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1.
Cranio ; : 1-6, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407059

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the association between temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and malocclusion complexity using the Index of Complexity Outcome and Need (ICON) levels. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, case and control study was done. Cases and controls were matched in a one-to-one relationship (179 subjects each). The Research Diagnostic Criteria was used to evaluate the presence of TMD, and the ICON was used to quantify malocclusion complexity. A binary logistic regression (p < 0.05) was used to identify associations between variables. Results: TMD presence was associated with gender and malocclusion complexity (p < 0.05). The largest proportion of controls were in the lowest three levels of ICON complexity, while most cases were in the three highest levels (p < 0.001). Higher malocclusion complexity indicated a greater TMD risk. Conclusion: The results indicate that TMD is associated with malocclusion complexity. As malocclusion complexity increases, so do the odds of presenting with TMD.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21622, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898997

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to characterize self-reported oral hygiene practices among Mexican older adults aged ≥60 years, and to measure the association between frequency of tooth brushing and a set of sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and dental variables.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 139 older adults aged ≥60 years in Pachuca, Mexico. A questionnaire and a clinical dental examination were administered to identify specific variables. We determined frequency of tooth brushing (or cleaning of dentures or prostheses) and use of toothpaste, mouthwash, and dental floss among respondents. Non-parametric testing was performed for statistical analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model was generated with Stata 11 software to determine frequency of tooth brushing.In our study sample, 53.2% of participants reported brushing their teeth at least once a day, 50.4% always using toothpaste, 16.5% using mouthwash and 3.6% using floss for their oral hygiene. In general, younger and female respondents used oral hygiene aids more than the others. Our multivariate model yielded an association (P < .05) between tooth brushing at least once daily and the following variables: having functional dentition (OR = 12.60), lacking health insurance (OR = 3.72), being retired/pensioned (OR = 4.50), and suffering from a chronic disease (OR = 0.43).The older adults in our sample exhibited deficient oral hygiene behaviors. The results suggest certain socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. The findings of this study should be considered when designing dental care instructions for older adults.


Assuntos
Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cremes Dentais/administração & dosagem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e19061, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000455

RESUMO

To analyze whether a correlation exists between the caries status (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth, DMFT Index) of the first permanent molars (FPMs) and that of the full permanent dentition of Mexican adolescents, and to propose its use in large epidemiological studies of dental caries.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1538 adolescents from 12 to 15 years old. Based on a clinical oral examination, we determined the DMFT Indices of their FPMs (FPM-DMFT) and of their full permanent dentition (comprehensive DMFT Index). We explored each FPM to determine whether it was with or without caries, filled, missing or sealed. For our statistical analysis, we used Fisher exact test and Spearman correlation in Stata software.After examining a total of 6157 FPMs, we found that 56.8% of our sample of adolescents had no caries in their 4 FPMs whereas 4.9% experienced caries in all 4. No significant differences emerged by sex (P > .05); however, by age, the older adolescents experienced greater FPM-DMFT (P < .05). Analysis yielded a correlation of r = 0.8693 between the FPM-DMFT and comprehensive DMFT scores (P < .0001) of participants. The underestimation of caries prevalence (DMFT > 0) was 5.4% (48.6% vs 43.2%), while the DMFT Index was underestimated at 0.34 (1.15 vs 0.81).The strong correlation between the FPM-DMFT and comprehensive DMFT Indices suggests that overall caries status can be inferred on the basis of FPM caries status. This evidence is useful when conducting large epidemiological studies such as national surveys.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Dentição Permanente , Dente Molar , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e027101, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to identify preventive and curative dental health service utilisation (DHSU) in the context of associated clinical and non-clinical factors among adolescents and young adults in Mexico. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Applicants to a public university in Mexico. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 638 adolescents and young adults aged 16-25 randomly selected from university applicants. INTERVENTIONS: Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire filled out by the students. For assessment of dental caries experience, we used the index of decayed, missing and filled teeth. PRIMARY OUTCOME: The dependent variable was DHSU in the previous 12 months, coded as 0=non-use, 1=use of curative services and 2=use of preventive services. RESULTS: The mean age was 18.76±1.76 years, and 49.2% were women. The prevalence of DHSU was 40.9% (95% CI 37.1 to 44.8) for curative services and 22.9% (95% CI 19.7 to 26.3) for preventive services. The variables associated with curative services were age, sex, mother's education, dental pain in the previous 12 months, caries experience, use of self-care devices and oral health knowledge. For preventive services, the variables associated were mother's education, dental pain in the previous 12 months, caries experience, use of self-care devices and self-perception of oral health. CONCLUSIONS: While differences emerged by type of service, a number of variables (sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as dental factors) remained in the final model. Greater oral health needs and socioeconomic inequalities remained as predictors of both types of DHSU. Given the differences revealed by our study, oral health policies should refer those seeking dental care for oral diseases to preventive services, and promote the use of such services among the poorer and less educated population groups.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica , Serviços de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Doenças Estomatognáticas , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Assistência Odontológica/métodos , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Doenças Estomatognáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Estomatognáticas/terapia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16634, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348316

