Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 662
Filtrar
1.
Science ; 374(6571): 1080-1086, 2021 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822298

RESUMO

[Figure: see text].

2.
J Exp Med ; 218(12)2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726731

RESUMO

Enterovirus (EV) infection rarely results in life-threatening infection of the central nervous system. We report two unrelated children with EV30 and EV71 rhombencephalitis. One patient carries compound heterozygous TLR3 variants (loss-of-function F322fs2* and hypomorphic D280N), and the other is homozygous for an IFIH1 variant (loss-of-function c.1641+1G>C). Their fibroblasts respond poorly to extracellular (TLR3) or intracellular (MDA5) poly(I:C) stimulation. The baseline (TLR3) and EV-responsive (MDA5) levels of IFN-ß in the patients' fibroblasts are low. EV growth is enhanced at early and late time points of infection in TLR3- and MDA5-deficient fibroblasts, respectively. Treatment with exogenous IFN-α2b before infection renders both cell lines resistant to EV30 and EV71, whereas post-infection treatment with IFN-α2b rescues viral susceptibility fully only in MDA5-deficient fibroblasts. Finally, the poly(I:C) and viral phenotypes of fibroblasts are rescued by the expression of WT TLR3 or MDA5. Human TLR3 and MDA5 are critical for cell-intrinsic immunity to EV, via the control of baseline and virus-induced type I IFN production, respectively.

5.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843682

RESUMO

Human papilloma virus (HPV) infections can cause common warts, which usually resolve spontaneously or become recalcitrant, resistant to multiple treatments. In rare cases, they transform into cutaneous giant horns resulting in the tree-man syndrome (TMS). Defective ß-HPVs can cause flat warts in epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a genetic disorder. In typical EV, limited to the skin, the mutated genes are critical for keratinocyte-intrinsic immunity, while atypical, syndromic EV involves genes controlling T-cells. Inborn errors of immunity due to mutations in distinct genes underlying recalcitrant warts and the α-HPV2-driven TMS have been identified, all disrupting T-cell immunity. Collectively, these observations attest to the wide phenotypic spectrum of cutaneous infections caused by different HPV types, at the intersection of the genetic diversity of the viral and human genomes.

6.
Res Sq ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611657

RESUMO

Recent studies reported the presence of pre-existing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I interferons (IFNs) in at least 15% of patients with critical or severe COVID-19 pneumonia. In one study, these auto-Abs were found in almost 20% of deceased patients across all ages. We aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical impact of the auto-Abs to type I IFNs in Seine-Saint-Denis district, which was one of the most affected areas by COVID-19 in France during the first wave. We tested for the presence of auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs in a cohort of patients admitted for critical COVID-19 pneumonia during the first wave in the spring of 2020 in medicine departments at Robert Ballanger Hospital, Aulnay sous Bois. We found circulating auto-Abs that neutralized 100 pg/mL IFN-α2 and/or IFN-ω in plasma 1/10 in 7.9% (11 of 139) of patients hospitalized for critical COVID-19. The presence of neutralizing auto-Abs was associated with an increased risk of mortality as these auto-Abs were detected in 21% of patients who died from COVID-19 pneumonia. Deceased patients with and without auto-Abs did not present overt clinical differences. These results confirm both the importance of IFN-I immunity in host defense against SARS-CoV-2 infection and the usefulness of detection of auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs in the management of patients.

7.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to critical conditions. Understanding the mechanism underlying life-threatening COVID-19 is instrumental for disease prevention and treatment in individuals with a high risk. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the genetic cause for critical COVID-19 pneumonia in a patient with a preexisting inborn error of immunity (IEI). METHODS: Serum levels of specific antibodies against the virus and autoantibodies against type I interferons (IFNs) were measured. Whole exome sequencing was performed, and the impacts of candidate gene variants were investigated. We also evaluated 247 ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients in the Iranian IEI registry. RESULTS: We report a 7-year-old Iranian boy with a preexisting hyper IgM syndrome who developed critical COVID-19 pneumonia. IgM only specific COVID-19 immune response was detected but no autoantibodies against type I IFN were observed. A homozygous deleterious mutation in the ATM gene was identified, which together with his antibody deficiency, radiosensitivity, and neurological signs, established a diagnosis of A-T. Among the 247 A-T patients evaluated, 36 had SARS-CoV-2 infection, but all had mild symptoms or were asymptomatic except the index patient. A hemizygous deleterious mutation in the TLR7 gene was subsequently identified in the patient. CONCLUSIONS: We report a unique IEI patient with combined ATM and TLR7 deficiencies. The two genetic defects underlie A-T and critical COVID-19 in this patient, respectively.

