Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 40
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(9): 375-385, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CaM (calmodulin) mutations are associated with congenital arrhythmia susceptibility (calmodulinopathy) and are most often de novo. In this report, we sought to broaden the genotype-phenotype spectrum of calmodulinopathies with 2 novel calmodulin mutations and to investigate mosaicism in 2 affected families. METHODS: CaM mutations were identified in 4 independent cases by DNA sequencing. Biochemical and electrophysiological studies were performed to determine functional consequences of each mutation. RESULTS: Genetic studies identified 2 novel CaM variants (CALM3-E141K in 2 cases; CALM1-E141V) and one previously reported CaM pathogenic variant (CALM3-D130G) among 4 probands with shared clinical features of prolonged QTc interval (range 505-725 ms) and documented ventricular arrhythmia. A fatal outcome occurred for 2 of the cases. The parents of all probands were asymptomatic with normal QTc duration. However, 2 of the families had multiple affected offspring or multiple occurrences of intrauterine fetal demise. The mother from the family with recurrent intrauterine fetal demise exhibited the CALM3-E141K mutant allele in 25% of next-generation sequencing reads indicating somatic mosaicism, whereas CALM3-D130G was present in 6% of captured molecules of the paternal DNA sample, also indicating mosaicism. Two novel mutations (E141K and E141V) impaired Ca2+ binding affinity to the C-domain of CaM. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes overexpressing mutant or wild-type CaM showed that both mutants impaired Ca2+-dependent inactivation of L-type Ca2+ channels and prolonged action potential duration. CONCLUSIONS: We report 2 families with somatic mosaicism associated with arrhythmogenic calmodulinopathy, and demonstrate dysregulation of L-type Ca2+ channels by 2 novel CaM mutations affecting the same residue. Parental mosaicism should be suspected in families with unexplained fetal arrhythmia or fetal demise combined with a documented CaM mutation.

2.
Neuropharmacology ; : 107702, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301334

RESUMO

The epilepsies are a complex group of disorders that can be caused by a myriad of genetic and acquired factors. As such, identifying interventions that will prevent development of epilepsy, as well as cure the disorder once established, will require a multifaceted approach. Here we discuss the progress in scientific discovery propelling us towards this goal, including identification of genetic risk factors and big data approaches that integrate clinical and molecular 'omics' datasets to identify common pathophysiological signatures and biomarkers. We discuss the many animal and cellular models of epilepsy, what they have taught us about pathophysiology, and the cutting edge cellular, optogenetic, chemogenetic and anti-seizure drug screening approaches that are being used to find new cures in these models. Finally, we reflect on the work that still needs to be done towards identify at-risk individuals early, targeting and stopping epileptogenesis, and optimizing promising treatment approaches. Ultimately, developing and implementing cures for epilepsy will require a coordinated and immense effort from clinicians and basic scientists, as well as industry, and should always be guided by the needs of individuals affected by epilepsy and their families.

