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1.
J Athl Train ; 56(10): 1142-1153, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662417

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) deaths can be prevented by adhering to best practices. OBJECTIVE: To investigate high schools' adoption of policies and procedures for recognizing and treating patients with EHS and the factors influencing the adoption of a comprehensive policy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Online questionnaire. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Athletic trainers (ATs) practicing in the high school (HS) setting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Using the National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement on exertional heat illness, we developed an online questionnaire and distributed it to ATs to ascertain their schools' current written policies for using rectal temperature and cold-water immersion. The precaution adoption process model allowed for responses to be presented across the various health behavior stages (unaware if have the policy, unaware of the need for the policy, unengaged, undecided, decided not to act, decided to act, acting, and maintaining). Additional questions addressed perceptions of facilitators and barriers. Data are presented as proportions. RESULTS: A total of 531 ATs completed the questionnaire. Overall, 16.9% (n = 62) reported adoption of all components for the proper recognition and treatment of EHS. The component with the highest adoption level was "cool first, transport second"; 74.1% (n = 110) of ATs described acting on or maintaining the policy. The most variability in the precaution adoption process model responses was for a rectal temperature policy; 28.7% (n = 103) of ATs stated they decided not to act and 20.1% (n = 72) stated they maintained the policy. The most frequently cited facilitator of and barrier to obtaining rectal temperature were a mandate from the state HS athletics association (n = 274, 51.5%) and resistance to or apprehension of parents or legal guardians (n = 311, 58.5%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Athletic trainers in the HS setting appeared to be struggling to adopt a comprehensive EHS strategy, with rectal temperature continuing as the biggest challenge. Tailored strategies based on health behavior, facilitators, and barriers may aid in changing this paradigm.

2.
Sports Health ; : 19417381211038494, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A Venn diagram consisting of percentage body mass loss, urine color, and thirst perception (weight, urine, thirst [WUT]) has been suggested as a practical method to assess hydration status. However, no study to date has examined relationships between WUT and urine hydration indices. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, and the WUT criteria. HYPOTHESIS: Urine specific gravity and urine osmolality indicate hypohydration when the WUT criteria demonstrate hypohydration (≥2 markers). STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: A total of 22 women (mean ± SD; age, 20 ± 1 years; mass, 65.4 ± 12.6 kg) and 21 men (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 78.7 ± 14.6 kg) participated in this study. First morning body mass, urine color, urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, and thirst level were collected for 10 consecutive days in a free-living situation. Body mass loss >1%, urine color >5, and thirst level ≥5 were used as the dehydration thresholds. The number of markers that indicated dehydration levels were counted and categorized into either 3, 2, 1, or 0 WUT markers that indicated dehydration. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey pairwise comparisons was used to assess the differences in urine specific gravity and urine osmolality between the different number of WUT markers. RESULTS: Urine specific gravity in 3 WUT markers (mean ± SD [effect size], 1.021 ± 0.007 [0.57]; P = 0.025) and 2 WUT markers (1.019 ± 0.010 [0.31]; P = 0.026) was significantly higher than 1 WUT marker (1.016 ± 0.009). Urine mosmolality in 2 WUT markers (705 ± 253 mOsmol [0.43]; P = 0.018) was significantly higher than 1 WUT (597 ± 253 mOsmol). Meeting at least 2 WUT markers resulted in sensitivities of 0.652 (2 WUT criteria met) and 0.933 (3 WUT criteria met) to detect urine osmolality >700 mOsmol. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that when 3 WUT markers are met, urine specific gravity and urine osmolality were greater than euhydration cutoff points. The WUT criterion is a useful tool to use in field settings to assess hydration status when first morning urine sample was used. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Athletes, coaches, sports scientists, and medical professionals can use WUT criteria to monitor dehydration with reduced cost and time.