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dental caries is the most frequent oral disease worldwide and the main cause of tooth loss in children and young adults. One of the most frequently affected areas is the occlusal surfaces of the first permanent molars (FPM) due to their morphological complexity. At present, several preventive treatments can reduce the incidence of this disease in school populations. In Mexico, the most commonly used technologies are those derived from some presentation of fluoride; on the other hand, research on this topic has been limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of two different methods for preventing the incidence of caries on the FPM of schoolchildren (6-8 years of age) from public primary schools. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a randomized experimental design. Participants will be assigned to two treatment groups of 114 each. In the first group, pit and fissure sealants will be applied, whereas the second group will receive a fluoride varnish. The work will be carried out in schoolchildren that attend public elementary schools in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. The result variable will be the incidence of caries and the total cost of each of the interventions will be calculated in order to calculate the intervention's cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSION: This work will allow us to compare the cost-effectiveness of the pit and fissure sealants and the fluoride varnish in order to determine which offers the best results.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoretos Tópicos/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos Tópicos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , México , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/economia , Projetos de Pesquisa
6.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 219-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787597

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the distribution of various indicators of oral health among elderly people with and without multimorbidity (ie, two or more chronic diseases). Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted using a sample of Mexican elderly individuals aged ≥60 years. The average age of the cohort was 79.06±9.78 years, and 69.1% were women. The variables indicating oral health were as follows: functional dentition, edentulism, hyposalivation, xerostomia, root caries and periodontitis. The multimorbidity variable was operationally categorized as follows: 0= subjects with no chronic disease or one chronic disease and 1= subjects with two or more chronic diseases. Questionnaires were used to collect information on various variables regarding general health. Likewise, the participants underwent a clinical oral examination. The analysis was performed using Stata 11.0. Results: The overall prevalence of multimorbidity was 27.3%. The prevalences of various oral health indicators were as follows: without functional dentition 89.9%; hyposalivation 59.7%; edentulism 38.9% and self-reported xerostomia 25.2%. Dental caries were observed in 95.3% of the subjects, and the prevalence of severe periodontitis was 80%. We found a significant difference only in edentulism; its prevalence was higher among subjects with multimorbidity (55.3% vs 32.7%, P=0.015) than among those without multimorbidity. Conclusion: The presence of edentulism in this sample of Mexican older adults was higher in subjects with multimorbidity. Multimorbidity and oral diseases constitute a true challenge in elderly people, because they affect quality of life and are associated with high health care costs.


