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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 167: 112433, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771862

RESUMO

The aggregation of α-synuclein is a critical event in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, such as Parkinson or Alzheimer. Here, we present a label-free sensor based on an Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor (EGOFET) integrated with microfluidics that allows for the detection of amounts of α-synuclein in the range from 0.25 pM to 25 nM. The lower limit of detection (LOD) measures the potential of our integrated device as a tool for prognostics and diagnostics. In our device, the gate electrode is the effective sensing element as it is functionalised with anti-(α-synuclein) antibodies using a dual strategy: i) an amino-terminated self-assembled monolayer activated by glutaraldehyde, and ii) the His-tagged recombinant protein G. In both approaches, comparable sensitivity values were achieved, featuring very low LOD values at the sub-pM level. The microfluidics engineering is central to achieve a controlled functionalisation of the gate electrode and avoid contamination or physisorption on the organic semiconductor. The demonstrated sensing architecture, being a disposable stand-alone chip, can be operated as a point-of-care test, but also it might represent a promising label-free tool to explore in-vitro protein aggregation that takes place during the progression of neurodegenerative illnesses.

2.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 136: 107628, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795942

RESUMO

The Met80Ala and Met80Ala/Tyr67Ala variants of S. cerevisiae iso-1 cytochrome c (ycc) and their adducts with cardiolipin immobilized onto a gold electrode coated with a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of decane-1-thiol were studied through cyclic voltammetry and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS). The electroactive species - containing a six-coordinate His/His axially ligated heme and a five-coordinate His/- heme stable in the oxidized and reduced state, respectively - and the pseudoperoxidase activity match those found previously for the wt species and are only slightly affected by CL binding. Most importantly, the reduced His/- ligated form of these variants is able to catalytically reduce the nitrite ion, while electrode-immobilized wt ycc and other His/Met heme ligated variants under a variety of conditions are not. Besides the pseudoperoxidase and nitrite reductase functions, which are the most physiologically relevant abilities of these constructs, also axial heme ligation and the equilibria between conformers are strongly affected by the nature - hydrophobic vs. electrostatic - of the non-covalent interactions determining protein immobilization. Also affected are the catalytic activity changes induced by a given mutation as well as those due to partial unfolding due to CL binding. It follows that under the same solution conditions the structural and functional properties of immobilized ycc are surface-specific and therefore cannot be transferred from an immobilized system to another involving different interfacial protein-SAM interactions.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426780

RESUMO

In this paper we report on the use of an Ullmann-like aryl halide homocoupling reaction to obtain long Graphyne Molecular Wires (GY MWs) organized in dense, ordered arrays. Instead of using highly reactive terminal alkynes, we resort to a precursor wherein the acetylenic functional group is internal, namely protected by two phenyl rings, each bearing a Br atom in the para position to allow for linear homocoupling. In addition, two further factors concur with the production of dense and highly ordered arrays of very long GY MWs, namely the geometric compatibility between the substrate and both the organometallic intermediates and the final polymeric products of the synthesis, coupled with the presence of surface-adsorbed bromine atoms separating the MWs, which minimize inter-wire cross-linking secondary reactions.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(5): 6565-6572, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825591

RESUMO

Conformationally rigid multipodal molecules should control the orientation and packing density of functional head groups upon self-assembly on solid supports. Common tripods frequently fail in this regard because of inhomogeneous bonding configuration and stochastic orientation. These issues are circumvented by a suitable tetrapodal diazatriptycene moiety, bearing four thiol-anchoring groups, as demonstrated in the present study. Such molecules form well-defined self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) substrates, whereby the tetrapodal scaffold enforces a nearly upright orientation of the terminal head group with respect to the substrate, with at least three of the four anchoring groups providing thiolate-like covalent attachment to the surface. Functionalization by condensation chemistry allows a large variety of functional head groups to be introduced to the tetrapod, paving the path toward advanced surface engineering and sensor fabrication.

