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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21622, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898997

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to characterize self-reported oral hygiene practices among Mexican older adults aged ≥60 years, and to measure the association between frequency of tooth brushing and a set of sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and dental variables.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 139 older adults aged ≥60 years in Pachuca, Mexico. A questionnaire and a clinical dental examination were administered to identify specific variables. We determined frequency of tooth brushing (or cleaning of dentures or prostheses) and use of toothpaste, mouthwash, and dental floss among respondents. Non-parametric testing was performed for statistical analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model was generated with Stata 11 software to determine frequency of tooth brushing.In our study sample, 53.2% of participants reported brushing their teeth at least once a day, 50.4% always using toothpaste, 16.5% using mouthwash and 3.6% using floss for their oral hygiene. In general, younger and female respondents used oral hygiene aids more than the others. Our multivariate model yielded an association (P < .05) between tooth brushing at least once daily and the following variables: having functional dentition (OR = 12.60), lacking health insurance (OR = 3.72), being retired/pensioned (OR = 4.50), and suffering from a chronic disease (OR = 0.43).The older adults in our sample exhibited deficient oral hygiene behaviors. The results suggest certain socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. The findings of this study should be considered when designing dental care instructions for older adults.


Assuntos
Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cremes Dentais/administração & dosagem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e19061, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000455

RESUMO

To analyze whether a correlation exists between the caries status (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth, DMFT Index) of the first permanent molars (FPMs) and that of the full permanent dentition of Mexican adolescents, and to propose its use in large epidemiological studies of dental caries.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1538 adolescents from 12 to 15 years old. Based on a clinical oral examination, we determined the DMFT Indices of their FPMs (FPM-DMFT) and of their full permanent dentition (comprehensive DMFT Index). We explored each FPM to determine whether it was with or without caries, filled, missing or sealed. For our statistical analysis, we used Fisher exact test and Spearman correlation in Stata software.After examining a total of 6157 FPMs, we found that 56.8% of our sample of adolescents had no caries in their 4 FPMs whereas 4.9% experienced caries in all 4. No significant differences emerged by sex (P > .05); however, by age, the older adolescents experienced greater FPM-DMFT (P < .05). Analysis yielded a correlation of r = 0.8693 between the FPM-DMFT and comprehensive DMFT scores (P < .0001) of participants. The underestimation of caries prevalence (DMFT > 0) was 5.4% (48.6% vs 43.2%), while the DMFT Index was underestimated at 0.34 (1.15 vs 0.81).The strong correlation between the FPM-DMFT and comprehensive DMFT Indices suggests that overall caries status can be inferred on the basis of FPM caries status. This evidence is useful when conducting large epidemiological studies such as national surveys.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Dentição Permanente , Dente Molar , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16634, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348316

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dental caries is the most frequent oral disease worldwide and the main cause of tooth loss in children and young adults. One of the most frequently affected areas is the occlusal surfaces of the first permanent molars (FPM) due to their morphological complexity. At present, several preventive treatments can reduce the incidence of this disease in school populations. In Mexico, the most commonly used technologies are those derived from some presentation of fluoride; on the other hand, research on this topic has been limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of two different methods for preventing the incidence of caries on the FPM of schoolchildren (6-8 years of age) from public primary schools. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a randomized experimental design. Participants will be assigned to two treatment groups of 114 each. In the first group, pit and fissure sealants will be applied, whereas the second group will receive a fluoride varnish. The work will be carried out in schoolchildren that attend public elementary schools in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. The result variable will be the incidence of caries and the total cost of each of the interventions will be calculated in order to calculate the intervention's cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSION: This work will allow us to compare the cost-effectiveness of the pit and fissure sealants and the fluoride varnish in order to determine which offers the best results.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoretos Tópicos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos Tópicos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , México , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/economia , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 219-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787597