Assuntos
Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Multimorbidade , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca Edêntula/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
P R Health Sci J ; 36(3): 146-151, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of functional dentition and associated periodontal variables in a sample of Mexican adult males. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 161 policemen in Campeche, Mexico, was carried out. A clinical examination using an electronic probe was used to collect variables (dental plaque, periodontal pockets, gingival recession, suppuration, and bleeding on probing) on 6 periodontal sites (a maximum of 168 sites, excluding third molars). Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables were collected through a self-administered survey. Functional dentition was defined as having 21 or more natural teeth. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0, using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Mean age was 38.3 (±10.9) years. The prevalence of having a functional dentition was 83.8% in the sample. The odds of having a functional dentition declined with age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.93), having diabetes (OR = 0.27) and with having a high percentage of sites with plaque (OR = 0.77), with bleeding on probing (OR = 0.97), and with gingival recession (OR = 0.82). CONCLUSION: While a large proportion of subjects had a functional dentition in this community-dwelling sample of adult Mexican males, the likelihood of their having a functional dentition decreased with age, with their having been diagnosed with diabetes, and with assorted negative indicators of periodontal/gingival status.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Dentição , Retração Gengival/epidemiologia , Bolsa Periodontal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polícia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 6: 36383, 2016 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27805027

RESUMO

Dental demineralization was determined in patients at three time points during fixed orthodontic treatment. A multiple cross-sectional study included 108 patients divided into three different groups: (1) beginning of orthodontic treatment; (2) one year into treatment; and (3) two years into treatment. Demineralization was estimated using a DIAGNOdent pen. We obtained data from multiple tooth-by-tooth demineralization readings combined with salivary pH and patients' oral hygienic and dietary behaviors. A t-test for independent samples and Spearman´s correlation were performed. No demineralizations differences were found between the initial stage and one year into treatment. Between one and two years small differences were observed, but demineralization increased between the initial stage and second treatment year, predominating in upper right central incisors (p = 0.056), upper left lateral incisors (p = 0.040), both upper canines (p = 0.055 and p = 0.040, respectively) and first left premolars (p = 0.034 and p = 0.053, respectively). We did not find associations between oral hygiene and dietary behaviours or salivary pH. In conclusion, demineralization occurred in first year of treatment and increased during second year, predominating in the upper arch and the left side mainly in upper right central incisors, upper left lateral incisors, both upper canines, and first left premolars.


Assuntos
Braquetes Ortodônticos/efeitos adversos , Desmineralização do Dente/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Higiene Bucal , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/química , Desmineralização do Dente/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PeerJ ; 4: e2015, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27441103

RESUMO

Background. Tooth loss is an easily identifiable outcome that summarizes a complex suite of factors in an individual's history of dental disease and its treatment by dental services over a lifetime. Assessment of overall tooth loss data is essential for epidemiologically evaluating the adequacy of dental care provided at a systems level, as well as for placing in context tooth loss for non-disease causes. For example, when derived from prosthetic treatment planning, the latter may unfortunately lead to some teeth being extracted (pulled) for the sake of better comprehensive clinical results. The objective of the present manuscript was to identify the contribution to overall tooth loss, by extraction of permanent teeth because of prosthetic treatment reasons. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study included sex, age, total number of extractions performed by subject, sextant (anterior vs. posterior), group of teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars), upper or lower arch, and the main reason underlying extraction (extraction for any reason vs. prosthetic treatment), in patients 18 years of age and older seeking care at a dental school clinic in Mexico. A multivariate logistic regression model was generated. Results. A total of 749 teeth were extracted in 331 patients; 161 teeth (21.5% of total) were extracted for explicit prosthetic treatment indications. As age increased, the likelihood of having an extraction for prosthetic reasons increased 3% (OR = 1.03, p < 0.001). Women (OR = 1.57, p < 0.05) were more likely to be in this situation, and molars (OR = 2.70, p < 0.001) were most at risk. As the total number of extractions increased, the risk of having an extraction for prosthetic reasons decreased (OR = 0.94, p < 0.05). Conclusions. A significant amount (21.5%) of the extractions of permanent teeth were performed for prosthetic reasons in this dental school clinical environment; age, sex, type of tooth, and the total number of extractions moderated such pattern.

10.
P R Health Sci J ; 35(2): 88-92, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27232870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the experience of tooth loss, as well as its associated variables, in a sample of adult Mexicans, aged 60 years and older. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was part of a larger project to measure diverse oral health indicators in a convenience sample: it included 139 adult Mexican seniors (69.1% of whom were women), ages 60 years and older, either living in long-term care facilities or living independently and participating in adult day care services. Each participant underwent an oral examination to determine the number of missing teeth. Questionnaires were administered to collect sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data. Statistical analyses were performed using nonparametric tests and negative binomial regression. RESULTS: The mean age was 79.06 (±9.78 years). The mean number of missing teeth was 20.02 (±8.61; median, 24); 99.3% of the participants had at least 1 missing tooth, and only 14 had 20 teeth or more. Using a negative binomial regression multivariate model, we found that for each year's increase in age, the mean number of teeth lost increased by 1% (p<0.05). In individuals who brushed their teeth fewer than two times a day, who had received radiotherapy, or who were currently smokers, the average tooth loss increased 49.2%, 22.6%, and 19.0%, respectively (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Tooth-loss experience in these Mexican seniors was very high (20.02±8.61). Older age (within the range of this group of seniors), tooth-brushing patterns, the receipt of radiation therapy, and (current) tobacco use were associated with higher experience of tooth loss.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Sci Rep ; 6: 21147, 2016 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26916132

RESUMO

We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Cárie Dentária , Higiene Bucal , Perda de Dente/patologia , Dente Decíduo/patologia , Criança , Assistência Odontológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Prevalência , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/prevenção & controle
12.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 47(3): 291-299, sep.-dic. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-768102

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar la gravedad de caries (tamaño de la lesión) y las variables asociadas en niños escolares mexicanos. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 1373 escolares de 6 a 12 años de edad inscritos en escuelas públicas de Campeche, México. Se distribuyeron cuestionarios para determinar una serie de variables sociodemográficas, socioeconómicas y conductuales. Se realizó un examen bucal a cada niño para establecer el tamaño de las lesiones de caries de acuerdo al índice llamado "criterio de magnitud de la lesión cariosa" y asignarlo de acuerdo al número de lesiones presentes a uno de 4 grupos de riesgo para desarrollar caries, en donde el primer grupo representa a los menos afectados. Se generó un modelo multivariado de regresión logística multinomial. Resultados: Los grupos de riesgo a caries quedaron distribuidos de la siguiente manera: 598 (43.6%) fueron del grupo 1; 261 (19.0%) se asignaron al grupo 2; 316 (23.0%) estuvieron en el grupo 3; y 198 (14.4%) en el grupo 4. Comparando con el grupo menos afectado por lesiones cariosas, las variables asociadas en los diferentes grupos de gravedad en el modelo multivariado fueron: grupo de riesgo 2: edad, sexo y defectos de desarrollo del esmalte; grupo de riesgo 3: atención dental en el último año, actitud de la madre hacia la salud bucal y defectos de desarrollo del esmalte; grupo de riesgo 4: edad, atención dental en el último año, actitud de la madre hacia la salud bucal y defectos de desarrollo del esmalte. Conclusión: La gravedad de caries está influenciada por variables demográficas, conductuales y clínicas.


Objective: To determine the severity of caries (lesion size) and associated variables in Mexican schoolchildren. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1373 schoolchildren 6-12 years old enrolled in public schools in Campeche, Mexico. Questionnaires were distributed to determine demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral variables. Dental examination was performed to each child to establish the size of caries lesions according "Criterion of carious lesion magnitude" index and to allocate according to the number of lesions present to one of four risk groups for developing cavities wherein the first group represents the least affected. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression model was generated. Results: Caries risk groups were distributed as follows: 598 (43.6%) were in group 1; 261 (19.0%) were assigned to group 2; 316 (23.0%) were in group 3; and 198 (14.4%) in group 4. Comparing with the least affected group by carious lesions, associated variables for severity in the multivariate model were "Risk Group 2": age, sex and developmental enamel defects; "Risk Group 3": dental care in the past year, mother's attitude toward oral health and developmental enamel defects; "Risk Group 4": age, dental care in the past year, mother's attitude toward oral health and developmental enamel defects. Conclusion: Severity of decay is influenced by demographic, behavioral and clinical variables.