3.
Am J Ind Med ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590324

RESUMO

Heat stress is a growing concern in the occupational setting as it endangers worker health, safety, and productivity. Heat-related reductions in physical work capacity and missed workdays directly and indirectly cause productivity losses and may substantially affect the economic wellbeing of the organization. This review highlights the physiological, physical, psychological, and financial harms of heat stress on worker productivity and proposes strategies to quantify heat-related productivity losses. Heat stress produces a vicious-cycle feedback loop that result in adverse outcomes on worker health, safety, and productivity. We propose a theoretical model for implementing an occupational heat safety plan that disrupts this loop, preventing heat-related productivity losses while improving worker health and safety.

4.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(11): 3076-3087, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiteam, multi-institution prospective studies of both women's and men's sports are essential for collectively investigating injury and primary to the generalization and individualization of injury prevention strategies. HYPOTHESIS: Characteristics of workload, sleep, and contextual factors will be associated with injury risk in collegiate soccer athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Injuries, workload, and sleep characteristics were recorded daily throughout a complete season for 256 athletes from 12 separate National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men's and women's soccer teams. Workload and contextual factors were assessed via multilevel Poisson regression to capture differences in injury incidence rate ratio (IRR). Paired t test and multilevel logistic regressions were used to assess the relationship between sleep behavior and injury. RESULTS: Collegiate soccer athletes had lower rates of noncontact injury in the in-season (IRR, 0.42) and postseason (IRR, 0.48) compared with preseason, lower rates of injury in training (IRR, 0.64) compared with matches, and higher injury rates with only 1 day of rest in the previous week (IRR, 1.58) compared with >1 day. Injury rates peaked when training occurred 4 days before a match (IRR, 2.24) compared with a match. Injury rate increased exponentially with increases in the number of noncontact injuries incurred throughout the season (IRR, 2.23). Lower chronic loading, higher training monotony, and acute spikes and lulls in workload were associated with higher noncontact injury rates. Alterations in previous week sleep quality were associated with injury, while chronic sleep behavior and acute alterations (<7 days) in sleep behavior were not (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Athlete and schedule-specific contextual factors, combined with characteristics of workload and weekly sleep behavior, are significantly associated with injury in collegiate soccer. Multiteam prospective cohort studies involving objective and subjective monitoring allow for the identification of multiple injury risk factors in sports, which can be used to guide injury prevention strategies. Maintaining higher chronic workloads, lowering training monotony, minimizing acute spikes or lulls in workloads, managing workloads during preseason and for athletes with previous injury, integrating more rest and recovery during congested periods, and optimizing sleep quality are all practical considerations for reducing injury risk in collegiate soccer.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Universidades
6.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(12): 3372-3378, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mandated sports safety policies that incorporate evidence-based best practices have been shown to mitigate the risk of mortality and morbidity in sports. In 2017, a review of the state-level implementation of health and safety policies within high schools was released. PURPOSE: To provide an update on the assessment of the implementation of health and safety policies pertaining to the leading causes of death and catastrophic injuries in sports within high school athletics in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A rubric composed of 5 equally weighted sections for sudden cardiac arrest, traumatic head injuries, exertional heatstroke, appropriate health care coverage, and emergency preparedness was utilized to assess an individual state's policies. State high school athletic/activities association (SHSAA) policies, enacted legislation, and Department of Education policies were extensively reviewed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia between academic year (AY) 2016-2017 (AY16/17) and 2019-2020 (AY19/20). To meet the specific rubric criteria and be awarded credit, policies needed to be mandated by all SHSAA member schools. Weighted scores were tabulated to calculate an aggregate score with a minimum of 0 and a maximum of 100. RESULTS: A total of 38 states had increased their rubric scores since AY16/17, with a mean increase of 5.57 ± 6.41 points. In AY19/20, scores ranged from 30.80 to 85.00 points compared with 23.00 to 78.75 points in AY16/17. Policies related to exertional heatstroke had the greatest change in scores (AY16/17 mean, 6.62 points; AY19/20 mean, 8.90 points; Δ = 2.28 points [11.40%]), followed by emergency preparedness (AY16/17 mean, 8.41 points; AY19/20 mean, 10.29 points; Δ = 1.88 points [9.40%]). CONCLUSION: A longitudinal review of state high school sports safety policies showed progress since AY16/17. A wide range in scores indicates that continued advocacy for the development and implementation of policies at the high school level is warranted.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Morte Súbita , Humanos , Políticas , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(8): 1061-1072, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256539