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the distribution of various indicators of oral health among elderly people with and without multimorbidity (ie, two or more chronic diseases). Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted using a sample of Mexican elderly individuals aged ≥60 years. The average age of the cohort was 79.06±9.78 years, and 69.1% were women. The variables indicating oral health were as follows: functional dentition, edentulism, hyposalivation, xerostomia, root caries and periodontitis. The multimorbidity variable was operationally categorized as follows: 0= subjects with no chronic disease or one chronic disease and 1= subjects with two or more chronic diseases. Questionnaires were used to collect information on various variables regarding general health. Likewise, the participants underwent a clinical oral examination. The analysis was performed using Stata 11.0. Results: The overall prevalence of multimorbidity was 27.3%. The prevalences of various oral health indicators were as follows: without functional dentition 89.9%; hyposalivation 59.7%; edentulism 38.9% and self-reported xerostomia 25.2%. Dental caries were observed in 95.3% of the subjects, and the prevalence of severe periodontitis was 80%. We found a significant difference only in edentulism; its prevalence was higher among subjects with multimorbidity (55.3% vs 32.7%, P=0.015) than among those without multimorbidity. Conclusion: The presence of edentulism in this sample of Mexican older adults was higher in subjects with multimorbidity. Multimorbidity and oral diseases constitute a true challenge in elderly people, because they affect quality of life and are associated with high health care costs.


Assuntos
Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Multimorbidade , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca Edêntula/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
P R Health Sci J ; 36(3): 146-151, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of functional dentition and associated periodontal variables in a sample of Mexican adult males. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 161 policemen in Campeche, Mexico, was carried out. A clinical examination using an electronic probe was used to collect variables (dental plaque, periodontal pockets, gingival recession, suppuration, and bleeding on probing) on 6 periodontal sites (a maximum of 168 sites, excluding third molars). Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables were collected through a self-administered survey. Functional dentition was defined as having 21 or more natural teeth. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0, using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Mean age was 38.3 (±10.9) years. The prevalence of having a functional dentition was 83.8% in the sample. The odds of having a functional dentition declined with age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.93), having diabetes (OR = 0.27) and with having a high percentage of sites with plaque (OR = 0.77), with bleeding on probing (OR = 0.97), and with gingival recession (OR = 0.82). CONCLUSION: While a large proportion of subjects had a functional dentition in this community-dwelling sample of adult Mexican males, the likelihood of their having a functional dentition decreased with age, with their having been diagnosed with diabetes, and with assorted negative indicators of periodontal/gingival status.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Dentição , Retração Gengival/epidemiologia , Bolsa Periodontal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polícia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and associated factors of visits to the dentist in the last year by Nicaraguan schoolchildren to receive professionally applied topical fluoride (PATF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed in children from public schools in the city of León, Nicaragua, were included. A series of socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and behavioural variables were collected through a questionnaire. The dependent variable was the visit to the dentist to receive professionally applied topical fluoride in the last year, which was dichotomised as (0) Did not receive PATF and (1) Yes received PATF. In the statistical analysis, binary logistic regression was used. RESULTS: The mean age of the students included was 9 years, and 49.9% were girls. The prevalence of visits to the dentist in the last year to receive PATF was 3.1%. In the multivariate model, the associated characteristics (p < 0.05) were: female (OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.34-4.50); the positive attitude of the mother to the oral health of her child (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.03-4.50); and the best socioeconomic position (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.36-5.31). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of visits to the dentist in the last year to receive professionally applied topical fluoride was very low (3.1%). The results of the socioeconomic position suggest the existence of certain inequalities in oral health. It is necessary to implement policies and programs aimed at improving this scenario.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Fluoretos Tópicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Assistência Odontológica , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nicarágua , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
PeerJ ; 4: e2015, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27441103