13.
Med Sci Monit ; 20: 938-44, 2014 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24907713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tooth brushing (with fluoridated toothpaste) is the most cost-effective intervention in dentistry and it is widely recommended to preserve good oral health. We aimed to determine the frequency of tooth brushing and the variables associated with this practice in schoolchildren living in southeast Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1644 schoolchildren, 6 to 13 years old. Questionnaires with socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and dental variables were administered to mothers/guardians of children. The dependent variable was the frequency of tooth brushing, which was categorized as 0 = tooth brushing less than once a day and 1 = tooth brushing at least once a day. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the final results. RESULTS: Mean age was 9.06±2.02 years and 49.1% were girls. The prevalence of tooth brushing at least once a day was 49.8%. In the multivariate model, characteristics related to tooth brushing frequency (p<0.05) were: older age (OR=1.11), being female (OR=1.64), having a larger family (OR=0.87), having had a visit to a dentist during the year preceding the study (OR=1.37), and having had fluoride applications by a professional (OR=1.39). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that different variables (demographic, socioeconomic and dental) are associated with the frequency of tooth brushing. Family size (proxy variable for socioeconomic status) may indicate certain oral health inequalities in this population.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 20(2): 128-133, oct-2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-790843

RESUMO

Determinar la existencia, prevalencia y gravedad de caries dental, así como establecer las necesidades de tratamiento y el índice de cuidados en la dentición primaria de niños mexicanos de 6 y 7 años de edad. Material y métodos: Este estudio transversal incluyó 357 escolares de la ciudad de Campeche, México. El índice de dientes cariados, indicados para extracción/extraídos y perdidos (índice ceod) fue utilizado para determinar la existencia de caries dental, y con él se calcularon igualmente la prevalencia (ceod > 0), la gravedad (ceod ≥ 4), así como las necesidades de tratamiento (INT) y el índice de cuidados. Se utilizaron cuestionarios para identificar las variables sociodemográficas, socioeconómicas y de conductas de salud bucal. En el análisis se empleó el modelo de regresión logística binaria. Resultados: El índice ceod global fue de 2.29 ± 2.95. La prevalencia y la gravedad fueron 52.4% y 29.1%, respectivamente. El porcentaje del INT fue de 88.1% y el índice de cuidados de 11.4%. En el modelo multivariado, la actitud negativa hacia la salud bucal (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%: 1.36-3.94) y las visitas al dentista en el año previo al estudio (OR = 1.93; IC 95%: 1.44-2.54), resultaron asociadas a la prevalencia de caries. Conclusiones: Más de la mitad de los escolares presentan lesiones de caries en la dentición primaria. Se observó un alto porcentaje de lesiones cariosas con necesidad de tratamiento. Observamos que la actitud que tiene la madre hacia la salud bucal de su hijo tiene cierto grado de influencia sobre la prevalencia de caries en la dentición primaria. Es necesario implementar estrategias que permitan mejorar la salud bucal de los escolares...


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Cárie Dentária , Dentição , México , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal
15.
Gac Med Mex ; 149(1): 27-35, 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23435073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to determine the effect of birth cohort on dental fluorosis in Mexican schoolchildren during the implementation of the national program to fluoridate domestic salt. MATERIAL AND METHODS: in a cross-sectional study we examined 1,644 schoolchildren 6-13 years old born between 1985-1992 in Campeche, México; a community where there is negligible naturally available fluoride in water supplies. Dental fluorosis was assessed with the Dean's index in the permanent dentition. Questionnaires were used to identify diverse socio-demographic and socio-economic variables. In the statistical analysis logistic regression was used. RESULTS: the prevalence of fluorosis was 15.5%. In the multivariate model,we observed fluorosis was associated with larger family sizes (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84-0.99) and female sex (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.57-0.98). Furthermore, using the cohort of 1985 as a comparison group, no significant dental fluorosis differences were found with those born between 1986-1987; in contrast, in the cohorts born between 1989-1992 the risk of dental fluorosis increased by almost four times (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: the prevalence of fluorosis was low compared to other studies in Mexico. In this community with negligible fluoride in water supplies the likelihood of dental fluorosis increased as the windows of susceptibility in birth cohorts were closer to the chronologic beginning of the national domestic salt fluoridation program in 1991. This trend was more apparent after 1991.


Assuntos
Fluoretação , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Fluorose Dentária/prevenção & controle , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Masculino , México , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência
16.
CES odontol ; 25(1): 22-31, ene.-jun. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-652816

RESUMO

Introducción y ObjetivoLos defectos de desarrollo del esmalte (DDE) son alteraciones del esmalte dental que resulta de diversosdisturbios durante la amelogénesis.Determinar el impacto de la posición socioeconómica (PSE) sobre los DDE en la dentición primaria deniños escolares de 6 a 9 años de edad.Material y MétodosSe realizó un estudio transversal en 925 escolares de seis a nueve años de edad. El criterio utilizado paraDDE fue el propuesto por la Federación Dental Internacional, específicamente las opacidades marcadasy difusas e hipoplasias, excluyendo fluorosis dental y otras decoloraciones, a través de un examen clínicorealizado por tres examinadores previamente estandarizados (kappa> 0,80). Se utilizó un cuestionariodirigido a las madres/tutores de los niños se recogieron diversas variables sociodemográficas ysocioeconómicas. La PSE fue determinada con la ocupación y escolaridad de los padres. El análisisestadístico se realizó calculando razones de momios con regresión logística en STATA 9.0.ResultadosLa edad promedio fue 7,56±1,13 años y 50,3% fueron varones. El promedio de DDE fue 0,17±0,75, y laprevalencia de 9,9%. En el análisis multivariado de regresión logística, se observó que los momios depresentar DDE en los dientes primarios aumentaron (p<0,05) en los niños de 8-9 años, en los que visitanal dentista con mayor frecuencia y los de peor PSE.ConclusionesEste estudio permitió identificar que la PSE tiene un impacto en la presencia de DDE en la denticiónprimaria. Es necesario realizar más estudios que confirmen esta asociación y clarifiquen la relación,preferentemente de tipo longitudinal.


Introduction and objectiveDevelopmental enamel defects (DED) can be defined as any alteration of tooth enamel resulting fromvarious disturbances during amelogenesis. The objective of this report was to determine the impact ofsocioeconomic position (SEP) on the DEDin primary teeth of 6 to 9 year old school children.Material and MethodsA cross-sectional study in 925 school children from six to nine years old was carried out. The diagnosticcriteria used for DED was proposed by the FDI, specifically marked and diffuse opacities and hypoplasia,excluding dental fluorosis and other discolorations, through a clinical examination conducted by threetrained and calibrated examiners (kappa> 0,80). Sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables werecollected through a questionnaire directed to mothers / guardians of children. Socioeconomic position(SEP) was determined with the parental occupation and schooling. Statistical analysis was performed bycalculating odds ratios with logistic regression in STATA 9.0.ResultsThe mean age was 7,56±1,13 years and 50,3% were male. Average DED was 0,17 ± 0,75, and theprevalence of 9,9%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds presenting DED inprimary teeth increased (p <0,05) in children between 8-9 years old, visiting the dentist more often andthe worst SEP.ConclusionsThis study has shown that the PSE has an impact on the presence of DED in the primary dentition.Further studies, which are preferably longitudinal, are needed to confirm this association and clarify therelationship.


Assuntos
Humanos , Esmalte Dentário , Saúde Bucal , Dente Decíduo
17.
Gac Med Mex ; 146(4): 264-8, 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20964069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identify the variables associated with periodontal status and tooth loss among a sample of adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study among 161 policemen. Our sample was representative of socioeconomics status and lifestyle among policemen in Campeche, Mexico. All periodontal clinical examinations were assessed using the Florida Probe System using a fixed dental chair and one examiner. The variables we measured included presence of dental plaque, calculus, probing deep, gingival insertion, loss of attachment, gingival retraction, suppuration, and probing blood. We examined six sites surrounding all teeth available in the mouth (maximum 168 sites and excluded third molars). Statistical analyses were performed with STATA 8.2 using a bivariate negative binomial regression model due to over-dispersion in the dependent variable. RESULTS: The mean age was 38.36 +/- 10.99 (range: 20-78). The mean of tooth and sites examined in participants was 24.45 +/- 4.63 and 146.72 +/- 27.80, respectively. The prevalence of tooth loss was 73.3%. 571 teeth were missing and the overall mean of missing teeth was 3.55 +/- 4.63 and within subjects with tooth loss was 4.84 +/- 4.80. The prevalence of functional dentition (21 tooth or more) was 83.8%. To have > 20% gingivitis, > 5% of sites with probing deep > or = 4 mm, > 5% of sites with gingival retraction, > 70% of sites with attachment loss > 2 mm, and each unit of age increase the mean expected of tooth loss by 70.6%, 41.8, 156.4%, 86.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study findings confirm that lost teeth are common among study participants. Higher prevalence and average of tooth loss was observed among this adult population. Several variables of periodontal status were associated with tooth loss.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Polícia , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev. bras. saúde matern. infant ; 10(3): 323-329, jul.-set. 2010. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-561378

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: determinar la asociación entre variables indicadoras de posición socioeconómica y la presencia de labio y/o paladar hendido no sindrómico (L/PH). MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en el que se incluyeron 110 casos con L/PH pareados por edad y sexo con 220 controles, seleccionados de la clínica del Hospital Niño DIF de Hidalgo, México. A través de un cuestionario se recogió una serie de variables relacionadas con la posición socio-económica. Utilizando el análisis de componentes principales (correlación policórica) se combinaron las variables relacionadas entre sí y se construyeron diversas variables indicadoras de posición socioeconómica; nivel socioeconómico (características de la vivienda), índice de bienestar (posesiones de bienes/ enseres del hogar), escolaridad de los padres (años de estudio), seguridad social (derechohabiencia), e indigenismo (hablar alguna lengua indígena por alguno de los padres). El análisis bivariado se realizó con regresión logística condicionada. RESULTADOS: el 90.9 por ciento de los pacientes presentó labio + paladar hendido al mismo tiempo, ya sea uni o bilateral. El tipo de defecto mas común fue el labio y paladar hendido izquierdo (33.6 por ciento). Resultaron asociadas a L/PH las variables: índice de bienestar (comparado con el peor quintil: 2do OR=0.46; p=0.030, 3er OR=0.39; p=0.015, 4to OR=0.30; p=0.002, 5to OR=0.27; p=0.001), nivel socioeconómico (comparado con el mejor tercil: 2do OR=0.46; p=0.004, 3er OR=0.18; p<0.001), escolaridad del padre (OR=0.86; p<0.001), y escolaridad de la madre (OR=0.84; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONES: este estudio demuestra la existencia de desigualdades socioeconómicas en salud bucal, observándose que los sujetos de menor posición socioeconómica presentan mayor riesgo de tener L/PH.


OBJECTIVES: to investigate the association between socioeconomic position and the presence of nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). METHODS: a case-control study with 110 cases with CL/P matched by age and gender with 220 controls was carried out, the cases were selected from the Hospital Niño DIF Hidalgo of Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. A structured questionnaire which contained socioeconomic variables was used to recollect data. Applying the principal component analysis (polycoric correlation) the socioeconomic variables were combined and were builded several socioeconomic position indicators as: socioeconomic level (house characteristics), living comfort level (house supplies), parents education (school years), social security, indigenism (native language spoken by either parent). A bivariate analysis was realized using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: the highest frecuency found was the cleft lip and palate at the same time (90.9 percent) either uni or bilateral. The most common defect was left cleft lip and palate (33.6 percent). Cleft lip and/ or palate was associated with the living comfort level (compared with the worst quintil: 2nd OR= 0.46; p=0.030, 3rd OR=0.39; p=0.015, 4th OR= 0.30; p=0.002, 5th OR=0.27; p=0.001), socioeconomic level (compared with the worst tercil: 2nd OR=0.46; p=0.004), 3rd OR=0.18; p<0.001, father's schooling (OR=0.86; p<0.001), and mother's schooling (OR=0.84; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: the study demonstrates the socioeconomic inequality in oral health, observing risk for CL/P according to socioeconomic position.


Assuntos
Humanos , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , México , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
J Orofac Pain ; 24(3): 279-86, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20664829

RESUMO

AIMS: To identify the effect of unmet dental treatment needs and socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables on the patterns of dental visits in the presence of dental pain in 6- to 12-year-old Mexican schoolchildren. METHODS: A case-control study included 379 patients that had a dental visit because of dental pain in the 12 months preceding this study and 1,137 controls. Mothers and/or guardians supplied sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and oral health-related information through a questionnaire. The profiles of unmet dental needs and of oral hygiene were ascertained by means of a standardized dental examination administered to participating children. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher unmet dental needs and lack of health insurance were associated with the experience of dental visits because of dental pain in the preceding 12 months. Boys who attended public schools had a 70% (95% CI = 1.29 to 2.23) higher probability of having had a dental visit in which dental pain was one of the main reasons for attendance, compared to boys attending private schools. The effect for girls was only 28% (95% CI = 1.10 to 1.50) higher for girls attending a public school, compared to girls attending private schools. Older children had a higher occurrence of dental visits because of dental pain than younger children. CONCLUSIONS: While higher unmet dental needs and lack of health insurance were strong predictors of having had dental visits because of dental pain in the preceding 12 months, some socioeconomic variables and sociodemographic variables modified these relationships.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Odontalgia/terapia , Fatores Etários , Automóveis , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Índice CPO , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , México , Ocupações , Higiene Bucal , Índice de Higiene Oral , Propriedade , Pais/educação , Setor Privado , Setor Público , Fatores Sexuais , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 139(6): 743-9, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18519998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toothbrushing may help prevent some oral health diseases considered to be public health problems--in particular, certain presentations of chronic periodontal diseases and dental caries. The authors conducted a study to identify variables associated with frequency of toothbrushing with toothpaste among schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years. METHODS: The authors collected data regarding sociodemographic, socioeconomic, oral hygiene and attitudinal variables through a cross-sectional questionnaire administered to 1,373 schoolchildren from Campeche, Mexico. They categorized toothbrushing frequency as "two times a day or fewer" and "three times a day or more." The authors used logistic regression to analyze the data. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that girls (odds ratio [OR]=1.41), older children (OR=1.07) and offspring of mothers with higher levels of schooling (OR=1.07) were more likely to brush more frequently. The results showed an interaction between the attitude of the mother toward oral health and the use of dental care in the previous 12 months. When mothers had a positive attitude, the likelihood of their children's brushing more frequently was higher among those who received dental care in the previous 12 months (OR=2.43; P

Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Assistência Odontológica/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , México , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/educação , Mães/psicologia , Higiene Bucal , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Escovação Dentária/psicologia
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