3.
Epilepsy Curr ; : 1535759719858338, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288536

RESUMO

Neuronal Mechanisms of Mutations in SCN8A Causing Epilepsy or Intellectual Disability Liu Y, Schubert J, Sonnenberg L, Helbig KL, Hoei-Hansen CE, Koko M, Rannap M, Lauxmann S, Huq M, Schneider MC, Johannesen KM, Kurlemann G, Gardella E7, Becker F, Weber YG, Benda J, Møller RS, Lerche H. Brain. 2019;142(2):376-390. doi:10.1093/brain/awy326. De novo mutations of the sodium channel gene SCN8A result in an epileptic encephalopathy with refractory seizures, developmental delay, and elevated risk of sudden death. p.Arg1872Trp is a recurrent de novo SCN8A mutation reported in 14 unrelated individuals with epileptic encephalopathy that included seizure onset in the prenatal or infantile period and severe verbal and ambulatory comorbidities. The major biophysical effect of the mutation was previously shown to be impaired channel inactivation accompanied by increased current density. We have generated a conditional mouse mutation in which expression of this severe gain-of-function mutation is dependent upon Cre recombinase. Global activation of p.Arg1872Trp by EIIa-Cre resulted in convulsive seizures and lethality at 2 weeks of age. Neural activation of the p.Arg1872Trp mutation by Nestin-Cre also resulted in early-onset seizures and death. Restriction of p.Arg1872Trp expression to excitatory neurons using Emx1-Cre recapitulated seizures and juvenile lethality between 1 and 2 months of age. In contrast, activation of p.Arg1872Trp in inhibitory neurons by Gad2-Cre or Dlx5/6-Cre did not induce seizures or overt neurological dysfunction. The sodium channel modulator GS967/Prax330 prolonged survival of mice with global expression of R1872W and also modulated the activity of the mutant channel in transfected cells. Activation of the p.Arg1872Trp mutation in adult mice was sufficient to generate seizures and death, indicating that successful therapy will require lifelong treatment. These findings provide insight into the pathogenic mechanism of this gain-of-function mutation of SCN8A and identify excitatory neurons as critical targets for therapeutic intervention.

4.
Epilepsy Curr ; : 1535759719845324, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064215

RESUMO

De Novo Pathogenic Variants in CACNA1E Cause Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy With Contractures, Macrocephaly, and Dyskinesias Helbig KL, Lauerer RJ, Bahr JC, et al. Am J Hum Genet. 2019;104(3):562. Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are severe neurodevelopmental disorders often beginning in infancy or early childhood that are characterized by intractable seizures, abundant epileptiform activity on electroencephalogram (EEG), and developmental impairment or regression. CACNA1E is highly expressed in the central nervous system and encodes the α1-subunit of the voltage-gated CaV2.3 channel, which conducts high-voltage-activated R-type calcium currents that initiate synaptic transmission. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we identified de novo CACNA1E variants in 30 individuals with DEE, characterized by refractory infantile-onset seizures, severe hypotonia, and profound developmental impairment, often with congenital contractures, macrocephaly, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and early death. Most of the 14, partially recurring, variants cluster within the cytoplasmic ends of all 4 S6 segments, which form the presumed CaV2.3 channel activation gate. Functional analysis of several S6 variants revealed consistent gain-of-function effects comprising facilitated voltage-dependent activation and slowed inactivation. Another variant located in the domain II S4-S5 linker results in facilitated activation and increased current density. Five participants achieved seizure freedom on the antiepileptic drug topiramate, which blocks R-type calcium channels. We establish pathogenic variants in CACNA1E as a cause of DEEs and suggest facilitated R-type calcium currents as a disease mechanism for human epilepsy and developmental disorders.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 948-956, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982612

RESUMO

The occurrence of non-epileptic hyperkinetic movements in the context of developmental epileptic encephalopathies is an increasingly recognized phenomenon. Identification of causative mutations provides an important insight into common pathogenic mechanisms that cause both seizures and abnormal motor control. We report bi-allelic loss-of-function CACNA1B variants in six children from three unrelated families whose affected members present with a complex and progressive neurological syndrome. All affected individuals presented with epileptic encephalopathy, severe neurodevelopmental delay (often with regression), and a hyperkinetic movement disorder. Additional neurological features included postnatal microcephaly and hypotonia. Five children died in childhood or adolescence (mean age of death: 9 years), mainly as a result of secondary respiratory complications. CACNA1B encodes the pore-forming subunit of the pre-synaptic neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.2/N-type, crucial for SNARE-mediated neurotransmission, particularly in the early postnatal period. Bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CACNA1B are predicted to cause disruption of Ca2+ influx, leading to impaired synaptic neurotransmission. The resultant effect on neuronal function is likely to be important in the development of involuntary movements and epilepsy. Overall, our findings provide further evidence for the key role of Cav2.2 in normal human neurodevelopment.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1022-1029, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526861