RESUMO

Rapid advances in wearable technologies and real-time monitoring have resulted in major inroads in the world of recreational and elite sport. One such innovation is the application of real-time monitoring, which comprises a smartwatch application and ecosystem, designed to collect, process and transmit a wide range of physiological, biomechanical, bioenergetic and environmental data using cloud-based services. We plan to assess the impact of this wireless technology during Tokyo 2020, where this technology could help characterize the physiological and thermal strain experienced by an athlete, as well as determine future management of athletes during a medical emergency as a result of a more timely and accurate diagnosis. Here we describe some of the innovative technologies developed for numerous sports at Tokyo 2020 ranging from race walking (20 km and 50 km events), marathon, triathlon, road cycling (including the time trial event), mountain biking, to potentially team sports played outdoors. A more symbiotic relationship between sport, health and technology needs to be encouraged that harnesses the unique demands of elite sport (e.g., the need for unobtrusive devices that provide real-time feedback) and serves as medical and preventive support for the athlete's care. The implementation of such applications would be particularly welcome in the field of medicine (i.e., telemedicine applications) and the workplace (with particular relevance to emergency services, the military and generally workers under extreme environmental conditions). Laboratory and field-based studies are required in simulated scenarios to validate such emerging technologies, with the field of sport serving as an excellent model to understand and impact disease.


Assuntos
Esportes , Telemedicina , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Atletas , Ecossistema , Humanos
8.
Physiol Rep ; 9(14): e14947, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288556

RESUMO

Although it is well established that dehydration has a negative impact on thermoregulation during exercise in the heat, it is unclear whether this effect of dehydration is different between men and women, or across the phases of the menstrual cycle (MC). Twelve men and seven women (men: 20 ± 2 years, 70.13 ± 10.5 kg, 173.4 ± 6.0 cm, 54.2 ± 8.6 ml kg-1  min-1 ; women: 20 ± 2 years, 57.21 ± 7.58 kg, 161 ± 5 cm, 40.39 ± 3.26 ml kg-1  min-1 ) completed trials either euhydrated (urine specific gravity, USG ≤ 1.020, Euhy) or dehydrated (USG > 1.020, Dehy). Trial order was randomized and counterbalanced; men completed two trials (MEuhy and MDehy) and women completed four over two MC phases (late follicular: days 10-13, FDehy, FEuhy; midluteal: days 18-22, LDehy, LEuhy). Each trial consisted of 1.5 h, split into two 30 min blocks of exercise (B1 and B2, 15 min at 11 W/kg & 15 min at 7 W/kg) separated by 15 min rest in between and after. Rectal temperature (Tre ) was measured continuously and estimated sweat loss was calculated from the body mass measured before and after each block of exercise. When dehydrated, the rate of rise in Tre was greater in women in the first block of exercise compared to men, independently of the MC phase (MDehy: 0.03 ± 0.03°C/min, FDehy: 0.06 ± 0.02, LDehy: 0.06 ± 0.02, p = 0.03). Estimated sweat loss was lower in all groups in B1 compared to B2 when dehydrated (p < 0.05), with no difference between sexes for either hydration condition. These data suggest that women may be more sensitive to the negative thermoregulatory effects of dehydration during the early stages of exercise in the heat.

9.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; : 1-6, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303307