5.
Soft Matter ; 14(36): 7390-7400, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198543

RESUMO

Cellulose nanopaper (CNP) features appealing properties, including transparency, flatness, a low thermal expansion coefficient and thermal stability, often outperforming conventional paper. However, free-standing crystalline cellulose films usually swell in water or upon moisture sorption, compromising part of their outstanding properties. This remains a major problem whenever working in a water environment is required. Freestanding cellulose nanopaper is prepared by solution casting water suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals with an average width of 10 nm and an average aspect ratio of 28, isolated from Avicel by acid hydrolysis and extensively characterized by AFM and FE-SEM measurements and GPC detection of their degree of polymerization. We demonstrate by elemental analyses, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, XRD measurements and water contact angle detection that wet treatment with lauroyl chloride results in surface hydrophobization of nanopaper. The hydrophobized nanopaper, C12-CNP, shows a more compact surface morphology than the starting CNP, due to the effect of chemical functionalization, and presents enhanced resistance to water, as assessed by electrochemical permeation experiments. The new hydrophobized nanopaper is a promising substrate for thin film devices designed to work in a humid environment.

6.
RSC Adv ; 8(48): 27509-27515, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713682

RESUMO

Understanding the physics behind the operational mechanism of Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors (EGOFETs) is of paramount importance for the correct interpretation of the device response. Here, we report the systematic functionalization of the gate electrode of an EGOFET with self-assembled monolayers with a variety of dipolar moments showing that both the chemical nature and the monolayer density influence the electrical characteristics of the device.

7.
Small ; 14(10)2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280286

RESUMO

A switchable electrode, which relies on an indium-tin oxide conductive substrate coated with a self-assembled monolayer terminated with an anthraquinone group (AQ), is reported as an electrowetting system. AQ electrochemical features confer the capability of yielding a significant modulation of surface wettability as high as 26° when its redox state is switched. Hence, an array of planar electrodes for droplets actuation is fabricated and integrated in a microfluidic device to perform mixing and dispensing on sub-nanoliter scale. Vehiculation of cells across microfluidic compartments is made possible by taking full advantage of surface electrowetting in culture medium.

8.
Chem Soc Rev ; 46(1): 40-71, 2017 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27722675

RESUMO

Self-assembly is possibly the most effective and versatile strategy for surface functionalization. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be formed on (semi-)conductor and dielectric surfaces, and have been used in a variety of technological applications. This work aims to review the strategy behind the design and use of self-assembled monolayers in organic electronics, discuss the mechanism of interaction of SAMs in a microscopic device, and highlight the applications emerging from the integration of SAMs in an organic device. The possibility of performing surface chemistry tailoring with SAMs constitutes a versatile approach towards the tuning of the electronic and morphological properties of the interfaces relevant to the response of an organic electronic device. Functionalisation with SAMs is important not only for imparting stability to the device or enhancing its performance, as sought at the early stages of development of this field. SAM-functionalised organic devices give rise to completely new types of behavior that open unprecedented applications, such as ultra-sensitive label-free biosensors and SAM/organic transistors that can be used as robust experimental gauges for studying charge tunneling across SAMs.

9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 39623, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28004824

RESUMO

Since the first demonstration, the electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (EGOFETs) have immediately gained much attention for the development of cutting-edge technology and they are expected to have a strong impact in the field of (bio-)sensors. However EGOFETs directly expose their active material towards the aqueous media, hence a limited library of organic semiconductors is actually suitable. By using two mostly unexplored strategies in EGOFETs such as blended materials together with a printing technique, we have successfully widened this library. Our benchmarks were 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene and 2,8-difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl)anthradithiophene (diF-TES-ADT), which have been firstly blended with polystyrene and secondly deposited by means of the bar-assisted meniscus shearing (BAMS) technique. Our approach yielded thin films (i.e. no thicker than 30 nm) suitable for organic electronics and stable in liquid environment. Up to date, these EGOFETs show unprecedented performances. Furthermore, an extremely harsh environment, like NaCl 1M, has been used in order to test the limit of operability of these electronic devices. Albeit an electrical worsening is observed, our devices can operate under different electrical stresses within the time frame of hours up to a week. In conclusion, our approach turns out to be a powerful tool for the EGOFET manufacturing.