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of severe epilepsies characterized by refractory seizures and developmental impairment. Sequencing approaches have identified causal genetic variants in only about 50% of individuals with DEEs.1-3 This suggests that unknown genetic etiologies exist, potentially in the ∼98% of human genomes not covered by exome sequencing (ES). Here we describe seven likely pathogenic variants in regions outside of the annotated coding exons of the most frequently implicated epilepsy gene, SCN1A, encoding the alpha-1 sodium channel subunit. We provide evidence that five of these variants promote inclusion of a "poison" exon that leads to reduced amounts of full-length SCN1A protein. This mechanism is likely to be broadly relevant to human disease; transcriptome studies have revealed hundreds of poison exons,4,5 including some present within genes encoding other sodium channels and in genes involved in neurodevelopment more broadly.6 Future research on the mechanisms that govern neuronal-specific splicing behavior might allow researchers to co-opt this system for RNA therapeutics.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Éxons/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
7.
Seizure ; 62: 99-105, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321769

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a well-described, severe genetic epileptic encephalopathy with an increased risk of SUDEP. The incidence and genetic architecture of DS in African patients is virtually unknown, largely due to lack of awareness and unavailability of genetic testing. The clinical benefits of the available precision medicine approaches to treatment emphasise the importance of an early, correct diagnosis. We investigated the genetic causes and clinical features of DS in South African children to develop protocols for early, cost-effective diagnosis in the local setting. METHOD: We selected 22 South African children provisionally diagnosed with clinical DS for targeted resequencing of DS-associated genes. We sought to identify the clinical features most strongly associated with SCN1A-related DS, using the DS risk score and clinical co-variates under various statistical models. RESULTS: Disease-causing variants were identified in 10 of the 22 children: nine SCN1A and one PCDH19. Moreover, we showed that seizure onset before 6 months of age and a clinical DS risk score of >6 are highly predictive of SCN1A-associated DS. Clinical reassessment resulted in a revised diagnosis in 10 of the 12 variant-negative children. CONCLUSION: This first genetic study of DS in Africa confirms that de novo SCN1A variants underlie disease in the majority of South African patients. Affirming the predictive value of seizure onset before 6 months of age and a clinical DS risk score of >6 has significant practical implications for the resource-limited setting, presenting simple diagnostic criteria which can facilitate early correct treatment, specialist consultation and genetic testing.

8.
J Neurogenet ; : 1-18, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247086

RESUMO

The technological advancement of next-generation sequencing has greatly accelerated the pace of variant discovery in epilepsy. Despite an initial focus on autosomal dominant epilepsy due to the tractable nature of variant discovery with trios under a de novo model, more and more variants are being reported in families with epilepsies consistent with autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance. In this review, we touch on the classical AR epilepsy variants such as the inborn errors of metabolism and malformations of cortical development. However, we also highlight recently reported genes that are being identified by next-generation sequencing approaches and online 'matchmaking' platforms. Syndromes mainly characterized by seizures and complex neurodevelopmental disorders comorbid with epilepsy are discussed as an example of the wide phenotypic spectrum associated with the AR epilepsies. We conclude with a foray into the future, from the application of whole-genome sequencing to identify elusive epilepsy variants, to the promise of precision medicine initiatives to provide novel targeted therapeutics specific to the individual based on their clinical genetic testing.

9.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 208, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962935

RESUMO

The chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) family of proteins are ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers that contribute to the reorganization of chromatin structure and deposition of histone variants necessary to regulate gene expression. CHD proteins play an important role in neurodevelopment, as pathogenic variants in CHD1, CHD2, CHD4, CHD7 and CHD8 have been associated with a range of neurological phenotypes, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID) and epilepsy. Pathogenic variants in CHD2 are associated with developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) in humans, however little is known about how these variants contribute to this disorder. Of the nine CHD family members, CHD2 is the only one that leads to a brain-restricted phenotype when disrupted in humans. This suggests that despite being expressed ubiquitously, CHD2 has a unique role in human brain development and function. In this review, we will discuss the phenotypic spectrum of patients with pathogenic variants in CHD2, current animal models of CHD2 deficiency, and the role of CHD2 in proliferation, neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, chromatin remodeling and DNA-repair. We also consider how CHD2 depletion can affect each of these biological mechanisms and how these defects may underpin neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy.