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of heat acclimation (HA) on thirst levels, sweat rate, and percentage of body mass loss (%BML), and changes in fluid intake factors throughout HA induction. Twenty-eight male endurance athletes (mean ± SD; age, 35 ± 12 years; body mass, 73.0 ± 8.9 kg; maximal oxygen consumption, 57.4 ± 6.8 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed 60 min of exercise in a euhydrated state at 58.9 ± 2.3% velocity of maximal oxygen consumption in the heat (ambient temperature, 35.0 ± 1.3 °C; relative humidity, 48.0 ± 1.3%) prior to and following HA where thirst levels, sweat rate, and %BML were measured. Then, participants performed 5 days of HA while held at hyperthermia (38.50-39.75 °C) for 60 min with fluid provided ad libitum. Sweat volume, %BML, thirst levels, and fluid intake were measured for each session. Thirst levels were significantly lower following HA (pre, 4 ± 1; post, 3 ± 1, p < .001). Sweat rate (pre, 1.76 ± 0.42 L/hr; post, 2.00 ± 0.60 L/hr, p = .039) and %BML (pre, 2.66 ± 0.53%; post, 2.98 ± 0.83%, p = .049) were significantly greater following HA. During HA, thirst levels decreased (Day 1, 4 ± 1; Day 2, 3 ± 2; Day 3, 3 ± 2; Day 4, 3 ± 1; Day 5, 3 ± 1; p < .001). However, sweat volume (Day 1, 2.34 ± 0.67 L; Day 2, 2.49 ± 0.58 L; Day 3, 2.67 ± 0.63 L; Day 4, 2.74 ± 0.61 L; Day 5, 2.74 ± 0.91 L; p = .010) and fluid intake (Day 1, 1.20 ± 0.45 L; Day 2, 1.52 ± 0.58 L; Day 3, 1.69 ± 0.63 L; Day 4, 1.65 ± 0.58 L; Day 5, 1.74 ± 0.51 L; p < .001) increased. In conclusion, thirst levels were lower following HA even though sweat rate and %BML were higher. Thirst levels decreased while sweat volume and fluid intake increased during HA induction. Thus, HA should be one of the factors to consider when planning hydration strategies.

