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1.
Cogn Sci ; 46(4): e13128, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411959

RESUMO

Although current exemplar models of category learning are flexible and can capture how different features are emphasized for different categories, they still lack the flexibility to adapt to local changes in category learning, such as the effect of different sequences of study. In this paper, we introduce a new model of category learning, the Sequential Attention Theory Model (SAT-M), in which the encoding of each presented item is influenced not only by its category assignment (global context) as in other exemplar models, but also by how its properties relate to the properties of temporally neighboring items (local context). By fitting SAT-M to data from experiments comparing category learning with different sequences of trials (interleaved vs. blocked), we demonstrate that SAT-M captures the effect of local context and predicts when interleaved or blocked training will result in better testing performance across three different studies. Comparatively, ALCOVE, SUSTAIN, and a version of SAT-M without locally adaptive encoding provided poor fits to the results. Moreover, we evaluated the direct prediction of the model that different sequences of training change what learners encode and determined that the best-fit encoding parameter values match learners' looking times during training.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Aprendizagem , Atenção , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e11, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139948

RESUMO

Emphasizing the predictive success and practical utility of psychological science is an admirable goal but it will require a substantive shift in how we design research. Applied research often assumes that findings are transferable to all practices, insensitive to variation between implementations. We describe efforts to quantify and close this practice-to-practice gap in education research.


Assuntos
Lacunas da Prática Profissional , Humanos
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11263, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050226

RESUMO

What we learn about the world is affected by the input we receive. Many extant category learning studies use uniform distributions as input in which each exemplar in a category is presented the same number of times. Another common assumption on input used in previous studies is that exemplars from the same category form a roughly normal distribution. However, recent corpus studies suggest that real-world category input tends to be organized around skewed distributions. We conducted three experiments to examine the distributional properties of the input on category learning and generalization. Across all studies, skewed input distributions resulted in broader generalization than normal input distributions. Uniform distributions also resulted in broader generalization than normal input distributions. Our results not only suggest that current category learning theories may underestimate category generalization but also challenge current theories to explain category learning in the real world with skewed, instead of the normal or uniform distributions often used in experimental studies.


Assuntos
Generalização Psicológica/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
NPJ Sci Learn ; 5: 2, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194982

RESUMO

In this study, we examined students' natural studying behaviors in massive, open, online course (MOOC) on introductory psychology. We found that, overall, distributing study across multiple sessions-increasing spacing-was related to increased performance on end-of-unit quizzes, even when comparing the same student across different time-points in the course. Moreover, we found important variation on who is more likely to engage in spaced study and benefit from it. Students with higher ability and students who were more likely to complete course activities were more likely to space their study. Spacing benefits, however, were largest for the lower-ability students and for those students who were less likely to complete activities. These results suggest that spaced study might work as a buffer, improving performance for low ability students and those who do not engage in active practices. This study highlights the positive impact of spacing in real-world learning situations, but more importantly, the role of self-regulated learning decisions in shaping the impact of spaced practice.

5.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 31(5): 403-414, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Esthetic complications in implant therapy today represent a clinical challenge, when the aim is to overcome the sequelae and obtain a pleasing result. The current scientific literature about this topic is scarce and often based on case reports and the personal opinions of clinicians. CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The aim of this article is to introduce a decision tree for diagnosis and treatment of complications, focusing on the pink esthetic of single-tooth implants and based on three diagnostic pillars (3D implant position, peri-implant hard-tissue anatomy, and peri-implant soft-tissue anatomy). Different shortcomings have been identified for each of the three diagnostic areas. CONCLUSIONS: Following this tree, the article proposes treatment alternatives including soft- and hard-tissue reconstruction, implant submergence, orthodontic extrusion, and implant extraction in order to help clinicians establish a logical therapeutic sequence. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Guidelines for adequate diagnosis and management of single implant-supported restorations with compromised esthetics is mandatory when attempt to overcome shortcoming in the pink esthetic result.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários para Um Único Dente , Árvores de Decisões , Estética Dentária , Maxila , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 25(4): 1563, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998408