10.
Front Neurol ; 9: 276, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770117

RESUMO

Over 80% of people with epilepsy live in low- to middle-income countries where epilepsy is often undiagnosed and untreated due to limited resources and poor infrastructure. In Africa, the burden of epilepsy is exacerbated by increased risk factors such as central nervous system infections, perinatal insults, and traumatic brain injury. Despite the high incidence of these etiologies, the cause of epilepsy in over 60% of African children is unknown, suggesting a possible genetic origin. Large-scale genetic and genomic research in Europe and North America has revealed new genes and variants underlying disease in a range of epilepsy phenotypes. The relevance of this knowledge to patient care is especially evident among infants with early-onset epilepsies, where early genetic testing can confirm the diagnosis and direct treatment, potentially improving prognosis and quality of life. In Africa, however, genetic epilepsies are among the most under-investigated neurological disorders, and little knowledge currently exists on the genetics of epilepsy among African patients. The increased diversity on the continent may yield unique, important epilepsy-associated genotypes, currently absent from the North American or European diagnostic testing protocols. In this review, we propose that there is strong justification for developing the capacity to offer genetic testing for children with epilepsy in Africa, informed mostly by the existing counseling and interventional needs. Initial simple protocols involving well-recognized epilepsy genes will not only help patients but will give rise to further clinically relevant research, thus increasing knowledge and capacity.

11.
Epilepsia ; 59(6): 1177-1187, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The severe epilepsies of infancy (SEI) are a devastating group of disorders that pose a major care and economic burden on society; early diagnosis is critical for optimal management. This study sought to determine the incidence and etiologies of SEI, and model the yield and cost-effectiveness of early genetic testing. METHODS: A population-based study was undertaken of the incidence, etiologies, and cost-effectiveness of a whole exome sequencing-based gene panel (targeted WES) in infants with SEI born during 2011-2013, identified through electroencephalography (EEG) and neonatal databases. SEI was defined as seizure onset before age 18 months, frequent seizures, epileptiform EEG, and failure of ≥2 antiepileptic drugs. Medical records, investigations, MRIs, and EEGs were analyzed, and genetic testing was performed if no etiology was identified. Economic modeling was performed to determine yield and cost-effectiveness of investigation of infants with unknown etiology at epilepsy onset, incorporating targeted WES at different stages of the diagnostic pathway. RESULTS: Of 114 infants with SEI (incidence = 54/100 000 live births/y), the etiology was determined in 76 (67%): acquired brain injuries (n = 14), focal cortical dysplasias (n = 14), other brain malformations (n = 17), channelopathies (n = 11), chromosomal (n = 9), metabolic (n = 6), and other genetic (n = 5) disorders. Modeling showed that incorporating targeted WES increased diagnostic yield compared to investigation without targeted WES (48/86 vs 39/86). Early targeted WES had lower total cost ($677 081 U.S. dollars [USD] vs $738 136 USD) than late targeted WES. A pathway with early targeted WES and limited metabolic testing yielded 7 additional diagnoses compared to investigation without targeted WES (46/86 vs 39/86), with lower total cost ($455 597 USD vs $661 103 USD), lower cost per diagnosis ($9904 USD vs $16 951 USD), and a dominant cost-effectiveness ratio. SIGNIFICANCE: Severe epilepsies occur in 1 in 2000 infants, with the etiology identified in two-thirds, most commonly malformative. Early use of targeted WES yields more diagnoses at lower cost. Early genetic diagnosis will enable timely administration of precision medicines, once developed, with the potential to improve long-term outcome.