RESUMO

Background. Tooth loss is an easily identifiable outcome that summarizes a complex suite of factors in an individual's history of dental disease and its treatment by dental services over a lifetime. Assessment of overall tooth loss data is essential for epidemiologically evaluating the adequacy of dental care provided at a systems level, as well as for placing in context tooth loss for non-disease causes. For example, when derived from prosthetic treatment planning, the latter may unfortunately lead to some teeth being extracted (pulled) for the sake of better comprehensive clinical results. The objective of the present manuscript was to identify the contribution to overall tooth loss, by extraction of permanent teeth because of prosthetic treatment reasons. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study included sex, age, total number of extractions performed by subject, sextant (anterior vs. posterior), group of teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars), upper or lower arch, and the main reason underlying extraction (extraction for any reason vs. prosthetic treatment), in patients 18 years of age and older seeking care at a dental school clinic in Mexico. A multivariate logistic regression model was generated. Results. A total of 749 teeth were extracted in 331 patients; 161 teeth (21.5% of total) were extracted for explicit prosthetic treatment indications. As age increased, the likelihood of having an extraction for prosthetic reasons increased 3% (OR = 1.03, p < 0.001). Women (OR = 1.57, p < 0.05) were more likely to be in this situation, and molars (OR = 2.70, p < 0.001) were most at risk. As the total number of extractions increased, the risk of having an extraction for prosthetic reasons decreased (OR = 0.94, p < 0.05). Conclusions. A significant amount (21.5%) of the extractions of permanent teeth were performed for prosthetic reasons in this dental school clinical environment; age, sex, type of tooth, and the total number of extractions moderated such pattern.

8.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 47(3): 291-299, sep.-dic. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-768102

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar la gravedad de caries (tamaño de la lesión) y las variables asociadas en niños escolares mexicanos. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 1373 escolares de 6 a 12 años de edad inscritos en escuelas públicas de Campeche, México. Se distribuyeron cuestionarios para determinar una serie de variables sociodemográficas, socioeconómicas y conductuales. Se realizó un examen bucal a cada niño para establecer el tamaño de las lesiones de caries de acuerdo al índice llamado "criterio de magnitud de la lesión cariosa" y asignarlo de acuerdo al número de lesiones presentes a uno de 4 grupos de riesgo para desarrollar caries, en donde el primer grupo representa a los menos afectados. Se generó un modelo multivariado de regresión logística multinomial. Resultados: Los grupos de riesgo a caries quedaron distribuidos de la siguiente manera: 598 (43.6%) fueron del grupo 1; 261 (19.0%) se asignaron al grupo 2; 316 (23.0%) estuvieron en el grupo 3; y 198 (14.4%) en el grupo 4. Comparando con el grupo menos afectado por lesiones cariosas, las variables asociadas en los diferentes grupos de gravedad en el modelo multivariado fueron: grupo de riesgo 2: edad, sexo y defectos de desarrollo del esmalte; grupo de riesgo 3: atención dental en el último año, actitud de la madre hacia la salud bucal y defectos de desarrollo del esmalte; grupo de riesgo 4: edad, atención dental en el último año, actitud de la madre hacia la salud bucal y defectos de desarrollo del esmalte. Conclusión: La gravedad de caries está influenciada por variables demográficas, conductuales y clínicas.


Objective: To determine the severity of caries (lesion size) and associated variables in Mexican schoolchildren. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1373 schoolchildren 6-12 years old enrolled in public schools in Campeche, Mexico. Questionnaires were distributed to determine demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables. Dental examination was performed to each child to establish the size of caries lesions according "Criterion of carious lesion magnitude" index and to allocate according to the number of lesions present to one of four risk groups for developing cavities wherein the first group represents the least affected. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression model was generated. Results: Caries risk groups were distributed as follows: 598 (43.6%) were in group 1; 261 (19.0%) were assigned to group 2; 316 (23.0%) were in group 3; and 198 (14.4%) in group 4. Comparing with the least affected group by carious lesions, associated variables for severity in the multivariate model were "Risk Group 2": age, sex and developmental enamel defects; "Risk Group 3": dental care in the past year, mother's attitude toward oral health and developmental enamel defects; "Risk Group 4": age, dental care in the past year, mother's attitude toward oral health and developmental enamel defects. Conclusion: Severity of decay is influenced by demographic, behavioral and clinical variables.