RESUMO

The affiliation for Dr. Paulo F. Carvalho is listed incorrectly in this paper, The correct affiliation is Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

7.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 168: 1-18, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287205

RESUMO

Known words can guide visual attention, affecting how information is sampled. How do novel words, those that do not provide any top-down information, affect preschoolers' visual sampling in a conceptual task? We proposed that novel names can also change visual sampling by influencing how long children look. We investigated this possibility by analyzing how children sample visual information when they hear a sentence with a novel name versus without a novel name. Children completed a match-to-sample task while their moment-to-moment eye movements were recorded using eye-tracking technology. Our analyses were designed to provide specific information on the properties of visual sampling that novel names may change. Overall, we found that novel words prolonged the duration of each sampling event but did not affect sampling allocation (which objects children looked at) or sampling organization (how children transitioned from one object to the next). These results demonstrate that novel words change one important dynamic property of gaze: Novel words can entrain the cognitive system toward longer periods of sustained attention early in development.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Idioma , Nomes , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181775, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28732087

RESUMO

Despite widespread assertions that enthusiasm is an important quality of effective teaching, empirical research on the effect of enthusiasm on learning and memory is mixed and largely inconclusive. To help resolve these inconsistencies, we conducted a carefully-controlled laboratory experiment, investigating whether enthusiastic instructions for a memory task would improve recall accuracy. Scripted videos, either enthusiastic or neutral, were used to manipulate the delivery of task instructions. We also manipulated the sequence of learning items, replicating the spacing effect, a known cognitive technique for memory improvement. Although spaced study reliably improved test performance, we found no reliable effect of enthusiasm on memory performance across two experiments. We did, however, find that enthusiastic instructions caused participants to respond to more item prompts, leaving fewer test questions blank, an outcome typically associated with increased task motivation. We find no support for the popular claim that enthusiastic instruction will improve learning, although it may still improve engagement. This dissociation between motivation and learning is discussed, as well as its implications for education and future research on student learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 43(11): 1699-1719, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28333507

RESUMO

The sequence of study influences how we learn. Previous research has identified different sequences as potentially beneficial for learning in different contexts and with different materials. Here we investigate the mechanisms involved in inductive category learning that give rise to these sequencing effects. Across 3 experiments we show evidence that the sequence of study changes what information learners attend to during learning, what is encoded from the materials studied and, consequently, what is remembered from study. Interleaved study (alternating between presentation of 2 categories) leads to an attentional focus on properties that differ between successive items, leading to relatively better encoding and memory for item properties that discriminate between categories. Conversely, when learners study each category in a separate block (blocked study), learners encode relatively more strongly the characteristic features of the items, which may be the result of a strong attentional focus on sequential similarities. These results provide support for the sequential attention theory proposing that inductive category learning takes place through a process of sequential comparisons between the current and previous items. Different sequences of items change how attention is deployed depending on this basic process. Which sequence results in better or worse learning depends on the match between what is encoded and what is required at test. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Atenção , Formação de Conceito , Aprendizagem , Memória , Sinais (Psicologia) , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Testes Psicológicos , Curva ROC , Distribuição Aleatória
10.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 24(6): 1987-1994, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28236097

RESUMO

Subjects learned to classify images of rocks into the categories igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. In accord with the real-world structure of these categories, the to-be-classified rocks in the experiments had a dispersed similarity structure. Our central hypothesis was that learning of these complex categories would be improved through observational study of organized, simultaneous displays of the multiple rock tokens. In support of this hypothesis, a technique that included the presentation of the simultaneous displays during phases of the learning process yielded improved acquisition (Experiment 1) and generalization (Experiment 2) compared to methods that relied solely on sequential forms of study and testing. The technique appears to provide a good starting point for application of cognitive-psychology principles of effective category learning to the science classroom.


