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1.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407831

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 61: 79-88, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to the recognized role of Helicobacter pylori in the etiology of non-cardia gastric cancer (GC), there is still insufficient epidemiological evidence for the involvement of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in gastric carcinogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the relation of antibody profile and antibody reactivity intensity against four individual EBV proteins to GC risk. METHODS: We used information from 281 GC cases and 2071 age and sex frequency matched controls recruited in the frame of the MCC-Spain multicase-control study, between 2008 and 2013. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and environmental factors were assessed in face-to-face interviews. Antibody responses to four EBV proteins (EBNA-1, ZEBRA, EA-D, and VCA-p18) were analyzed by multiplex serology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using logistic regression mixed models to evaluate the association of seropositivity and antibody reactivity against EBV proteins with GC, adjusting for GC risk factors. Stratified analyses by tumor location (cardia vs. non-cardia) and morphology (intestinal vs. diffuse) were done. RESULTS: Among controls, seropositivity for EA-D, ZEBRA, EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was 85%, 91%, 97% and 99%, respectively. Even though seropositivity for none of the studied proteins was associated with a higher GC risk, increasing antibody reactivity against EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was associated with higher OR of GC. This association was present for cardia and non-cardia cancer cases, and for intestinal and diffuse types. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that EBV may play a role in GC etiology, and highlight the importance of evaluating specific antibodies and the dose-response relations when studying widespread infections.

3.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in lymphomagenesis and several dietary factors seem to be involved its regulation. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: The analysis included 476,160 subjects with an average follow-up of 13.9 years, during which 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 2606 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 395 NOS) were identified. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated using 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory weights. The association between the ISD and lymphoma risk was estimated by hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated by multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: The ISD was not associated with overall lymphoma risk. Among lymphoma subtypes, a positive association between the ISD and mature B-cell NHL (HR for a 1-SD increase: 1.07 (95% CI 1.01; 1.14), p trend = 0.03) was observed. No statistically significant association was found among other subtypes. However, albeit with smaller number of cases, a suggestive association was observed for HL (HR for a 1-SD increase = 1.22 (95% CI 0.94; 1.57), p trend 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that a high ISD score, reflecting a pro-inflammatory diet, was modestly positively associated with the risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes. Further large prospective studies on low-grade inflammation induced by diet are warranted to confirm these findings.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 122-131, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588620

RESUMO

There is a growing evidence of the protective role of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on cancer. However, no prospective study has yet investigated its influence on lymphoma. We evaluated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The analysis included 476,160 participants, recruited from 10 European countries between 1991 and 2001. Adherence to the MD was estimated through the adapted relative MD (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma [HL], 2,606 non-HL and 395 lymphoma not otherwise specified) were identified. Overall, a 1-unit increase in the arMED score was associated with a 2% lower risk of lymphoma (95% CI: 0.97; 1.00, p-trend = 0.03) while a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between a high versus low arMED score and risk of lymphoma was observed (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91 [95% CI 0.80; 1.03], p-trend = 0.12). Analyses by lymphoma subtype did not reveal any statistically significant associations. Albeit with small numbers of cases (N = 135), a suggestive inverse association was found for HL (HR 1-unit increase = 0.93 [95% CI: 0.86; 1.01], p-trend = 0.07). However, the study may have lacked statistical power to detect small effect sizes for lymphoma subtype. Our findings suggest that an increasing arMED score was inversely related to the risk of overall lymphoma in EPIC but not by subtypes. Further large prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

5.
Environ Int ; 122: 389-399, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alkylphenolic compounds are chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties that have been widely used in industry with important changes in their usage over time. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated the effect of alkylphenolic compounds on human health. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds is associated with breast and prostate cancer. METHODS: We carried out a population-based case-control study including 1513 incident cases of breast cancer, 1095 of prostate cancer, and 3055 controls, frequency matched by sex, age and region. Occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds was estimated using a recently developed job-exposure matrix, which considered different scenarios of exposure and different subtypes of alkylphenolic compounds. RESULTS: History of occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds was modestly associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.01-1.48). Within the different scenarios, the occupational use of domestic tensioactives was positively associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.02-1.60), while occupational exposure in other scenarios showed mostly a suggestion of a similar positive associations. Exposure to nonylphenol ethoxylates was positively associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.00-1.47), while exposure to other compounds was uncommon. In general, we did not observe associations between alkylphenolic compounds and prostate cancer, except for a positive association among men occupationally exposed to cosmetic, hair and personal hygiene products. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a modest association between breast cancer risk and occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds, and no associations between these compounds and prostate cancer risk. These findings warrant further corroboration in other studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional , Fenóis/toxicidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Indústrias , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481275

RESUMO

The role of hormonal factors in lymphoid neoplasms etiology remains unclear. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results, been underpowered to assess many lymphoma subtypes, or lacked detailed information on relevant exposures. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we analyzed comprehensive data collected at baseline (1992-2000) on reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use among 343,458 women, including 1,427 incident B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and its major subtypes identified after a mean follow-up of 14 years (through 2015). We estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable proportional hazards modeling. Overall, we observed no statistically significant associations between parity, age at first birth, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use or ever use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of B-cell NHL or its subtypes. Women who had a surgical menopause had a 51% higher risk of B-cell NHL (based on 67 cases) compared with natural menopause (hazard ratio=1.51, 95% confidence interval=1.17, 1.94). Given that this result may be due to chance, our results provide little support for the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in lymphomagenesis.

8.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489354

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) chronic infection causes severe digestive diseases, including gastric cancer, and certain strains entail a higher risk. Risk factors for this infection are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to describe the association of adult and childhood sociodemographic factors with the seroprevalence of H. pylori, and with CagA and VacA antigen-specific seropositivity among H. pylori-seropositive individuals in the Spanish adult population. Serum antibody reactivity to H. pylori proteins was evaluated using multiplex serology in 2555 population-based controls enrolled in the MCC-Spain study, a multicase-control study recruiting participants from 2008 to 2013 in different areas of Spain. H. pylori seroprevalence was defined as seropositivity against at least four bacterial proteins. Information on sociodemographics, lifestyles, and environmental exposures was collected through personal interviews. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models to assess the association of lifetime sociodemographic factors with H. pylori seroprevalence and with seropositivity for CagA and VacA. H. pylori seroprevalence was 87.2%. Seropositivity was statistically significantly higher in men, increased with age, BMI, and number of siblings, and decreased with education and socioeconomic family level at birth. Among H. pylori-seropositive individuals, seropositivity was 53.3% for CagA, 61.4% for VacA, and 38.8% for both CagA and VacA. Ever smokers had lower seroprevalence for CagA and VacA than never smokers. H. pylori seroprevalence among this Spanish adult population was high and one third of the population was seropositive for two well-known markers of gastric cancer risk: CagA and VacA. Sex, age, education, and BMI were associated with H. pylori seroprevalence.

9.
Haematologica ; 103(11): 1881-1888, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954942

RESUMO

Diet is a modifiable risk factor for several neoplasms but evidence for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is sparse. Previous studies examining the association between single-food items and CLL risk have yielded mixed results, while few studies have been conducted on overall diet, reporting inconclusive findings. This study aimed to evaluate the association between adherence to three dietary patterns and CLL in the multicase-control study (MCC-Spain) study. Anthropometric, sociodemographic, medical and dietary information was collected for 369 CLL cases and 1605 controls. Three validated dietary patterns, Western, Prudent and Mediterranean, were reconstructed in the MCC-Spain data. The association between adherence to each dietary pattern and CLL was assessed, overall and by Rai stage, using mixed logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. High adherence to a Western dietary pattern (i.e. high intake of high-fat dairy products, processed meat, refined grains, sweets, caloric drinks, and convenience food) was associated with CLL [ORQ4 vs. Q1=1.63 (95%CI 1.11; 2.39); P-trend=0.02; OR 1-SD increase=1.19 (95%CI: 1.03; 1.37)], independently of Rai stages. No differences in the association were observed according to sex, Body Mass Index, energy intake, tobacco, physical activity, working on a farm, or family history of hematologic malignancies. No associations were observed for Mediterranean and Prudent dietary patterns and CLL. This study provides the first evidence for an association between a Western dietary pattern and CLL, suggesting that a proportion of CLL cases could be prevented by modifying dietary habits. Further research, especially with a prospective design, is warranted to confirm these findings.

10.
Blood ; 131(23): 2541-2551, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674426

RESUMO

Inherited loci have been found to be associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A combined polygenic risk score (PRS) of representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these loci may improve risk prediction over individual SNPs. Herein, we evaluated the association of a PRS with CLL risk and its precursor, monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). We assessed its validity and discriminative ability in an independent sample and evaluated effect modification and confounding by family history (FH) of hematological cancers. For discovery, we pooled genotype data on 41 representative SNPs from 1499 CLL and 2459 controls from the InterLymph Consortium. For validation, we used data from 1267 controls from Mayo Clinic and 201 CLL, 95 MBL, and 144 controls with a FH of CLL from the Genetic Epidemiology of CLL Consortium. We used odds ratios (ORs) to estimate disease associations with PRS and c-statistics to assess discriminatory accuracy. In InterLymph, the continuous PRS was strongly associated with CLL risk (OR, 2.49; P = 4.4 × 10-94). We replicated these findings in the Genetic Epidemiology of CLL Consortium and Mayo controls (OR, 3.02; P = 7.8 × 10-30) and observed high discrimination (c-statistic = 0.78). When jointly modeled with FH, PRS retained its significance, along with FH status. Finally, we found a highly significant association of the continuous PRS with MBL risk (OR, 2.81; P = 9.8 × 10-16). In conclusion, our validated PRS was strongly associated with CLL risk, adding information beyond FH. The PRS provides a means of identifying those individuals at greater risk for CLL as well as those at increased risk of MBL, a condition that has potential clinical impact beyond CLL.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 52: 106-111, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29289901

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL/SLL) is the most common adult leukemia in Western countries. Although it is mostly an indolent disease it is still incurable and with limited knowledge in relation to its etiology. We aim to confirm and quantify established risk factors for CLL/SLL using a multi-center epidemiological population-based case-control study on CLL/SLL as well as to explore new exposures inconclusively associated with CLL/SLL METHODS: Using the framework provided by the large MCC-Spain case-control study, we explored established and suggested risk factors associated with CLL/SLL using data collected through a face-to-face interview. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) adjusted by basic confounders, in 1,845 controls from the general population and 560 CLL/SLL from 5 different Spanish regions. RESULTS: Among the established risk factors, CLL/SLL cases were 3 times more likely to report first degree relatives with an hematological cancer (OR = 3.11, 95% CI 2.10 to 4.61) and nearly twice likely to have ever worked in agriculture (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.16). New findings suggest that women with CLL/SLL were more likely to have central obesity (OR = 1.67 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.48). An inverse association was found for current alcohol consumption (p-trend<0.016) and for type II diabetes. CONCLUSION: We confirmed previous established risk factors for CLL/SLL. Among the new findings, further research of central obesity as preventable exposure and the treatment for type II diabetes are warranted.

12.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1284, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29123514

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a necessary cause of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), while the role of Plasmodium falciparum in eBL remains uncertain. This study aimed to generate new hypotheses on the interplay between both infections in the development of eBL by investigating the IgG and IgM profiles against several EBV and P. falciparum antigens. Serum samples collected in a childhood study in Malawi (2005-2006) from 442 HIV-seronegative children (271 eBL cases and 171 controls) between 1.4 and 15 years old were tested by quantitative suspension array technology against a newly developed multiplex panel combining 4 EBV antigens [Z Epstein-Barr replication activator protein (ZEBRA), early antigen-diffuse component (EA-D), EBV nuclear antigen 1, and viral capsid antigen p18 subunit (VCA-p18)] and 15 P. falciparum antigens selected for their immunogenicity, role in malaria pathogenesis, and presence in different parasite stages. Principal component analyses, multivariate logistic models, and elastic-net regressions were used. As expected, elevated levels of EBV IgG (especially against the lytic antigens ZEBRA, EA-D, and VCA-p18) were strongly associated with eBL [high vs low tertile odds ratio (OR) = 8.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.81-15.64]. Higher IgG responses to the merozoite surface protein 3 were observed in children with eBL compared with controls (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.02-1.64), showing an additive interaction with EBV IgGs (OR = 10.6, 95% CI = 5.1-22.2, P = 0.05). Using elastic-net regression models, eBL serological profile was further characterized by lower IgM levels against P. falciparum preerythrocytic-stage antigen CelTOS and EBV lytic antigen VCA-p18 compared with controls. In a secondary analysis, abdominal Burkitt lymphoma had lower IgM to EBV and higher IgG to EA-D levels than cases with head involvement. Overall, this exploratory study confirmed the strong role of EBV in eBL and identified differential IgG and IgM patterns to erythrocytic vs preerythrocytic P. falciparum antigens that suggest a more persistent/chronic malaria exposure and a weaker IgM immune response in children with eBL compared with controls. Future studies should continue exploring how the malaria infection status and the immune response to P. falciparum interact with EBV infection in the development of eBL.

13.
Helicobacter ; 22(5)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in Helicobacter pylori protein expression have been related to the risk of severe gastric diseases. In Spain, a marked geographic pattern in gastric cancer mortality has long been reported. OBJECTIVE: To characterize antibody reactivity patterns against 16 H. pylori proteins, by age, sex, and region of birth, in a large sample of the Spanish adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antibody reactivity was quantified by H. pylori multiplex serology in a sample from the control group of the multicase-control study MCC-Spain. For this analysis, 2555 population-based controls were included. Each participant was classified as seropositive or seronegative for each protein according to specific cutoffs. Overall H. pylori seroprevalence was defined as positivity against ≥4 proteins. Descriptive analyses by age, sex, and region of birth were performed for both seroprevalence and seroreactivity (continuous measure). Differences among groups were tested by logistic and linear regression models. RESULTS: Overall H. pylori seroprevalence increased with age in both sexes. For ages 55-74, seroprevalence was lower in women than in men (84% vs 92%, P<.001). Region of birth explained 7% of the variability in seroprevalence. Among H. pylori seropositive subjects, proteins with the highest seroprevalence were GroEL, NapA, HP231, and Omp. Seropositivity for most of the proteins increased or remained stable with age, rising mainly for CagA, GroEL, and HyuA in women. A clear cohort effect was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe the antibody patterns against 16 H. pylori proteins in the Spanish population. We found variability in the H. pylori antibody profiles according to both individual factors such as age and sex, and environmental factors such as the region of birth. The slightness of the reduction in seropositivity with decreasing age highlights the ongoing importance of this infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Cancer ; 140(5): 1111-1118, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27870006

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I has cancer promoting activities. However, the hypothesis that circulating IGF-I concentration is related to risk of lymphoma overall or its subtypes has not been examined prospectively. IGF-I concentration was measured in pre-diagnostic plasma samples from a nested case-control study of 1,072 cases of lymphoid malignancies and 1,072 individually matched controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for lymphoma were calculated using conditional logistic regression. IGF-I concentration was not associated with overall lymphoma risk (multivariable-adjusted OR for highest versus lowest third = 0.77 [95% CI = 0.57-1.03], ptrend = 0.06). There was no statistical evidence of heterogeneity in this association with IGF-I by sex, age at blood collection, time between blood collection and diagnosis, age at diagnosis, or body mass index (pheterogeneity for all ≥ 0.05). There were no associations between IGF-I concentration and risk for specific BCL subtypes, T-cell lymphoma or Hodgkin lymphoma, although number of cases were small. In this European population, IGF-I concentration was not associated with risk of overall lymphoma. This study provides the first prospective evidence on circulating IGF-I concentrations and risk of lymphoma. Further prospective data are required to examine associations of IGF-I concentrations with lymphoma subtypes.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Linfoma/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Razão de Chances , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Eur J Nutr ; 56(3): 1123-1133, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26838684

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is currently no convincing epidemiological evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption, the primary source of vitamin C, plays a role in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) aetiology. We hypothesized that variations in vitamin C dietary intake as well as in genetic variability in vitamin C transporter gene SLC23A2 could explain some inconsistencies in the literature. METHODS: Fruit/vegetable/vitamin C consumption from food frequency questionnaires and six low-penetrance genetic susceptibility polymorphisms in vitamin C transporter gene SLC23A2 (rs1715364, rs6133175, rs1776948, rs6139587, rs369270 and rs6052937) were examined in 434 CLL cases and 1257 randomly selected controls from primary care centres with genetic data of whom 275 cases and 1094 controls having both diet and genetic information. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: CLL patients were more likely to have a higher fruit consumption than controls (highest versus lowest quartile in g/day OR: 1.48; 95 % CI: 1.00 to 2.18; P = 0.03), whereas no associations were found with vegetable or total vitamin C intake. Based on log-additive models, rs6133175_A > G (OR: 1.19, 95 % CI: 1.00 to 1.41; P = 0.05) and rs1776948_T > A (OR: 1.20; 95 %CI: 1.01 to 1.41; P = 0.04) were associated with CLL. The haplogenotype analysis (rs1715364, rs6133175) supported the genotype results. No gene-diet interactions in CLL remained statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that both fruit intake and genetic marker in SLC23A2 may play an independent role in CLL biology.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Frutas , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transportadores de Sódio Acoplados à Vitamina C/genética , Verduras , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Avaliação Nutricional , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Occup Environ Med ; 74(1): 52-58, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27540103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to develop a job-exposure matrix (JEM) to assess occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds in epidemiological research, considering changes in their use over time, and including exposure probabilities in the assessments. METHODS: We consulted multiple sources of information, and performed interviews with 9 key people from industry and academia. 3 hygienists coded frequency (minority or majority of workers involved) and intensity of exposure (including dispersive processes, with shaking, or aerosol generation, or otherwise) to alkylphenolic compounds for all the 390 International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)-88 job titles by period of time. Intensity and frequency of exposure were combined in a single score as follows: unlikely=0, occasionally+low intensity=1, occasionally+high intensity=2, frequent+low intensity=2, and frequent+high intensity=3. RESULTS: We identified 54 (13.8%) of the 390 ISCO-88 job titles with potential exposure to alkylphenolic compounds. In 6 of jobs deemed as exposed, exposure depended on the economic sector of the occupation. Nonylphenol ethoxylates were the compounds most commonly involved (30 job titles, 55.6% of the exposed). Variations in alkylphenolic compounds use varied greatly over time; while they are still used in the plastic and rubber industry, in domestic cleaning agents their use began to decline before 1995. CONCLUSIONS: We built a JEM to assess exposure to alkylphenolic compounds, taking into account changes in use over time, different types of alkylphenolic compounds and different scenarios of exposure, which can be a valuable tool for exposure assessment in epidemiological research on the health effects of these chemicals.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fenóis/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Administração Cutânea , Humanos , Indústrias , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Entrevistas como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Espanha
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 95(6): 1459-1462, 2016 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27799648

RESUMO

Data on the burden and incidence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) across Mozambique are scarce. We retrospectively retrieved information on eBL cases from reports of the three main hospitals of Mozambique: Maputo Central Hospital (MCH), Beira Central Hospital (BCH), and Nampula Central Hospital (NCH) between 2004 and 2014. For 2015, we prospectively collected information of new eBL cases attending these hospitals. A total of 512 eBL cases were reported between 2004 and 2015: 153 eBL cases were reported in MCH, 195 in BCH, and 164 in NCH. Mean age of cases was 6.9 years (standard deviation = 2.8); 63% (319/504) of cases were males. For 2015, the estimated incidence rate of eBL was 2.0, 1.7, and 3.9 per 106 person-year at risk in MCH, BCH, and NCH, respectively. Incidence was higher in NCH (northern Mozambique), where intensity of malaria transmission is higher. Data presented show that eBL is a common pediatric malignancy in Mozambique, as observed in neighboring countries.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Burkitt/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Int J Cancer ; 139(9): 1994-2000, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27416551

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has few known modifiable risk factors. Recently, circadian disruption has been proposed as a potential contributor to lymphoid neoplasms' etiology. Serum melatonin levels have been found to be significantly lower in CLL subjects compared with healthy controls, and also, CLL prognosis has been related to alterations in the circadian molecular signaling. We performed the first investigation of an association between night shift work and CLL in 321 incident CLL cases and 1728 population-based controls in five areas of Spain. Participants were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers to collect information on sociodemographic factors, familial, medical and occupational history, including work shifts and other lifestyle factors. We used logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Seventy-nine cases (25%) and 339 controls (20%) had performed night work. Overall, working in night shifts was not associated with CLL (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.78-1.45, compared with day work). However, long-term night shift (>20 years) was positively associated with CLL (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work) = 1.77; 95% = 1.14-2.74), although no linear trend was observed (P trend = 0.18). This association was observed among those with rotating (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work) = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.33-3.92; P trend = 0.07), but not permanent night shifts (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work) = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.60-2.25; P trend = 0.86). The association between CLL and long-term rotating night shift warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/etiologia , Masculino , Melatonina/sangue , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 183(7): 671-9, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26968942

RESUMO

Sparse data exist on the patterns and determinants of acquisition of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in childhood. We measured immunoglobulin G seroreactivity against 10 polyomaviruses (BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, MCPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, TSPyV, HPyV9, HPyV10) and 5 herpesviruses (Epstein Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 8) using multiplex serology on blood samples collected at birth (cord blood, n = 626) and at follow-up at 3 years (n = 81) and 4 years (n = 690) of age among the Rhea birth cohort recruited in Greece from pregnant women in 2007-2008. We used Poisson regression with robust variance to identify determinants of seropositivity at age 4. Seroprevalence of polyomaviruses ranged from 38.5% to 99.8% in cord blood and from 20.9% to 82.3% at age 4. Seroprevalence of EBV, CMV, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and human herpesvirus 8 was 99.4%, 74.9%, 26.2%, 8.0%, and 1.6% in cord blood and 52.5%, 25.8%, 3.6%, 1.4%, and 0% at age 4, respectively. Determinants of seropositivity at age 4 were cord seropositivity (JCPyV, HPyV7, HPyV10, CMV), vaginal delivery (HPyV10), breastfeeding (CMV), younger age at day-care entry (BKPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, TSPyV, HPyV10, HPyV9, EBV, CMV), and swimming pool attendance (BKPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, HPyV10). Television viewing, parental stress, and hygiene practices were inversely associated with the seroprevalence of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Herpesviridae , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Polyomavirus , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
Menopause ; 22(10): 1138-46, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26125537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe time trends in and patterns of use of hormonal contraception and postmenopausal hormone therapy and to identify factors associated with their use among Spanish women. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 1,954 population controls (aged 24-85 y) in 12 provinces of Spain who were enrolled in the Multi Case-Control Spain study (2007-2013). Data were collected from a questionnaire conducted face-to-face by trained personnel. We collected information on sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, sleep patterns, reproductive history, and occupational history. RESULTS: Overall, 48.5% of Spanish women reported ever use of hormonal contraception, and 9.8% of women in the postmenopausal group reported use of postmenopausal hormone therapy. Younger cohorts used hormonal contraception for a longer period, whereas postmenopausal hormone therapy use dramatically dropped in the 2000s. Women with higher education levels (including education of partners) and smoking history were the most probable users of hormonal contraception, whereas inverse associations were observed among housewives, obese women, and nulliparous women. Postmenopausal hormone therapy use was associated with a surgical or therapeutic cause of menopause and with occupational history of rotating shifts. CONCLUSIONS: In this Spanish population, several demographic, lifestyle, occupational, and reproductive factors are associated with use of hormonal compounds. Characterizing hormonal users and monitoring trends in the use of these hormonal compounds are essential from a public health perspective.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/tendências , Pós-Menopausa , Saúde da Mulher/tendências , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fogachos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
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