Assuntos
Amplificadores Eletrônicos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Naftacenos/química , Poliestirenos/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Microscopia , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Potenciometria , Semicondutores , Transistores Eletrônicos , Água
10.
Adv Mater ; 28(46): 10311-10316, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27723255

RESUMO

This communication presents a novel electrolyte gated field-effect transistor based on a blend of dibenzo-tetrathiafulvalene and polystyrene deposited through bar-assisted meniscus shearing. This technique allows the fabrication of high performing electronic devices suitable for (bio)sensing applications and might capture industrial interest due to its scalability. The reported devices can operate in aqueous solution with comparable complexity to real samples.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(46): 31783-31790, 2016 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27653218

RESUMO

Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (EGOFETs), based on ultrathin pentacene films on quartz, were operated with electrolyte solutions whose pH was systematically changed. Transistor parameters exhibit nonmonotonic variation versus pH, which cannot be accounted for by capacitive coupling through the Debye-Helmholtz layer. The data were fitted with an analytical model of the accumulated charge in the EGOFET, where Langmuir adsorption was introduced to describe the pH-dependent charge buildup at the quartz surface. The model provides an excellent fit to the threshold voltage and transfer characteristics as a function of the pH, which demonstrates that quartz acts as a second gate controlled by pH and is mostly effective from neutral to alkaline pH. The effective capacitance of the device is always greater than the capacitance of the electrolyte, thus highlighting the role of the substrate as an important active element for amplification of the transistor response.

12.
Anal Chem ; 88(24): 12330-12338, 2016 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28193067

RESUMO

Biorecognition is a central event in biological processes in the living systems that is also widely exploited in technological and health applications. We demonstrate that the Electrolyte Gated Organic Field Effect Transistor (EGOFET) is an ultrasensitive and specific device that allows us to quantitatively assess the thermodynamics of biomolecular recognition between a human antibody and its antigen, namely, the inflammatory cytokine TNFα at the solid/liquid interface. The EGOFET biosensor exhibits a superexponential response at TNFα concentration below 1 nM with a minimum detection level of 100 pM. The sensitivity of the device depends on the analyte concentration, reaching a maximum in the range of clinically relevant TNFα concentrations when the EGOFET is operated in the subthreshold regime. At concentrations greater than 1 nM the response scales linearly with the concentration. The sensitivity and the dynamic range are both modulated by the gate voltage. These results are explained by establishing the correlation between the sensitivity and the density of states (DOS) of the organic semiconductor. Then, the superexponential response arises from the energy-dependence of the tail of the DOS of the HOMO level. From the gate voltage-dependent response, we extract the binding constant, as well as the changes of the surface charge and the effective capacitance accompanying biorecognition at the electrode surface. Finally, we demonstrate the detection of TNFα in human-plasma derived samples as an example for point-of-care application.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Transistores Eletrônicos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Capacitância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Semicondutores , Termodinâmica
13.
Nanoscale ; 7(47): 20025-32, 2015 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26565988

RESUMO

Vesicles of cationic amphiphilic ß-cyclodextrins have been immobilized on polycrystalline gold by exploiting the chemical affinity between their amino groups and Au atoms. The presence of cyclodextrins has been widely investigated by means of AFM, XPS, kelvin probe and electrochemical measurements. This multi-functional coating confers distinct electrochemical features such as pH-dependent behavior and partial/total blocking properties towards electro-active species. The host-guest properties of ß-cyclodextrins have been successfully exploited in order to trap drugs, like dopamine and levodopa. The further release of these drugs was successfully achieved by providing specific electrical stimuli. This proof-of-concept led us to fabricate an electronic device (i.e. an organic transistor) capable of dispensing both dopamine and levodopa in aqueous solution.