Assuntos
Classificação , Cognição , Aprendizagem , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0152115, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27003164

RESUMO

Study sequence can have a profound influence on learning. In this study we investigated how students decide to sequence their study in a naturalistic context and whether their choices result in improved learning. In the study reported here, 2061 undergraduate students enrolled in an Introductory Psychology course completed an online homework tutorial on measures of central tendency, a topic relevant to an exam that counted towards their grades. One group of students was enabled to choose their own study sequence during the tutorial (Self-Regulated group), while the other group of students studied the same materials in sequences chosen by other students (Yoked group). Students who chose their sequence of study showed a clear tendency to block their study by concept, and this tendency was positively associated with subsequent exam performance. In the Yoked group, study sequence had no effect on exam performance. These results suggest that despite findings that blocked study is maladaptive when assigned by an experimenter, it may actually be adaptive when chosen by the learner in a naturalistic context.


Assuntos
Currículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Front Psychol ; 6: 505, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25983699

RESUMO

Inductive category learning takes place across time. As such, it is not surprising that the sequence in which information is studied has an impact in what is learned and how efficient learning is. In this paper we review research on different learning sequences and how this impacts learning. We analyze different aspects of interleaved (frequent alternation between categories during study) and blocked study (infrequent alternation between categories during study) that might explain how and when one sequence of study results in improved learning. While these different sequences of study differ in the amount of temporal spacing and temporal juxtaposition between items of different categories, these aspects do not seem to account for the majority of the results available in the literature. However, differences in the type of category being studied and the duration of the retention interval between study and test may play an important role. We conclude that there is no single aspect that is able to account for all the evidence available. Understanding learning as a process of sequential comparisons in time and how different sequences fundamentally alter the statistics of this experience offers a promising framework for understanding sequencing effects in category learning. We use this framework to present novel predictions and hypotheses for future research on sequencing effects in inductive category learning.

13.
Front Psychol ; 6: 358, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25914653

RESUMO

Experiencing a stimulus in one sensory modality is often associated with an experience in another sensory modality. For instance, seeing a lemon might produce a sensation of sourness. This might indicate some kind of cross-modal correspondence between vision and gustation. The aim of the current study was to explore whether such cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning. To that end, we conducted two experiments. Using a speeded classification task, Experiment 1 established a cross-modal correspondence between visual lightness and the frequency of an auditory tone. Using a short-term priming procedure, Experiment 2 showed that manipulation of such cross-modal correspondences led to the creation of a crossmodal unit regardless of the nature of the correspondence (i.e., congruent, Experiment 2a or incongruent, Experiment 2b). However, a comparison of priming effects sizes suggested that cross-modal correspondences modulate cross-modal integration during learning, leading to new learned units that have different stability over time. We discuss the implications of our results for the relation between cross-modal correspondence and perceptual learning in the context of a Bayesian explanation of cross-modal correspondences.

14.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 22(1): 281-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24984923

RESUMO

Research on how information should be studied during inductive category learning has identified both interleaving of categories and blocking by category as beneficial for learning. Previous work suggests that this mixed evidence can be reconciled by taking into account within- and between-category similarity relations. In this article, we present a new moderating factor. Across two experiments, one group of participants studied categories actively (by studying the objects without correct category assignment and actively figuring out what the category was), either interleaved or blocked. Another group studied the same categories passively (objects and correct category assignment were simultaneously provided). Results from a subsequent generalization task show that whether interleaved or blocked study results in better learning depends on whether study is active or passive. One account of these results is that different presentation sequences and tasks promote different patterns of attention to stimulus components. Passive learning and blocking promote attending to commonalities within categories, while active learning and interleaving promote attending to differences between categories.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Psychol ; 5: 936, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25202296