13.
Ann Neurol ; 83(5): 926-934, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cut homeodomain transcription factor CUX2 plays an important role in dendrite branching, spine development, and synapse formation in layer II to III neurons of the cerebral cortex. We identify a recurrent de novo CUX2 p.Glu590Lys as a novel genetic cause for developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). METHODS: The de novo p.Glu590Lys variant was identified by whole-exome sequencing (n = 5) or targeted gene panel (n = 4). We performed electroclinical and imaging phenotyping on all patients. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 7 males and 2 females. Mean age at study was 13 years (0.5-21.0). Median age at seizure onset was 6 months (2 months to 9 years). Seizure types at onset were myoclonic, atypical absence with myoclonic components, and focal seizures. Epileptiform activity on electroencephalogram was seen in 8 cases: generalized polyspike-wave (6) or multifocal discharges (2). Seizures were drug resistant in 7 or controlled with valproate (2). Six patients had a DEE: myoclonic DEE (3), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (2), and West syndrome (1). Two had a static encephalopathy and genetic generalized epilepsy, including absence epilepsy in 1. One infant had multifocal epilepsy. Eight had severe cognitive impairment, with autistic features in 6. The p.Glu590Lys variant affects a highly conserved glutamine residue in the CUT domain predicted to interfere with CUX2 binding to DNA targets during neuronal development. INTERPRETATION: Patients with CUX2 p.Glu590Lys display a distinctive phenotypic spectrum, which is predominantly generalized epilepsy, with infantile-onset myoclonic DEE at the severe end and generalized epilepsy with severe static developmental encephalopathy at the milder end of the spectrum. Ann Neurol 2018;83:926-934.

14.
Epilepsia ; 59(2): 389-402, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic SLC6A1 variants were recently described in patients with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability (ID). We set out to define the phenotypic spectrum in a larger cohort of SCL6A1-mutated patients. METHODS: We collected 24 SLC6A1 probands and 6 affected family members. Four previously published cases were included for further electroclinical description. In total, we reviewed the electroclinical data of 34 subjects. RESULTS: Cognitive development was impaired in 33/34 (97%) subjects; 28/34 had mild to moderate ID, with language impairment being the most common feature. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 31/34 cases with mean onset at 3.7 years. Cognitive assessment before epilepsy onset was available in 24/31 subjects and was normal in 25% (6/24), and consistent with mild ID in 46% (11/24) or moderate ID in 17% (4/24). Two patients had speech delay only, and 1 had severe ID. After epilepsy onset, cognition deteriorated in 46% (11/24) of cases. The most common seizure types were absence, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Sixteen cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MAE. Seven further patients had different forms of generalized epilepsy and 2 had focal epilepsy. Twenty of 31 patients became seizure-free, with valproic acid being the most effective drug. There was no clear-cut correlation between seizure control and cognitive outcome. Electroencephalography (EEG) findings were available in 27/31 patients showing irregular bursts of diffuse 2.5-3.5 Hz spikes/polyspikes-and-slow waves in 25/31. Two patients developed an EEG pattern resembling electrical status epilepticus during sleep. Ataxia was observed in 7/34 cases. We describe 7 truncating and 18 missense variants, including 4 recurrent variants (Gly232Val, Ala288Val, Val342Met, and Gly362Arg). SIGNIFICANCE: Most patients carrying pathogenic SLC6A1 variants have an MAE phenotype with language delay and mild/moderate ID before epilepsy onset. However, ID alone or associated with focal epilepsy can also be observed.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/complicações , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/complicações , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Epilepsia ; 59(1): e5-e13, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171013

RESUMO

Heterozygous de novo variants in the autophagy gene, WDR45, are found in beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN). BPAN is characterized by adolescent onset dementia and dystonia; 66% patients have seizures. We asked whether WDR45 was associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). We performed next generation sequencing of WDR45 in 655 patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies. We identified 3/655 patients with DEE plus 4 additional patients with de novo WDR45 pathogenic variants (6 truncations, 1 missense); all were female. Six presented with DEE and 1 with early onset focal seizures and profound regression. Median seizure onset was 12 months, 6 had multiple seizure types, and 5/7 had focal seizures. Three patients had magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted imaging; blooming was noted in the globus pallidi and substantia nigra in the 2 older children aged 4 and 9 years, consistent with iron accumulation. We show that de novo pathogenic variants are associated with a range of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies with profound developmental consequences.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação/genética , Espasmos Infantis/complicações , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 54-63, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209020