10.
J Clin Invest ; 131(17)2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623332

RESUMO

We studied a child with severe viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases, who was homozygous for a loss-of-function mutation of REL, encoding c-Rel, which is selectively expressed in lymphoid and myeloid cells. The patient had low frequencies of NK, effector memory cells reexpressing CD45RA (Temra) CD8+ T cells, memory CD4+ T cells, including Th1 and Th1*, Tregs, and memory B cells, whereas the counts and proportions of other leukocyte subsets were normal. Functional deficits of myeloid cells included the abolition of IL-12 and IL-23 production by conventional DC1s (cDC1s) and monocytes, but not cDC2s. c-Rel was also required for induction of CD86 expression on, and thus antigen-presenting cell function of, cDCs. Functional deficits of lymphoid cells included reduced IL-2 production by naive T cells, correlating with low proliferation and survival rates and poor production of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines by memory CD4+ T cells. In naive CD4+ T cells, c-Rel is dispensable for early IL2 induction but contributes to later phases of IL2 expression. The patient's naive B cells displayed impaired MYC and BCL2L1 induction, compromising B cell survival and proliferation and preventing their differentiation into Ig-secreting plasmablasts. Inherited c-Rel deficiency disrupts the development and function of multiple myeloid and lymphoid cells, compromising innate and adaptive immunity to multiple infectious agents.


Assuntos
Genes rel , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-rel/deficiência , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-rel/genética , Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Criança , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Homozigoto , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos/classificação , Linfócitos/imunologia , Mutação , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/terapia , Isoformas de Proteínas
11.
J Clin Invest ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710063

RESUMO

Acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by diverse clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal respiratory failure, and often associated with varied longer-term sequelae. Over the past 18 months, it has become apparent that inappropriate immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Researchers working at the intersection of COVID-19 and autoimmunity recently gathered at an American Autoimmune Related Disease Association (AARDA) Noel R. Rose Colloquium to address the current state of knowledge regarding two important questions: Does established autoimmunity predispose to severe COVID-19? And, at the same time, can SARS-CoV-2 infection trigger de novo autoimmunity? Indeed, work to date has demonstrated that 10 to 15% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia exhibit autoantibodies against type I interferons, suggesting that preexisting autoimmunity underlies severe disease in some patients. Other studies have identified functional autoantibodies following infection with SARS-CoV-2, such as those that promote thrombosis or antagonize cytokine signaling. These autoantibodies may arise from a predominantly extrafollicular B cell response that is more prone to generating autoantibody-secreting B cells. This review highlights the current understanding, evolving concepts, and unanswered questions provided by this unique opportunity to determine mechanisms by which a viral infection can be exacerbated by, and even trigger, autoimmunity. The potential role of autoimmunity in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 is also discussed.

12.
Nat Immunol ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667308

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infections display tremendous interindividual variability, ranging from asymptomatic infections to life-threatening disease. Inborn errors of, and autoantibodies directed against, type I interferons (IFNs) account for about 20% of critical COVID-19 cases among SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. By contrast, the genetic and immunological determinants of resistance to infection per se remain unknown. Following the discovery that autosomal recessive deficiency in the DARC chemokine receptor confers resistance to Plasmodium vivax, autosomal recessive deficiencies of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and the enzyme FUT2 were shown to underlie resistance to HIV-1 and noroviruses, respectively. Along the same lines, we propose a strategy for identifying, recruiting, and genetically analyzing individuals who are naturally resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(45)2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702736