9.
Med Sci Monit ; 20: 938-44, 2014 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24907713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tooth brushing (with fluoridated toothpaste) is the most cost-effective intervention in dentistry and it is widely recommended to preserve good oral health. We aimed to determine the frequency of tooth brushing and the variables associated with this practice in schoolchildren living in southeast Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1644 schoolchildren, 6 to 13 years old. Questionnaires with socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and dental variables were administered to mothers/guardians of children. The dependent variable was the frequency of tooth brushing, which was categorized as 0 = tooth brushing less than once a day and 1 = tooth brushing at least once a day. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the final results. RESULTS: Mean age was 9.06±2.02 years and 49.1% were girls. The prevalence of tooth brushing at least once a day was 49.8%. In the multivariate model, characteristics related to tooth brushing frequency (p<0.05) were: older age (OR=1.11), being female (OR=1.64), having a larger family (OR=0.87), having had a visit to a dentist during the year preceding the study (OR=1.37), and having had fluoride applications by a professional (OR=1.39). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that different variables (demographic, socioeconomic and dental) are associated with the frequency of tooth brushing. Family size (proxy variable for socioeconomic status) may indicate certain oral health inequalities in this population.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Gac Med Mex ; 149(1): 27-35, 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23435073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to determine the effect of birth cohort on dental fluorosis in Mexican schoolchildren during the implementation of the national program to fluoridate domestic salt. MATERIAL AND METHODS: in a cross-sectional study we examined 1,644 schoolchildren 6-13 years old born between 1985-1992 in Campeche, México; a community where there is negligible naturally available fluoride in water supplies. Dental fluorosis was assessed with the Dean's index in the permanent dentition. Questionnaires were used to identify diverse socio-demographic and socio-economic variables. In the statistical analysis logistic regression was used. RESULTS: the prevalence of fluorosis was 15.5%. In the multivariate model,we observed fluorosis was associated with larger family sizes (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84-0.99) and female sex (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.57-0.98). Furthermore, using the cohort of 1985 as a comparison group, no significant dental fluorosis differences were found with those born between 1986-1987; in contrast, in the cohorts born between 1989-1992 the risk of dental fluorosis increased by almost four times (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: the prevalence of fluorosis was low compared to other studies in Mexico. In this community with negligible fluoride in water supplies the likelihood of dental fluorosis increased as the windows of susceptibility in birth cohorts were closer to the chronologic beginning of the national domestic salt fluoridation program in 1991. This trend was more apparent after 1991.


Assuntos
Fluoretação , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Fluorose Dentária/prevenção & controle , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Masculino , México , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência
11.
CES odontol ; 25(1): 22-31, ene.-jun. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-652816

RESUMO

Introducción y ObjetivoLos defectos de desarrollo del esmalte (DDE) son alteraciones del esmalte dental que resulta de diversosdisturbios durante la amelogénesis.Determinar el impacto de la posición socioeconómica (PSE) sobre los DDE en la dentición primaria deniños escolares de 6 a 9 años de edad.Material y MétodosSe realizó un estudio transversal en 925 escolares de seis a nueve años de edad. El criterio utilizado paraDDE fue el propuesto por la Federación Dental Internacional, específicamente las opacidades marcadasy difusas e hipoplasias, excluyendo fluorosis dental y otras decoloraciones, a través de un examen clínicorealizado por tres examinadores previamente estandarizados (kappa> 0,80). Se utilizó un cuestionariodirigido a las madres/tutores de los niños se recogieron diversas variables sociodemográficas ysocioeconómicas. La PSE fue determinada con la ocupación y escolaridad de los padres. El análisisestadístico se realizó calculando razones de momios con regresión logística en STATA 9.0.ResultadosLa edad promedio fue 7,56±1,13 años y 50,3% fueron varones. El promedio de DDE fue 0,17±0,75, y laprevalencia de 9,9%. En el análisis multivariado de regresión logística, se observó que los momios depresentar DDE en los dientes primarios aumentaron (p<0,05) en los niños de 8-9 años, en los que visitanal dentista con mayor frecuencia y los de peor PSE.ConclusionesEste estudio permitió identificar que la PSE tiene un impacto en la presencia de DDE en la denticiónprimaria. Es necesario realizar más estudios que confirmen esta asociación y clarifiquen la relación,preferentemente de tipo longitudinal.


Introduction and objectiveDevelopmental enamel defects (DED) can be defined as any alteration of tooth enamel resulting fromvarious disturbances during amelogenesis. The objective of this report was to determine the impact ofsocioeconomic position (SEP) on the DEDin primary teeth of 6 to 9 year old school children.Material and MethodsA cross-sectional study in 925 school children from six to nine years old was carried out. The diagnosticcriteria used for DED was proposed by the FDI, specifically marked and diffuse opacities and hypoplasia,excluding dental fluorosis and other discolorations, through a clinical examination conducted by threetrained and calibrated examiners (kappa> 0,80). Sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables werecollected through a questionnaire directed to mothers / guardians of children. Socioeconomic position(SEP) was determined with the parental occupation and schooling. Statistical analysis was performed bycalculating odds ratios with logistic regression in STATA 9.0.ResultsThe mean age was 7,56±1,13 years and 50,3% were male. Average DED was 0,17 ± 0,75, and theprevalence of 9,9%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds presenting DED inprimary teeth increased (p <0,05) in children between 8-9 years old, visiting the dentist more often andthe worst SEP.ConclusionsThis study has shown that the PSE has an impact on the presence of DED in the primary dentition.Further studies, which are preferably longitudinal, are needed to confirm this association and clarify therelationship.


Assuntos
Humanos , Esmalte Dentário , Saúde Bucal , Dente Decíduo
12.
Gac Med Mex ; 146(4): 264-8, 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20964069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identify the variables associated with periodontal status and tooth loss among a sample of adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study among 161 policemen. Our sample was representative of socioeconomics status and lifestyle among policemen in Campeche, Mexico. All periodontal clinical examinations were assessed using the Florida Probe System using a fixed dental chair and one examiner. The variables we measured included presence of dental plaque, calculus, probing deep, gingival insertion, loss of attachment, gingival retraction, suppuration, and probing blood. We examined six sites surrounding all teeth available in the mouth (maximum 168 sites and excluded third molars). Statistical analyses were performed with STATA 8.2 using a bivariate negative binomial regression model due to over-dispersion in the dependent variable. RESULTS: The mean age was 38.36 +/- 10.99 (range: 20-78). The mean of tooth and sites examined in participants was 24.45 +/- 4.63 and 146.72 +/- 27.80, respectively. The prevalence of tooth loss was 73.3%. 571 teeth were missing and the overall mean of missing teeth was 3.55 +/- 4.63 and within subjects with tooth loss was 4.84 +/- 4.80. The prevalence of functional dentition (21 tooth or more) was 83.8%. To have > 20% gingivitis, > 5% of sites with probing deep > or = 4 mm, > 5% of sites with gingival retraction, > 70% of sites with attachment loss > 2 mm, and each unit of age increase the mean expected of tooth loss by 70.6%, 41.8, 156.4%, 86.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study findings confirm that lost teeth are common among study participants. Higher prevalence and average of tooth loss was observed among this adult population. Several variables of periodontal status were associated with tooth loss.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Polícia , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Orofac Pain ; 24(3): 279-86, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20664829

RESUMO

AIMS: To identify the effect of unmet dental treatment needs and socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables on the patterns of dental visits in the presence of dental pain in 6- to 12-year-old Mexican schoolchildren. METHODS: A case-control study included 379 patients that had a dental visit because of dental pain in the 12 months preceding this study and 1,137 controls. Mothers and/or guardians supplied sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and oral health-related information through a questionnaire. The profiles of unmet dental needs and of oral hygiene were ascertained by means of a standardized dental examination administered to participating children. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher unmet dental needs and lack of health insurance were associated with the experience of dental visits because of dental pain in the preceding 12 months. Boys who attended public schools had a 70% (95% CI = 1.29 to 2.23) higher probability of having had a dental visit in which dental pain was one of the main reasons for attendance, compared to boys attending private schools. The effect for girls was only 28% (95% CI = 1.10 to 1.50) higher for girls attending a public school, compared to girls attending private schools. Older children had a higher occurrence of dental visits because of dental pain than younger children. CONCLUSIONS: While higher unmet dental needs and lack of health insurance were strong predictors of having had dental visits because of dental pain in the preceding 12 months, some socioeconomic variables and sociodemographic variables modified these relationships.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Odontalgia/terapia , Fatores Etários , Automóveis , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Índice CPO , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , México , Ocupações , Higiene Bucal , Índice de Higiene Oral , Propriedade , Pais/educação , Setor Privado , Setor Público , Fatores Sexuais , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Cad Saude Publica ; 25(12): 2621-31, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20191153

RESUMO

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic indicators and use of dental services in a sample of 3,048 Mexican schoolchildren. The dependent variable 'use of dental services' and independent variables were collected through a questionnaire addressed to mothers. To determine oral health needs, a clinical oral examination was performed. The adjusted associations were evaluated using polytomous logistic regression. Adjusted by gender, the categories associated with both preventive and curative services were age, greater frequency of brushing, earlier initiation of brushing, healthcare coverage, and better socioeconomic status. In addition, for preventive services only, use of services was associated with enrolment in private school, and for curative services only, family's possession of an automobile and having moderate to high oral health needs. The results suggest the existence of socioeconomic inequalities in the use of both preventive and curative dental services by Mexican children.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , México , Previdência Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Gac Sanit ; 21(3): 227-34, 2007.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17565898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the presence of enamel defects, dental caries in primary teeth, and exposure to various fluoride technologies and the presence of dental caries in permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 713 children aged 6-9 years old in 4 elementary schools in Campeche, Mexico through the use of a questionnaire for the mothers and an oral examination in the children. The dependent variable was the prevalence of caries in permanent dentition. RESULTS: The mean number of decay, missing or filling teeth in primary dentition (dmft) and in permanent dentition (DMFT) was 2.48 (2.82) (deft > 0 = 58.9%) and 0.40 (0.98) (DMFT > 0 = 18.2%), respectively. The significant caries index (SiC), which is calculated in deciduous dentition, was 5.85 for 6 year-olds. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for variables related to fluoride exposure revealed that older age (OR = 2.99), a deft of > 0 (OR = 5.46), and lower maternal educational level (OR = 1.57) were significantly associated with a higher number of dental caries in permanent teeth. An interaction between sex and enamel defects was also found. CONCLUSIONS: The number of dental caries in both primary and permanent dentitions was relatively smaller than that found in prior studies performed in Mexican populations. The results confirm that the presence of caries in primary dentition is strongly associated with caries in permanent dentition. No significant relationship was found between fluoride exposure and dental caries in permanent dentition.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Esmalte Dentário/anormalidades , Fluoretação , Fatores Etários , Criança , Índice CPO , Dentição Permanente , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Dente Decíduo
16.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 21(3): 227-234, mayo 2007. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-058955

RESUMO

Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre la presencia de defectos del esmalte (DE), la experiencia de caries en la dentición temporal, y la exposición a diversas fuentes de fluoruros, con la presencia de caries en la dentición permanente de niños con dentición mixta. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 713 sujetos de 6-9 años de edad de 4 escuelas de Campeche, México, mediante un cuestionario dirigido a las madres, y un examen clínico bucal a los niños. La variable dependiente fue la prevalencia de caries en la dentición permanente. Resultados: El promedio de dientes temporales cariados, extraídos y obturados (ceod) y dientes permanentes cariados, perdidos y obturados (CPOD) fue de 2,48 (2,82) (ceod > 0 = 58,9%) y 0,40 (0,98) (CPOD > 0 = 18,2%), respectivamente. El índice SiC (índice de caries significativa, calculado en la dentición temporal) fue de 5,85 para los niños de 6 años de edad. En el análisis de regresión logística multivariado permanecieron significativas, después de ajustar por variables de exposición a fluoruros, la mayor edad (odds ratio [OR] = 2,99), el ceod > 0 (OR = 5,46), la menor escolaridad de la madre (OR = 1,57) y una interacción entre sexo y defectos del esmalte. Conclusiones: Las caries en la dentición temporal y permanente fueron relativamente menores que las observaciones publicadas por otros estudios en México. Los resultados confirmaron que la caries en la dentición temporal se asoció fuertemente con la caries en la dentición permanente. No hubo una relación significativa entre las fuentes de fluoruro y la caries dental en la dentición permanente


Objective: To examine the relationship between the presence of enamel defects, dental caries in primary teeth, and exposure to various fluoride technologies and the presence of dental caries in permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 713 children aged 6-9 years old in 4 elementary schools in Campeche, Mexico through the use of a questionnaire for the mothers and an oral examination in the children. The dependent variable was the prevalence of caries in permanent dentition. Results: The mean number of decay, missing or filling teeth in primary dentition (dmft) and in permanent dentition (DMFT) was 2.48 (2.82) (deft > 0 = 58.9%) and 0.40 (0.98) (DMFT > 0 = 18.2%), respectively. The significant caries index (SiC), which is calculated in deciduous dentition, was 5.85 for 6 year-olds. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for variables related to fluoride exposure revealed that older age (OR = 2.99), a deft of > 0 (OR = 5.46), and lower maternal educational level (OR = 1.57) were significantly associated with a higher number of dental caries in permanent teeth. An interaction between sex and enamel defects was also found. Conclusions: The number of dental caries in both primary and permanent dentitions was relatively smaller than that found in prior studies performed in Mexican populations. The results confirm that the presence of caries in primary dentition is strongly associated with caries in permanent dentition. No significant relationship was found between fluoride exposure and dental caries in permanent dentition


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Dentárias/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Fluoretação/estatística & dados numéricos , Dente Decíduo/lesões , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Higiene Oral , Esmalte Dentário/lesões
17.
Rev Invest Clin ; 58(4): 296-304, 2006.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17146941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between caries indices in primary and permanent dentition and socioeconomic indicators at the individual and ecologic levels in 6-12 year old children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative analysis of two datasets depicting oral health status in Campeche, México, with 2,939 children distributed equally by age and sex, was carried out. Oral health indices were contrasted at different cut-off points in primary and permanent dentitions (dmft, DMFT, dmft+DMFT and SiC indices) with independent variables such as place of residence (urban, marginal-urban) and mother's highest level of schooling (years of formal education) as socioeconomic variables (SES), as well as other sociodemographic variables using models of binary logistic regression in STATA 8.2. RESULTS: The mean age was 8.85 +/- 1.83 years and 56.6% were girls. Nine models were generated in which changes in socioeconomic variables were linked to changes in oral health features in this community (both in terms of prevalence and severity), except for DMFT > 0 at 12 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: In general, children of lower SES had greater caries experience and higher caries severity, in both primary and permanent dentitions. The relationships between oral health disparities and independent variables were confirmed in children living in geographically contiguous areas.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Rev. invest. clín ; 58(4): 296-304, jul.-ago. 2006. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-632377

RESUMO

Objective. To explore the association between caries indices in primary and permanent dentition and socioeconomic indicators at the individual and ecologic levels in 6-12 year old children. Materials and methods. A comparative analysis of two dataseis depicting oral health status in Campeche, México, with 2,939 children distributed equally by age and sex, was carried out. Oral health indices were contrasted at different cut-off points in primary and permanent dentitions (dmft, DMFT, dmft+DMFT and SiC indices) with independent variables such as place of residence (urban, marginal-urban) and mother's highest level of schooling (years of formal education) as socioeconomic variables (SES), as well as other sociodemographic variables using models of binary logistic regression in STATA 8.2®. Results. The mean age was 8.85 ± 1.83 years and 56.6% were girls. Nine models were generated in which changes in socioeconomic variables were linked to changes in oral health features in this community (both in terms of prevalence and severity), except for DMFT > 0 at 12 years of age. Conclusions. In general, children of lower SES had greater caries experience and higher caries severity, in both primary and permanent dentitions. The relationships between oral health disparities and independent variables were confirmed in children living in geographically contiguous areas.


Objetivos. Explorar la existencia de desigualdades en la salud bucal a través de indicadores socioeconómicos, a nivel individual y ecológico, en una población de niños de seis a 12 años de edad. Material y métodos. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de dos estudios transversales de salud bucal en Campeche, México. Se incluyeron 2,939 niños distribuidos de igual manera por edad y sexo. Los resultados de dichos estudios fueron combinados y usados para explorar desigualdades socioeconómicas en salud bucal. La salud bucal fue medida a través de diferentes puntos de corte en índices de caries (ceod, CPOD, ceod + CPOD y SiC). Las variables independientes incluidas en el estudio fueron el área de residencia (urbana, conurbana) y la escolaridad de la madre (años de estudio), así como otras variables sociodemográficas que sirvieron para ajustar los modelos. Se generaron modelos de regresión logística binaria en STATA 8.2®. Resultados. Los nueve modelos generados revelaron que los cambios en las variables socioeconómicas se relacionaron con las manifestaciones de salud bucal en esta comunidad, tanto en términos de prevalencia como de severidad. La única excepción fue al comparar el indicador de caries CPOD > 0 a los 12 años de edad. Conclusiones. En general, los niños de menor posición socioeconómica tuvieron mayor experiencia y severidad de caries dental en la dentición temporal y permanente. Las discrepancias encontradas de los indicadores de caries a través de las variables independientes de interés ponen en evidencia las desigualdades sociales en salud bucal entre grupos viviendo en localidades contiguas.


Assuntos
Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Estudos Transversais , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Clin Oral Investig ; 10(1): 42-9, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16311741

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a university sample of Campeche, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 506 subjects aged 14-25 years. The subjects were requested to answer questionnaires concerning sociodemographic variables, history of stress, lifestyle, and anxiety. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) was used as TMD diagnostic system by four examiners capacitated and standardized. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression in STATA. The results showed that 46.1% of the subjects exhibited some grade of TMD. Logistic regression analysis with TMD as the dependent variable identified sex (women odds ratio [OR]=1.7), bruxism (OR=1.5), anxiety (OR=1.6), unilateral chewing (OR=1.5), and an interaction between number of tooth loss and stress as the most significant associated variables, thus (1) the effect of having high levels of stress in the group of subjects without tooth loss (OR=1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.7-1.8) and (2) the effect of having high levels of stress in the group of subjects with at least one tooth lost (OR=2.4; 95% CI=1.01-5.9). The variables associated with diagnosis of pain were principally psychosocial (stress and anxiety), whereas for the non-pain diagnosis group, the variables were clinical, such as bruxism, chewing site preference, and restorations in mouth. We found associations among variables that were similar to findings in other studies, such as bruxism, tooth loss, stress, and anxiety. The final model explains that the effect of stress on TMD depends of the tooth loss, controlling for sex, bruxism, unilateral chewing, and anxiety. Finally, it can be concluded that the variables associated with pain and non-pain diagnosis were of distinct nature.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Bruxismo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Restauração Dentária Permanente/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Mastigação , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Fisiológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia
20.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 6(3): 70-7, 2005 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16127474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine: (1) the prevalence of tooth loss in persons living in community dwellings and (2) the strength of the association identified between tooth loss experience and the psychosocial factors of lifestyle, stress, and anxiety. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a convenience sample where data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires of lifestyle and psychosocial factors (stress and anxiety) and a clinical examination. A total of 516 subjects aged 14-30 years of age were included in the study. Subjects had a visual dental examination. Prevalence and mean of tooth loss were calculated excluding third molars, and their related factors were adjusted in a binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 17.4+/-3.0 years; 45.5% were men. The prevalence of tooth loss (when at least one tooth was lost) was 20.5%. Among the 516 persons, a total of 201 teeth were lost with a mean tooth loss 0.39+/-0.95 overall. Mean tooth loss in subjects with at least one missing tooth was 1.90+/-1.26 teeth. Results adjusted by anxiety in the multivariate logistic regression model showed tooth loss was associated with lifestyle (OR=1.95, 95% CI=1.17 - 3.24), age (OR=2.65, 95% CI=1.64 - 4.26), and Angle's malocclusion II and III (OR=2.86; 95% CI=1.67 - 4.90). A slight association toward tooth loss was observed (p<0.10) in the sex and stress variables. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle and tooth loss have a substantial association. According to age group, these results suggest tooth loss is an oral health problem in the study population.


Assuntos
Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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