RESUMO

Studying different concepts by frequently alternating between them (i.e., interleaving), improves discriminative contrast between different categories, while studying each concept in separate blocks emphasizes the similarities within each category. Interleaved study has been shown to improve learning of high similarity categories by increasing between-category comparison, while blocked study improves learning of low similarity categories by increasing within-category comparison. In addition, interleaved study presents greater temporal spacing between repetitions of each category compared to blocked study, which might present long-term memory benefits. In this study we asked if the benefits of temporal spacing would interact with the benefits of sequencing for making comparisons when testing was delayed, particularly for low similarity categories. Blocked study might be predicted to promote noticing similarities across members of the same category and result in short-term benefits. However, the increase in temporal delay between repetitions inherent to interleaved study might benefit both types of categories when tested after a longer retention interval. Participants studied categories either interleaved or blocked and were tested immediately and 24 h after study. We found an interaction between schedule of study and the type of category studied, which is consistent with the differential emphasis promoted by each sequential schedule. However, increasing the retention interval did not modulate this interaction or resulted in improved performance for interleaved study. Overall, this indicates that the benefit of interleaving is not primarily due to temporal spacing during study, but rather due to the cross-category comparisons that interleaving facilitates. We discuss the benefits of temporal spacing of repetitions in the context of sequential study and how it can be integrated with the attentional bias hypothesis proposed by Carvalho and Goldstone (2014a).

16.
Mem Cognit ; 42(3): 481-95, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24092426

RESUMO

Recent research in inductive category learning has demonstrated that interleaved study of category exemplars results in better performance than does studying each category in separate blocks. However, the questions of how the category structure influences this advantage and how simultaneous presentation interacts with the advantage are open issues. In this article, we present three experiments. The first experiment indicates that the advantage of interleaved over blocked study is modulated by the structure of the categories being studied. More specifically, interleaved study results in better generalization for categories with high within- and between-category similarity, whereas blocked presentation results in better generalization for categories with low within- and between-category similarity. In Experiment 2, we present evidence that when presented simultaneously, between-category comparisons (interleaved presentation) result in a performance advantage for high-similarity categories, but no differences were found for low-similarity categories. In Experiment 3, we directly compared simultaneous and successive presentation of low-similarity categories. We again found an overall benefit for blocked study with these categories. Overall, these results are consistent with the proposal that interleaving emphasizes differences between categories, whereas blocking emphasizes the discovery of commonalities among objects within the same category.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Generalização Psicológica/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Periodontol ; 77(11): 1901-6, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17076617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical choice of the appropriate surgical technique aiming at root coverage relies, among other factors, on the number of adjacent gingival recessions. This study aimed to clinically evaluate the effectiveness and the predictability of root coverage at adjacent multiple gingival recessions using a modified coronally positioned flap associated with the subepithelial connective tissue graft. METHODS: Ten non-smoking, healthy subjects (five men and five women; mean age, 28.7 years) presenting 29 Class I or II adjacent multiple gingival recessions were enrolled. Each patient was treated using a modified coronally advanced flap associated with the subepithelial connective tissue graft. Probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), recession depth (RD), and width of keratinized tissue (KT) were measured at baseline and 6 months later. The Student t test was used to compare treatment outcomes through time. RESULTS: The results revealed significant CAL gain (mean gain +/- SD, 1.97 +/- 0.94 mm; P <0.0001), RD decrease (2.03 +/- 0.78 mm; P <0.0001), and KT increase (1.31 +/- 1.23 mm, P <0.0001). The average root coverage was 96.7%, and complete root coverage was found at 93.1% of the defects. Nine of the 10 patients (90% of the patients) experienced complete root coverage. CONCLUSIONS: The modified coronally advanced flap associated with the subepithelial connective tissue graft was effective and predictable to produce root coverage at multiple adjacent gingival recessions associated with gain in the CAL and in the width of KT.


Assuntos
Tecido Conjuntivo/transplante , Gengiva/transplante , Retração Gengival/cirurgia , Gengivoplastia/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
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