RESUMO

We describe an unvaccinated child at risk for life-threatening COVID-19 due to an inherited deficiency of IRF9, which governs ISGF-3-dependent responses to type I and III interferons (IFN). She was admitted, with a high nasal SARS-CoV-2 load on day 1 of upper respiratory tract infection. She was viremic on day 2 and received casirivimab and imdevimab. Her clinical manifestations and viremia disappeared on days 3 and 4, respectively. Circulating SARS-CoV-2 virus induced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes in leukocytes on day 1, whereas the secretion of blood type I IFNs, which peaked on day 4, did not. Antibody-mediated SARS-CoV-2 neutralization is, therefore, sufficient to overcome a deficiency of antiviral IFNs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/terapia , Fator Gênico 3 Estimulado por Interferon, Subunidade gama/deficiência , Fator Gênico 3 Estimulado por Interferon, Subunidade gama/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Mutação , Carga Viral
14.
Science ; 373(6561): eabi5459, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529464

RESUMO

[Figure: see text].


Assuntos
Micoses , Humanos , Membrana Mucosa
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19015, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561511

RESUMO

Population stratification is a confounder of genetic association studies. In analyses of rare variants, corrections based on principal components (PCs) and linear mixed models (LMMs) yield conflicting conclusions. Studies evaluating these approaches generally focused on limited types of structure and large sample sizes. We investigated the properties of several correction methods through a large simulation study using real exome data, and several within- and between-continent stratification scenarios. We considered different sample sizes, with situations including as few as 50 cases, to account for the analysis of rare disorders. Large samples showed that accounting for stratification was more difficult with a continental than with a worldwide structure. When considering a sample of 50 cases, an inflation of type-I-errors was observed with PCs for small numbers of controls (≤ 100), and with LMMs for large numbers of controls (≥ 1000). We also tested a novel local permutation method (LocPerm), which maintained a correct type-I-error in all situations. Powers were equivalent for all approaches pointing out that the key issue is to properly control type-I-errors. Finally, we found that power of analyses including small numbers of cases can be increased, by adding a large panel of external controls, provided an appropriate stratification correction was used.

16.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(8): 1733-1744, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is important to predict which patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 are at higher risk of life-threatening COVID-19. Several studies suggest that neutralizing auto-antibodies (auto-Abs) against type I interferons (IFNs) are predictive of critical COVID-19 pneumonia. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test for auto-Abs to type I IFN and describe the main characteristics of COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care depending on whether or not these auto-Abs are present. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all COVID-19 patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in whom samples were available, from March 2020 to March 2021, in Barcelona, Spain. RESULTS: A total of 275 (70.5%) out of 390 patients admitted to ICU were tested for type I IFNs auto-antibodies (α2 and/or ω) by ELISA, being positive in 49 (17.8%) of them. Blocking activity of plasma diluted 1/10 for high concentrations (10 ng/mL) of IFNs was proven in 26 (9.5%) patients. Almost all the patients with neutralizing auto-Abs were men (92.3%). ICU patients with positive results for neutralizing IFNs auto-Abs did not show relevant differences in demographic, comorbidities, clinical features, and mortality, when compared with those with negative results. Nevertheless, some laboratory tests (leukocytosis, neutrophilia, thrombocytosis) related with COVID-19 severity, as well as acute kidney injury (17 [65.4%] vs. 100 [40.2%]; p = 0.013) were significantly higher in patients with auto-Abs. CONCLUSION: Auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of type I IFNs were found in 9.5% of patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19 pneumonia in a hospital in Barcelona. These auto-Abs should be tested early upon diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as they account for a significant proportion of life-threatening cases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Autoanticorpos/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Exp Med ; 218(11)2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473196