RESUMO

Genotype-first combined with reverse phenotyping has shown to be a powerful tool in human genetics, especially in the era of next generation sequencing. This combines the identification of individuals with mutations in the same gene and linking these to consistent (endo)phenotypes to establish disease causality. We have performed a MIP (molecular inversion probe)-based targeted re-sequencing study in 3,275 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) to facilitate a genotype-first approach for 24 genes previously implicated in ID.Combining our data with data from a publicly available database, we confirmed 11 of these 24 genes to be relevant for ID. Amongst these, PHIP was shown to have an enrichment of disruptive mutations in the individuals with ID (5 out of 3,275). Through international collaboration, we identified a total of 23 individuals with PHIP mutations and elucidated the associated phenotype. Remarkably, all 23 individuals had developmental delay/ID and the majority were overweight or obese. Other features comprised behavioral problems (hyperactivity, aggression, features of autism and/or mood disorder) and dysmorphisms (full eyebrows and/or synophrys, upturned nose, large ears and tapering fingers). Interestingly, PHIP encodes two protein-isoforms, PHIP/DCAF14 and NDRP, each involved in neurodevelopmental processes, including E3 ubiquitination and neuronal differentiation. Detailed genotype-phenotype analysis points towards haploinsufficiency of PHIP/DCAF14, and not NDRP, as the underlying cause of the phenotype.Thus, we demonstrated the use of large scale re-sequencing by MIPs, followed by reverse phenotyping, as a constructive approach to verify candidate disease genes and identify novel syndromes, highlighted by PHIP haploinsufficiency causing an ID-overweight syndrome.

17.
Neurology ; 87(19): 1975-1984, 2016 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27733563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic basis of a family segregating episodic ataxia, infantile seizures, and heterogeneous epilepsies and to study the phenotypic spectrum of KCNA2 mutations. METHODS: A family with 7 affected individuals over 3 generations underwent detailed phenotyping. Whole genome sequencing was performed on a mildly affected grandmother and her grandson with epileptic encephalopathy (EE). Segregating variants were filtered and prioritized based on functional annotations. The effects of the mutation on channel function were analyzed in vitro by voltage clamp assay and in silico by molecular modeling. KCNA2 was sequenced in 35 probands with heterogeneous phenotypes. RESULTS: The 7 family members had episodic ataxia (5), self-limited infantile seizures (5), evolving to genetic generalized epilepsy (4), focal seizures (2), and EE (1). They had a segregating novel mutation in the shaker type voltage-gated potassium channel KCNA2 (CCDS_827.1: c.765_773del; p.255_257del). A rare missense SCN2A (rs200884216) variant was also found in 2 affected siblings and their unaffected mother. The p.255_257del mutation caused dominant negative loss of channel function. Molecular modeling predicted repositioning of critical arginine residues in the voltage-sensing domain. KCNA2 sequencing revealed 1 de novo mutation (CCDS_827.1: c.890G>A; p.Arg297Gln) in a girl with EE, ataxia, and tremor. CONCLUSIONS: A KCNA2 mutation caused dominantly inherited episodic ataxia, mild infantile-onset seizures, and later generalized and focal epilepsies in the setting of normal intellect. This observation expands the KCNA2 phenotypic spectrum from EE often associated with chronic ataxia, reflecting the marked variation in severity observed in many ion channel disorders.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ataxia/genética , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Canal de Potássio Kv1.2/genética , Mutação/genética , Farmacogenética , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Químicos , Oócitos , Xenopus laevis , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 4(4): 457-64, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27465585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sanger sequencing, still the standard technique for genetic testing in most diagnostic laboratories and until recently widely used in research, is gradually being complemented by next-generation sequencing (NGS). No single mutation detection technique is however perfect in identifying all mutations. Therefore, we wondered to what extent inconsistencies between Sanger sequencing and NGS affect the molecular diagnosis of patients. Since mutations in SCN1A, the major gene implicated in epilepsy, are found in the majority of Dravet syndrome (DS) patients, we focused on missed SCN1A mutations. METHODS: We sent out a survey to 16 genetic centers performing SCN1A testing. RESULTS: We collected data on 28 mutations initially missed using Sanger sequencing. All patients were falsely reported as SCN1A mutation-negative, both due to technical limitations and human errors. CONCLUSION: We illustrate the pitfalls of Sanger sequencing and most importantly provide evidence that SCN1A mutations are an even more frequent cause of DS than already anticipated.