10.
Sports Health ; 13(5): 463-470, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While increased face mask use has helped reduce COVID-19 transmission, there have been concerns about its influence on thermoregulation during exercise in the heat, but consistent, evidence-based recommendations are lacking. HYPOTHESIS: No physiological differences would exist during low-to-moderate exercise intensity in the heat between trials with and without face masks, but perceptual sensations could vary. STUDY DESIGN: Crossover study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 2. METHODS: Twelve physically active participants (8 male, 4 female; age = 24 ± 3 years) completed 4 face mask trials and 1 control trial (no mask) in the heat (32.3°C ± 0.04°C; 54.4% ± 0.7% relative humidity [RH]). The protocol was 60 minutes of walking and jogging between 35% and 60% of relative VO2max. Rectal temperature (Trec), heart rate (HR), temperature and humidity inside and outside of the face mask (Tmicro_in, Tmicro_out, RHmicro_in, RHmicro_out) and perceptual variables (rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thirst sensation, fatigue level, and overall breathing discomfort) were monitored throughout all trials. RESULTS: Mean Trec and HR increased at 30- and 60-minute time points compared with 0-minute time points, but no difference existed between face mask trials and control trials (P > 0.05). Mean Tmicro_in, RHmicro_in, and humidity difference inside and outside of the face mask (ΔRHmicro) were significantly different between face mask trials (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in perceptual variables between face mask trials and control trials (P > 0.05), except overall breathing discomfort (P < 0.01). Higher RHmicro_in, RPE, and thermal sensation significantly predicted higher overall breathing discomfort (r2 = 0.418; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Face mask use during 60 minutes of low-to-moderate exercise intensity in the heat did not significantly affect Trec or HR. Although face mask use may affect overall breathing discomfort due to the changes in the face mask microenvironment, face mask use itself did not cause an increase in whole body thermal stress. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Face mask use is feasible and safe during exercise in the heat, at low-to-moderate exercise intensities, for physically active, healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Corrida Moderada/fisiologia , Máscaras , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Percepção , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensação Térmica , Trabalho Respiratório , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(8): 723-728, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of hydration status and ice-water dousing on physiological and performance parameters. DESIGN: Randomized, crossover. METHODS: Twelve athletes (mean[M] ±â€¯standard deviation[SD]; age, 20 ±â€¯1 years; height, 174 ±â€¯8 cm; body mass, 72.1 ±â€¯11.0 kg; VO2max 53.9 ±â€¯7.3 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1) completed four trials (euhydrated without dousing, hypohydrated without dousing, euhydrated with dousing, and hypohydrated with dousing), which involved intermittent treadmill running (five 15-minute bouts) in the heat (M ±â€¯SD; ambient temperature, 34.7 ±â€¯2.1 °C; relative humidity, 46 ±â€¯3%; wet-bulb globe temperature, 28.0 ±â€¯0.4 °C). Participants also completed four cognitive, power, agility, reaction time, and repeated sprint performance tests throughout each trial. Heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (Trec) were measured continuously. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to assess differences between physiological and performance variables. Alpha was set at ≤0.05, a priori. Data are reported as mean difference ±â€¯standard error (MD ±â€¯SE). RESULTS: HR was significantly lower in euhydrated trials compared to hypohydrated trials, irrespective of dousing (8 ±â€¯2 bpm; p = 0.001). Dousing did not significantly impact HR (p = 0.455) and there was no interaction between hydration and dousing (p = 0.893). Trec was significantly lower in euhydrated trials compared to hypohydrated trials (0.39 ±â€¯0.05 °C, p < 0.001), with no effect from dousing alone (p = 0.113) or the interaction of hydration and dousing (p = 0.848). Dousing resulted in improved sprint performance (11 ±â€¯3 belt rotations, p = 0.007), while hydration status did not (p = 0.235). CONCLUSIONS: Athletes should aim to maintain euhydration during exercise in the heat for improved physiological function and cooling with ice-water dousing elicits additional performance benefits.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Crioterapia , Hidratação , Frequência Cardíaca , Temperatura Alta , Futebol/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Crioterapia/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Umidade , Gelo , Tempo de Reação , Futebol/lesões , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(8): 843-850, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of body fat on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in the heat. DESIGN: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically searched databases (N = 8) for studies that included: healthy participants; an aerobic exercise intervention under heat stress; a measure of body fat by a high and low body fat group; pre- and post-exercise internal temperature, and/or post-exercise mean skin temperature and whole body sweat loss. Criteria to distinguish high body fat and low body fat were determined by each qualifying study. Out of 1222 potential studies, 10 qualified. Robust variance estimation models were utilized to determine the pooled effect size (ES, 95% CI) for interventions that performed unbias comparisons between groups. RESULTS: Participants (n = 211) were mostly male (70%) and young (19.3 ±â€¯7.1 years) with a maximal oxygen consumption of 50.42 ±â€¯9.3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1 by high body fat (36.7 ±â€¯11.8%) and low body fat (17.8 ±â€¯5.7%). Exercise duration was between 30 and 60 min at moderate-high intensity (44.1-71.4% VO2max) at 28-40.3 °C and 26-50% humidity. Of the 7 interventions that normalized metabolic heat production to body mass and 5 interventions that normalized to external workload, there were no differences in any of the three outcome variables between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the included studies did not control for confounding factors that may affect the relationship between body fat and thermoregulation during exercise in the heat such as metabolic heat production and body mass. Given the small number of interventions included, future work must make unbiased comparisons to appropriately assess the independent influence of body fat.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Temperatura Cutânea , Sudorese
13.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064102

RESUMO

Euhydration remains a challenge in children due to lack of access and unpalatability of water and to other reasons. The purpose of this study was to determine if the availability/access to a beverage (Creative Roots®) influences hydration in children and, therefore, sleep quality and mood. Using a crossover investigation, 46 participants were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or an intervention group and received Creative Roots® (INT) for two-week periods. We recorded daily first morning and afternoon urine color (Ucol), thirst perception, and bodyweight of the two groups. Participants reported to the lab once per week and provided first morning urine samples to assess Ucol, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine osmolality (Uosmo). Participants also completed the questionnaires Profile of Mood States-Adolescents (POMS-a) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Dependent t-tests were used to assess the effects of the intervention on hydration, mood, and sleep quality. Uosmo was greater and Ucol was darker in the control group (mean ± SD) [Uosmo: INT = 828 ± 177 mOsm·kg-1, CON = 879 ± 184 mOsm·kg-1, (p = 0.037], [Ucol:INT = 5 ± 1, CON = 5 ± 1, p = 0.024]. USG, POMS-a, and PSQI were not significant between the groups. At-home daily afternoon Ucol was darker in the control group [INT = 3 ± 1, CON = 3 ± 1, p = 0.022]. Access to Creative Roots® provides a small, potentially meaningful hydration benefit in children. However, children still demonstrated consistent mild dehydration based on Uosmo, despite consuming the beverage.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Bebidas/provisão & distribuição , Desidratação/urina , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Aromatizantes/administração & dosagem , Sono/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Desidratação/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Sede/fisiologia
14.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 121(9): 2543-2562, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at assessing the risks associated with human exposure to heat-stress conditions by predicting organ- and tissue-level heat-stress responses under different exertional activities, environmental conditions, and clothing. METHODS: In this study, we developed an anatomically detailed three-dimensional thermoregulatory finite element model of a 50th percentile U.S. male, to predict the spatiotemporal temperature distribution throughout the body. The model accounts for the major heat transfer and thermoregulatory mechanisms, and circadian-rhythm effects. We validated our model by comparing its temperature predictions of various organs (brain, liver, stomach, bladder, and esophagus), and muscles (vastus medialis and triceps brachii) under normal resting conditions (errors between 0.0 and 0.5 °C), and of rectum under different heat-stress conditions (errors between 0.1 and 0.3 °C), with experimental measurements from multiple studies. RESULTS: Our simulations showed that the rise in the rectal temperature was primarily driven by the activity level (~ 94%) and, to a much lesser extent, environmental conditions or clothing considered in our study. The peak temperature in the heart, liver, and kidney were consistently higher than in the rectum (by ~ 0.6 °C), and the entire heart and liver recorded higher temperatures than in the rectum, indicating that these organs may be more susceptible to heat injury. CONCLUSION: Our model can help assess the impact of exertional and environmental heat stressors at the organ level and, in the future, evaluate the efficacy of different whole-body or localized cooling strategies in preserving organ integrity.

16.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(8): 768-773, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Determine whether five days of heat acclimation reduces cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain during consecutive exercise-heat exposures on the sixth day in the heat. DESIGN: Pair-matched randomized control trial. METHODS: Twenty-four males completed two, 120min exercise sessions (Session 1, Session 2) in a single day before (Day 1) and after (Day 6) four additional days of exercise in either hot (HOT: 40°C, 40% relative humidity, n=16) or temperate (CON: 23°C, 25% relative humidity, n=8) environments. A mixed-methods heat acclimation approach was implemented. Day 2 consisted of 120min of moderate-high intensity treadmill exercise. Days 3-5 consisted of 90min of moderate-high intensity exercise, with HOT completing this in a hyperthermia clamped manner at rectal temperature ≥38.5°C, and CON<38.5°C. RESULTS: Session 1 end of exercise rectal temperature and heart rate were lower on Day 6 compared to Day 1 for HOT (p=0.012, p=0.003) but not CON (p=0.152, p=0.437). Session 2 end of exercise rectal temperature was not different between days for HOT (p=0.104) or CON (p=0.275). Session 2 end of exercise heart rate was lower on Day 6 compared to Day 1 for HOT (p=0.004) and CON (p=0.039). Session 1 sweat sensitivity was greater on Day 6 compared to Day 1 for HOT (p=0.039) but not CON (p=0.257). Sweat rate was unchanged for HOT and CON between days during Session 1 (p=0.184, p=0.962) and Session 2 (p=0.051, p=0.793), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Five days of heat acclimation reduced cardiovascular strain but not thermoregulatory strain during the second, consecutive exercise-heat exposure. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT04053465.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Corporal , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Temperatura Cutânea , Sudorese , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Athl Train ; 56(4): 352-361, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide best-practice recommendations for developing and implementing heat-acclimatization strategies in secondary school athletics. DATA SOURCES: An extensive literature review on topics related to heat acclimatization and heat acclimation was conducted by a group of content experts. Using the Delphi method, action-oriented recommendations were developed. CONCLUSIONS: A period of heat acclimatization consisting of ≥14 consecutive days should be implemented at the start of fall preseason training or practices for all secondary school athletes to mitigate the risk of exertional heat illness. The heat-acclimatization guidelines should outline specific actions for secondary school athletics personnel to use, including the duration of training, the number of training sessions permitted per day, and adequate rest periods in a cool environment. Further, these guidelines should include sport-specific and athlete-specific recommendations, such as phasing in protective equipment and reintroducing heat acclimatization after periods of inactivity. Heat-acclimatization guidelines should be clearly detailed in the secondary school's policy and procedures manual and disseminated to all stakeholders. Heat-acclimatization guidelines, when used in conjunction with current best practices surrounding the prevention, management, and care of secondary school student-athletes with exertional heat stroke, will optimize their health and safety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Política Organizacional , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Esportes , Termotolerância , Golpe de Calor/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Descanso , Fatores de Risco , Equipamentos Esportivos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This document aimed to summarise the key components of exertional heat stroke (EHS) prehospital management. METHODS: Members of the International Olympic Committee Adverse Weather Impact Expert Working Group for the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020 summarised the current best practice regarding the EHS prehospital management. RESULTS: Sports competitions that are scheduled under high environmental heat stress or those that include events with high metabolic demands should implement and adopt policy and procedures for EHS prehospital management. The basic principles of EHS prehospital care are: early recognition, early diagnosis, rapid, on-site cooling and advanced clinical care. In order to achieve these principles, medical organisers must establish an area called the heat deck within or adjacent to the main medical tent that is optimised for EHS diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. Once admitted to the heat deck, the rectal temperature of the athlete with suspected EHS is assessed to confirm an elevated core body temperature. After EHS is diagnosed, the athlete must be cooled on-site until the rectal temperature is below 39°C. While cooling the athlete, medical providers are recommended to conduct a blood analysis to rule out exercise-associated hyponatraemia or hypoglycaemia, provided that this can be safely performed without interrupting cooling. The athlete is transported to advanced care for a full medical evaluation only after the treatment has been provided on-site. CONCLUSIONS: A coordination of care among all medical stakeholders at the sports venue, during transport, and at the hospital is warranted to ensure effective management is provided to the EHS athlete.

19.
J Athl Train ; 56(4): 349-351, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878176
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924138

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of heat acclimatization (HAz) followed by heat acclimation (HA) on physiological adaptations. 25 male endurance athletes (age 36 ± 12 y, height 178.8 ± 6.39 cm, body mass 73.03 ± 8.97 kg, and VO2peak 57.5 ± 7.0 mL·kg-1·min-1) completed HAz and HA. HAz was 3 months of self-directed summer training. In the laboratory, a 5-day HA prescribed exercise to target a hyperthermic zone (HZHA) of Trec between 38.50 and 39.75 °C for 60 min. Exercise trials were 60 min of running (59% ± 2% VO2peak) in an environmental chamber (wet bulb globe temperature 29.53 ± 0.63 °C) and administered at: baseline, post-HAz, and post-HAz+HA. Measured variables included internal body temperature (Trec), heart rate (HR), and sweat rate (SR). Repeated measure ANOVAs and post hoc comparisons were used to assess statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences. Trec was lower post-HAz+HA (38.03 ± 0.39 °C) than post-HAz (38.25 ± 0.42 °C, p = 0.009) and baseline (38.29 ± 0.37 °C, p = 0.005). There were no differences between baseline and post-HAz (p = 0.479) in Trec. HR was lower post-HAz (143 ± 12 bpm, p = 0.002) and post-HAz+HA (134 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.001) than baseline (138 ± 14 bpm). HR was lower post-HAz+HA than post-HAz (p = 0.013). SR was higher post-HAz+HA (1.93 ± 0.47 L·h-1) than post-HAz (1.76 ± 0.43 L·h-1, p = 0.027). Combination HAz and HA increased physiological outcomes above HAz. This method can be used to improve performance and safety in addition to HAz alone.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Temperatura Alta , Adulto , Atletas , Temperatura Corporal , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sudorese , Adulto Jovem
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