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant (AD) NFKB1 deficiency is thought to be the most common genetic etiology of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). However, the causal link between NFKB1 variants and CVID has not been demonstrated experimentally and genetically, and there has been insufficient biochemical characterization and enrichment analysis. We show that the cotransfection of NFKB1-deficient HEK293T cells (lacking both p105 and its cleaved form p50) with a κB reporter, NFKB1/p105, and a homodimerization-defective RELA/p65 mutant results in p50:p65 heterodimer-dependent and p65:p65 homodimer-independent transcriptional activation. We found that 59 of the 90 variants in patients with CVID or related conditions were loss of function or hypomorphic. By contrast, 258 of 260 variants in the general population or patients with unrelated conditions were neutral. None of the deleterious variants displayed negative dominance. The enrichment in deleterious NFKB1 variants of patients with CVID was selective and highly significant (P = 2.78 × 10-15). NFKB1 variants disrupting NFKB1/p50 transcriptional activity thus underlie AD CVID by haploinsufficiency, whereas neutral variants in this assay should not be considered causal.

18.
Curr Opin Virol ; 51: 9-15, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555675

RESUMO

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are responsible for cutaneous and mucosal lesions. Persistent HPV infection remains a leading cause of uterine cancer in women, but also of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), and of rare and devastating benign tumors, such as 'tree-man' syndrome. HPV infections are usually asymptomatic or benign in the general population. Severe manifestations in otherwise healthy subjects can attest to inherited immunodeficiencies. The human genetic dissection of these cases has identified critical components of the immune response to HPVs, including the non-redundant roles of keratinocyte-intrinsic immunity in controlling ß-HPVs, and of T cell-dependent adaptive immunity for controlling all HPV types. A key role of the CD28 T-cell costimulation pathway in controlling common warts due to HPVs was recently discovered. This review summarizes the state of the art in the human genetics of HPV infection, focusing on two key affected cell types: keratinocytes and T cells.

19.
J Invest Dermatol ; 141(12): 2791-2796, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561087

RESUMO

Despite thousands of reported patients with pandemic-associated pernio, low rates of seroconversion and PCR positivity have defied causative linkage to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Pernio in uninfected children is associated with monogenic disorders of excessive IFN-1 immunity, whereas severe COVID-19 pneumonia can result from insufficient IFN-1. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and robust IFN-1 response are seen in the skin of patients with pandemic-associated pernio, suggesting an excessive innate immune skin response to SARS-CoV-2. Understanding the pathophysiology of this phenomenon may elucidate the host mechanisms that drive a resilient immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and could produce relevant therapeutic targets.

20.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(8): e1327, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429968

RESUMO

Objectives: Impairment of type I interferon (IFN-I) immunity has been reported in critically ill COVID-19 patients. This defect can be explained in a subset of patients by the presence of circulating autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against IFN-I. We set out to improve the detection and the quantification of IFN-I auto-Abs in a cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients, in order to better evaluate the prevalence of these Abs as the pandemic progresses, and how they correlate with the clinical course of the disease. Methods: The concentration of anti-IFN-α2 Abs was determined in the serum of 84 critically ill COVID-19 patients who were admitted to ICU in Hospices Civils de Lyon, France, using a commercially available kit (Thermo Fisher, Catalog #BMS217). Results: A total of 21 of 84 (25%) critically ill COVID-19 patients had circulating anti-IFN-α2 Abs above cut-off (> 34 ng mL-1). Among them, 15 of 21 had Abs with neutralising activity against IFN-α2, that is 15 of 84 (18%) critically ill patients. In addition, we noticed an impairment of the IFN-I response in the majority of patients with neutralising anti-IFN-α2 Abs. There was no significant difference in the clinical characteristics or outcome of with or without neutralising anti-IFN-α2 auto-Abs. We detected anti-IFN-α2 auto-Abs in COVID-19 patients' sera throughout their ICU stay. Finally, we also found auto-Abs against multiple subtypes of IFN-I including IFN-ω. Conclusions: We reported that 18% of critically ill COVID-19 patients were positive for IFN-I auto-Abs, whereas all mild COVID-19 patients were negative, confirming that the presence of these antibodies is associated with a higher risk of developing a critical COVID-19 form.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...