19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(12): 1761-1770, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352968

RESUMO

Genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), formerly known as idiopathic generalized epilepsy, is the most common form of epilepsy and is thought to have predominant genetic etiology. GGE are clinically characterized by absence, myoclonic, or generalized tonic-clonic seizures with electroencephalographic pattern of bilateral, synchronous, and symmetrical spike-and-wave discharges. Despite their strong heritability, the genetic basis of generalized epilepsies remains largely elusive. Nevertheless, recent advances in genetic technology have led to the identification of numerous genes and genomic defects in various types of epilepsies in the past few years. In the present study, we performed whole-exome sequencing in a family with GGE consistent with the diagnosis of eyelid myoclonia with absences. We found a nonsense variant (c.196C>T/p.(Arg66*)) in RORB, which encodes the beta retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor (RORß), in four affected family members. In addition, two de novo variants (c.218T>C/p.(Leu73Pro); c.1249_1251delACG/p.(Thr417del)) were identified in sporadic patients by trio-based exome sequencing. We also found two de novo deletions in patients with behavioral and cognitive impairment and epilepsy: a 52-kb microdeletion involving exons 5-10 of RORB and a larger 9q21-microdeletion. Furthermore, we identified a patient with intellectual disability and a balanced translocation where one breakpoint truncates RORB and refined the phenotype of a recently reported patient with RORB deletion. Our data support the role of RORB gene variants/CNVs in neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, and especially in generalized epilepsies with predominant absence seizures.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Membro 2 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Deleção Cromossômica , Códon sem Sentido , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Generalizada/diagnóstico , Exoma , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Síndrome , Translocação Genética
20.
Neurology ; 86(17): 1605-12, 2016 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27029629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We report development of a targeted resequencing gene panel for focal epilepsy, the most prevalent phenotypic group of the epilepsies. METHODS: The targeted resequencing gene panel was designed using molecular inversion probe (MIP) capture technology and sequenced using massively parallel Illumina sequencing. RESULTS: We demonstrated proof of principle that mutations can be detected in 4 previously genotyped focal epilepsy cases. We searched for both germline and somatic mutations in 251 patients with unsolved sporadic or familial focal epilepsy and identified 11 novel or very rare missense variants in 5 different genes: CHRNA4, GRIN2B, KCNT1, PCDH19, and SCN1A. Of these, 2 were predicted to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic, explaining ∼0.8% of the cohort, and 8 were of uncertain significance based on available data. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed and validated a targeted resequencing panel for focal epilepsies, the most important clinical class of epilepsies, accounting for about 60% of all cases. Our application of MIP technology is an innovative approach that will be advantageous in the clinical setting because it is highly sensitive, efficient, and cost-effective for screening large patient cohorts. Our findings indicate that mutations in known genes likely explain only a small proportion of focal epilepsy cases. This is not surprising given the established clinical and genetic heterogeneity of these disorders and underscores the importance of further gene discovery studies in this complex syndrome.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Caderinas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Canais de Potássio/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA