArgProGlyOH 2. Despite interacting differently with SM3 monoclonal antibody, as shown by molecular dynamic simulations, this unnatural triazole glycopeptide may represent a promising candidate for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/química , Glicopeptídeos/química , Glicopeptídeos/síntese química , Mucina-1/química , Triazóis/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética
7.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(22): 115746, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007558

RESUMO

Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus that infects approximately 10-20 million people worldwide and causes an aggressive neoplasia (adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma - ATL). Therapeutic approaches for the treatment of ATL have variable effectiveness and poor prognosis, thus requiring strategies to identify novel compounds with activity on infected cells. In this sense, we initially screened a small series of 25 1,2,3-triazole derivatives to discover cell proliferation inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in HTLV-1-infected T-cell line (MT-2) for further assessment of their effect on viral tax activity through inducible-tax reporter cell line (Jurkat LTR-GFP). Eight promising compounds (02, 05, 06, 13, 15, 21, 22 and 25) with activity ≥70% were initially selected, based on a suitable cell-based assay using resazurin reduction method, and evaluated towards cell cycle, apoptosis and Tax/GFP expression analyses through flow cytometry. Compound 02 induced S phase cell cycle arrest and compounds 05, 06, 22 and 25 promoted apoptosis. Remarkably, compounds 22 and 25 also reduced GFP expression in an inducible-tax reporter cell, which suggests an effect on Tax viral protein. More importantly, compounds 02, 22 and 25 were not cytotoxic in human hepatoma cell line (Huh-7). Therefore, the discovery of 3 active and non-cytotoxic compounds against HTLV-1-infected cells can potentially contribute, as an initial promising strategy, to the development process of new drugs against ATL.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Produtos do Gene tax/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/farmacologia , Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/química , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Produtos do Gene tax/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/química
9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 78(1): 353-370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive loss of episodic memory associated with amyloid-ß peptide aggregation and the abnormal phosphorylation of the tau protein, leading to the loss of cholinergic function. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are the main class of drugs used in AD therapy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential of two tacrine-donepezil hybrid molecules (TA8Amino and TAHB3), which are AChE inhibitors, to induce neurodifferentiation and neuritogenesis in SH-SY5Y cells. METHODS: The experiments were carried out to characterize neurodifferentiation, cellular changes related to responses to oxidative stress and pathways of cell survival in response to drug treatments. RESULTS: The results indicated that the compounds did not present cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y or HepG2 cells. TA8Amino and TAHB3 induced neurodifferentiation and neuritogenesis in SH-SY5Y cells. These cells showed increased levels of intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species; the induction of oxidative stress was also demonstrated by an increase in SOD1 expression in TA8Amino and TAHB3-treated cells. Cells treated with the compounds showed an increase in PTEN(Ser380/Thr382/383) and AKT(Ser473) expression, suggesting the involvement of the AKT pathway. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that TA8Amino and TAHB3 present advantages as potential drugs for AD therapy and that they are capable of inducing neurodifferentiation and neuritogenesis.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Donepezila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 25(8)2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325695

RESUMO

Losartan is widely used in clinics to treat cardiovascular related diseases by selectively blocking the angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT1Rs), which regulate the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Therefore, monitoring the physiological and pathological biodistribution of AT1R using positron emission tomography (PET) might be a valuable tool to assess the functionality of RAS. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of two novel losartan derivatives PET tracers, [18F]fluoroethyl-losartan ([18F]FEtLos) and [18F]ammoniomethyltrifluoroborate-losartan ([18F]AMBF3Los). [18F]FEtLos was radiolabeled by 18F-fluoroalkylation of losartan potassium using the prosthetic group 2-[18F]fluoroethyl tosylate; whereas [18F]AMBF3Los was prepared following an one-step 18F-19F isotopic exchange reaction, in an overall yield of 2.7 ± 0.9% and 11 ± 4%, respectively, with high radiochemical purity (>95%). Binding competition assays in AT1R-expressing membranes showed that AMBF3Los presented an almost equivalent binding affinity (Ki 7.9 nM) as the cold reference Losartan (Ki 1.5 nM), unlike FEtLos (Ki 2000 nM). In vitro and in vivo assays showed that [18F]AMBF3Los displayed a good binding affinity for AT1R-overexpressing CHO cells and was able to specifically bind to renal AT1R. Hence, our data demonstrate [18F]AMBF3Los as a new tool for PET imaging of AT1R with possible applications for the diagnosis of cardiovascular, inflammatory and cancer diseases.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Flúor , Losartan/análogos & derivados , Losartan/química , Imagem Molecular , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/química , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Ligação Proteica , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
ChemMedChem ; 15(11): 933-948, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314528

RESUMO

Anthracyclines are ranked among the most effective chemotherapeutics against cancer. They are glycoside drugs comprising the amino sugar daunosamine linked to a hydroxy anthraquinone aglycone, and act by DNA intercalation, oxidative stress generation and topoisomerase II poisoning. Regardless of their therapeutic value, multidrug resistance and severe cardiotoxicity are important limitations of anthracycline treatment that have prompted the discovery of novel analogues. This review covers the most clinically relevant anthracyclines and their development over decades, since the first discovered natural prototypes to recent semisynthetic and synthetic derivatives. These include registered drugs, drug candidates undergoing clinical trials, and compounds under pre-clinical investigation. The impact of the structural modifications on antitumour activity, toxicity and resistance profile is addressed.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antraciclinas/síntese química , Antraciclinas/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
12.
Future Med Chem ; 12(8): 689-708, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193951

RESUMO

Aim: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive cancer with very limited clinical therapies. Herein, we have designed novel mercaptobenzimidazole derivatives (1-7) as multitarget antineoplastic drugs and assessed their antiproliferative profiles on an experimental model for GBM, the C6 glioma line. Results: The target compounds were synthesized in few steps with reasonable yields (33-90%). Compounds 1 (∼18 µM) and 4 (∼20 µM) showed dose-dependent antiproliferative effects on C6 glioma and significantly increased early apoptosis, but only 4 disrupted the cell cycle progression and did not induce autophagy. Docking simulations suggested these compounds as dual kinase and colchicine binding site inhibitors. Conclusion: In spite of the limited selective toxicity, 4 hold the potential to be further optimized for the treatment of GBM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Triazóis/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Benzimidazóis/síntese química , Benzimidazóis/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Triazóis/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
13.
Org Lett ; 22(5): 1991-1996, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073274

RESUMO

We demonstrate that tuning the reactivity of Cu by the choice of oxidation state and counterion leads to the activation of both "armed" and "disarmed" type glycals toward direct glycosylation leading to the α-stereoselective synthesis of deoxyglycosides in good to excellent yields. Mechanistic studies show that CuI is essential for effective catalysis and stereocontrol and that the reaction proceeds through dual activation of both the enol ether as well as the OH nucleophile.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Glicosídeos/síntese química , Catálise , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosilação , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução
14.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 12(3)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336868

RESUMO

N-substituted iminosugar analogues are potent inhibitors of glucosidases and glycosyltransferases with broad therapeutic applications, such as treatment of diabetes and Gaucher disease, immunosuppressive activities, and antibacterial and antiviral effects against HIV, HPV, hepatitis C, bovine diarrhea (BVDV), Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg viruses (MARV), influenza, Zika, and dengue virus. Based on our previous work on functionalized isomeric 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-gulitol (L-gulo-piperidines, with inverted configuration at C-2 and C-5 in respect to glucose or deoxynojirimycin (DNJ)) and 1,6-dideoxy-1,6-imino-D-mannitol (D-manno-azepane derivatives) cores N-linked to different sites of glucopyranose units, we continue our studies on these alternative iminosugars bearing simple N-alkyl chains instead of glucose to understand if these easily accessed scaffolds could preserve the inhibition profile of the corresponding glucose-based N-alkyl derivatives as DNJ cores found in miglustat and miglitol drugs. Thus, a small library of iminosugars (14 compounds) displaying different stereochemistry, ring size, and N-substitutions was successfully synthesized from a common precursor, D-mannitol, by utilizing an SN2 aminocyclization reaction via two isomeric bis-epoxides. The evaluation of the prospective inhibitors on glucosidases revealed that merely D-gluco-piperidine (miglitol, 41a) and L-ido-azepane (41b) DNJ-derivatives bearing the N-hydroxylethyl group showed inhibition towards α-glucosidase with IC50 41 µM and 138 µM, respectively, using DNJ as reference (IC50 134 µM). On the other hand, ß-glucosidase inhibition was achieved for glucose-inverted configuration (C-2 and C-5) derivatives, as novel L-gulo-piperidine (27a) and D-manno-azepane (27b), preserving the N-butyl chain, with IC50 109 and 184 µM, respectively, comparable to miglustat with the same N-butyl substituent (40a, IC50 172 µM). Interestingly, the seven-membered ring L-ido-azepane (40b) displayed near twice the activity (IC50 80 µM) of the corresponding D-gluco-piperidine miglustat drug (40a). Furthermore, besides α-glucosidase inhibition, both miglitol (41a) and L-ido-azepane (41b) proved to be the strongest ß-glucosidase inhibitors of the series with IC50 of 4 µM.

15.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 27(6): 931-943, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765302

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the key enzyme targeted in Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy, nevertheless butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) has been drawing attention due to its role in the disease progression. Thus, we aimed to synthesize novel cholinesterases inhibitors considering structural differences in their peripheral site, exploiting a moiety replacement approach based on the potent and selective hAChE drug donepezil. Hence, two small series of N-benzylpiperidine based compounds have successfully been synthesized as novel potent and selective hBuChE inhibitors. The most promising compounds (9 and 11) were not cytotoxic and their kinetic study accounted for dual binding site mode of interaction, which is in agreement with further docking and molecular dynamics studies. Therefore, this study demonstrates how our strategy enabled the discovery of novel promising and privileged structures. Remarkably, compound 11 proved to be one of the most potent (0.17 nM) and selective (>58,000-fold) hBuChE inhibitor ever reported.


Assuntos
Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/enzimologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Química Click , Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Piperidinas/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(23): 4403-4434, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748757

RESUMO

Neglected Diseases (NDs) affect million of people, especially the poorest population around the world. Several efforts to an effective treatment have proved insufficient at the moment. In this context, triazole derivatives have shown great relevance in medicinal chemistry due to a wide range of biological activities. This review aims to describe some of the most relevant and recent research focused on 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-triazolebased molecules targeting four expressive NDs: Chagas disease, Malaria, Tuberculosis and Leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/química , Humanos , Triazóis/química
17.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(23): 4301-4322, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors are molecules located on cell membranes of all eukaryotic organisms. Proteins, enzymes, and other macromolecules which are anchored by GPIs are essential elements for interaction between cells, and are widely used by protozoan parasites when compared to higher eukaryotes. METHODS: More than one hundred references were collected to obtain broad information about mammalian and protozoan parasites' GPI structures, biosynthetic pathways, functions and attempts to use these molecules as drug targets against parasitic diseases. Differences between GPI among species were compared and highlighted. Strategies for drug discovery and development against protozoan GPI anchors were discussed based on what has been reported on literature. RESULTS: There are many evidences that GPI anchors are crucial for parasite's survival and interaction with hosts' cells. Despite all GPI anchors contain a conserved glycan core, they present variations regarding structural features and biosynthetic pathways between organisms, which could offer adequate selectivity to validate GPI anchors as drug targets. Discussion was developed with focus on the following parasites: Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania, Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii, causative agents of tropical neglected diseases. CONCLUSION: This review debates the main variances between parasitic and mammalian GPI anchor biosynthesis and structures, as well as clues for strategic development for new anti-parasitic therapies based on GPI anchors.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiprotozoários/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/química , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Carbohydr Res ; 471: 43-55, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412832

RESUMO

O-GlcNAcylation or O-GlcNAc modification is a post-translational modification of several proteins responsible for fundamental cellular processes. Dysregulation of the O-GlcNAc pathway has been linked to the etiology of several diseases such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and cancer. O-GlcNAcase (OGA) catalyzes the removal of O-GlcNAc from the modified proteins and several carbohydrate-based OGA inhibitors have been synthesized to understand the role of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in physiological and pathological conditions. However, many of the inhibitors lack selectivity for OGA over lysosomal hexosaminidases A and B. Aiming the selectively inhibition of OGA, we propose herein the synthesis of twelve novel glucopyranoside derivatives exploring the bioisosteric replacement of the GlcNAc 2-acetamide group by 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole ring, bearing a variety of central chains with different shapes. Compounds were readily prepared through "Copper(I) Catalyzed Azide/Alkyne Cycloaddition" (CuAAC) reaction between a sugar azide and different terminal alkynes. Initial Western Blot analyses and further inhibitory assays proved that compounds 6a (IC50 = 0.50 ± 0.02 µM, OGA), 6k (IC50 = 0.52 ± 0.01 µM, OGA) and 6l (IC50 = 0.72 ± 0.02 µM, OGA) were the most potent and selective compounds of the series. Structure-activity relationship analyses and molecular docking simulations demonstrated that the bridge of two-carbon atoms between the C-4 position of the triazole and the phenyl ring (6a), which may be replaced by heteroatoms such as N (6k) or O (6l), is fundamental for accommodation and inhibition within OGA catalytic pocket.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Triazóis/síntese química , beta-N-Acetil-Hexosaminidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Reação de Cicloadição , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/química , Triazóis/farmacologia
19.
Curr Pharm Des ; 24(17): 1899-1904, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungal secondary metabolites are important sources for the discovery of new pharmaceuticals, as exemplified by penicillin, lovastatin and cyclosporine. Searching for secondary metabolites of the fungi Metarhizium spp., we previously identified tyrosine betaine as a major constituent. METHODS: Because of the structural similarity with other inhibitors of neprilysin (NEP), an enzyme explored for the treatment of heart failure, we devised the synthesis of tyrosine betaine and three analogues to be subjected to in vitro NEP inhibition assays and to molecular modeling studies. RESULTS: In spite of the similar binding modes with other NEP inhibitors, these compounds only displayed moderate inhibitory activities (IC50 ranging from 170.0 to 52.9 µM). However, they enclose structural features required to hinder passive blood brain barrier permeation (BBB). CONCLUSIONS: Tyrosine betaine remains as a starting point for the development of NEP inhibitors because of the low probability of BBB permeation and, consequently, of NEP inhibition at the Central Nervous System, which is associated to an increment in the Aß levels and, accordingly, with a higher risk for the onset of Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Cristalografia por Raios X , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Neprilisina/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Tirosina/síntese química , Tirosina/química , Tirosina/farmacologia
20.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 18(5): 382-396, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741138

RESUMO

Chagas disease is still a worldwide threat, with estimated 6 to 7 million infected people, mainly in Latin America. Current treatments still rely only on benznidazol and nifurtimox, drugs with poor efficacy in chronic infection phase and recognized toxicity. Thus, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic agents against this disease. In this review we present an updated selection over the last decade of synthetic glycoconjugates as anti-trypanosomal agents, properly addressed as monosaccharideand disaccharide-based agents, and multivalent-based derivatives, disclosing relevant methods for their synthesis, along with their activities on T. cruzi and its trans-sialidase (TcTS). In addition, synthetic glycoconjugates as potential vaccines and diagnostic antigens against T. cruzi are also reported.


Assuntos
Glicoconjugados/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicoconjugados/síntese química , Glicoconjugados/química , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Tripanossomicidas/síntese química , Tripanossomicidas/química
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