Assuntos
Dopamina/química , Ouro/química , Levodopa/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Adsorção , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Eletricidade , Eletroquímica , Eletrodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metais/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Nanomedicina/métodos , Espectrometria por Raios X , Eletricidade Estática
14.
ACS Nano ; 9(5): 5051-62, 2015 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25868724

RESUMO

Antibody-antigen (Ab-Ag) recognition is the primary event at the basis of many biosensing platforms. In label-free biosensors, these events occurring at solid-liquid interfaces are complex and often difficult to control technologically across the smallest length scales down to the molecular scale. Here a molecular-scale technique, such as single-molecule force spectroscopy, is performed across areas of a real electrode functionalized for the immunodetection of an inflammatory cytokine, viz. interleukin-4 (IL4). The statistical analysis of force-distance curves allows us to quantify the probability, the characteristic length scales, the adhesion energy, and the time scales of specific recognition. These results enable us to rationalize the response of an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET) operated as an IL4 immunosensor. Two different strategies for the immobilization of IL4 antibodies on the Au gate electrode have been compared: antibodies are bound to (i) a smooth film of His-tagged protein G (PG)/Au; (ii) a 6-aminohexanethiol (HSC6NH2) self-assembled monolayer on Au through glutaraldehyde. The most sensitive EGOFET (concentration minimum detection level down to 5 nM of IL4) is obtained with the first functionalization strategy. This result is correlated to the highest probability (30%) of specific binding events detected by force spectroscopy on Ab/PG/Au electrodes, compared to 10% probability on electrodes with the second functionalization. Specifically, this demonstrates that Ab/PG/Au yields the largest areal density of oriented antibodies available for recognition. More in general, this work shows that specific recognition events in multiscale biosensors can be assessed, quantified, and optimized by means of a nanoscale technique.


Assuntos
Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Microscopia de Força Atômica/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Transistores Eletrônicos , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Anticorpos Imobilizados/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Eletroquímica , Ouro/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(7): 3902-9, 2015 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25646868

RESUMO

Four linear terarylene molecules (i) 4-nitro-terphenyl-4″-methanethiol (NTM), (ii) 4-nitro-terphenyl-3″,5″-dimethanethiol (NTD), (iii) ([1,1';4',1″] terphenyl-3,5-diyl)methanethiol (TM), and (iv) ([1,1';4',1″] terphenyl-3,5-diyl)dimethanethiol (TD) have been synthesized and their self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been obtained on polycrystalline gold. NTM and NTD SAMs have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Kelvin probe measurements, electrochemistry, and contact angle measurements. The terminal nitro group (-NO2) is irreversibly reduced to hydroxylamine (-NHOH), which can be reversibly turned into nitroso group (-NO). The direct comparison between NTM/NTD and TM/TD SAMs unambiguously shows the crucial influence of the nitro group on electrowetting properties of polycrystalline Au. The higher grade of surface tension related to NHOH has been successfully exploited for basic operations of digital µ-fluidics, such as droplets motion and merging.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 47(31): 8823-5, 2011 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21720629

RESUMO

Alkanethiol Self-Assembly Monolayers (SAMs) were investigated by means of BiModal Atomic Force Microscopy. Morphological and mechanical properties show a parabolic trend vs. the chain length n, which is ascribed to the disorder at the SAMs/Au interface. This explains the trend of charge injection across SAMs in organic field effect transistors.

17.
J Phys Chem B ; 114(4): 1698-706, 2010 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20058889

RESUMO

Replacement of the axial Met80 heme ligand in electrode-immobilized cytochrome c with a noncoordinating Ala residue and alteration of the hydrogen bonding network in the region nearby following substitution of Tyr67 were investigated as effectors of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the protein-electrode electron transfer (ET) and the heme-mediated electrocatalytic reduction of H(2)O(2). To this end, the voltammetry of the Met80Ala, Met80Ala/Tyr67His, and Met80Ala/Tyr67Ala variants of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c chemisorbed on carboxyalkanethiol self-assembled monolayers was measured at varying temperature and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The thermodynamic study shows that insertion of His and Ala residues in place of Tyr67 results mainly in differences in protein-solvent interactions at the heme crevice with no relevant effects on the E degrees' values at pH 7, which for single and double variants range from approximately -0.200 to -0.220 V (vs SHE). On the contrary, both double variants show much lower ET rates compared to Met80Ala, most likely as a consequence of a change in the ET pathways. In the present nondenaturing immobilizing conditions, and with hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the micromolar range, the variants catalyze H(2)O(2) reduction at the electrode, whereas wild-type cytochrome c does not. H(2)O(2) electrocatalysis occurs with an efficient mechanism likely involving a fast catalase-like process followed by electrocatalytic reduction of the resulting dioxygen at the electrode. Comparison of Met80Ala/Tyr67His with Met80Ala/Tyr67Ala shows that the presence of a general acid-base residue for H(2)O(2) recognition and binding through H-bonding in the distal heme site is a key requisite for the reductive turnover of this substrate.


Assuntos
Citocromos c/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Catálise , Citocromos c/genética , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Transporte de Elétrons , Heme/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Termodinâmica
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 130(45): 15099-104, 2008 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18855474

RESUMO

The Met80Ala variant of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c, immobilized on a gold electrode, is found to exchange electrons efficiently with it in nondenaturing conditions and to provide robust and persistent catalytic currents for O 2 and nitrite ion reduction from pH 3 to 11. Direct covalent protein linkage to gold yields the best electrochemical and electrocatalytic performances without drastically affecting the structural properties of the bound protein compared to the freely diffusing species. Therefore, this biocatalytic interface can be of use for the amperometric detection of the above species, which are of great environmental, industrial, and clinical interest, with particular reference to the exploitation in nanostructured biosensing devices. This work shows that the use of a small engineered electron transfer (ET) protein, featuring an axial heme iron coordination position available for the binding of exogenous ligands, in place of a large heme enzyme is a viable strategy for the improvement of the heterogeneous ET rate and the stability and efficiency of sensing gold-protein interfaces over a wide range of T and pH.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Citocromos c/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Oxigênio/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Catálise , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Nitritos/química , Nitritos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
19.
J Phys Chem B ; 112(5): 1555-63, 2008 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18193859

RESUMO

The M80A variant of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c (cytc), which features a noncoordinating Ala residue in place of the axial heme iron Met ligand, was chemisorbed on a gold electrode coated with 4-mercaptopyridine or carboxyalkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAM) and investigated by cyclic voltammetry at varying conditions of temperature, pH, and O2 concentration. The E degrees ' value (standard reduction potential for the heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple) of M80A cytc on both SAMs is of approximately -200 mV (vs the standard hydrogen electrode, SHE) at pH 7, which is more than 400 mV lower than that of native cytochrome c in the same conditions. The thermodynamics of Fe(III) to Fe(II) reduction and the kinetics of heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) are dominated by the presence of a hydroxide ion as the sixth axial heme iron ligand above pH 6. On both SAMs, protonation of the bound hydroxide ion is mainly responsible for the changes in these parameters at low pH, since the distances of ET between the heme and the electrode are found to be independent of pH in the range of 5-11. The invariance of the electrochemical features up to pH 11 indicates that no changes in heme iron coordination occur at high pH, at variance with native cytc. Most notably, immobilized M80A cytc is found to act as an efficient biocatalyst for O2 reduction from pH 5 to 11.0. This finding makes M80A cytc a suitable candidate as a constituent of a biocatalytic interface for O2 biosensing and opens the way for the exploitation of engineered cytochrome c in the bio-based detection of chemicals of environmental and clinical interest.


Assuntos
Alanina/química , Citocromos c/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Metionina/química , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Catálise , Eletroquímica , Transporte de Elétrons , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Indicadores e Reagentes , Oxigênio/química , Conformação Proteica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Termodinâmica
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