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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5201, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465779

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a post-transcriptional modification that controls gene expression by recruiting proteins to RNA sites. The modification also slows biochemical processes through mechanisms that are not understood. Using temperature-dependent (20°C-65°C) NMR relaxation dispersion, we show that m6A pairs with uridine with the methylamino group in the anti conformation to form a Watson-Crick base pair that transiently exchanges on the millisecond timescale with a singly hydrogen-bonded low-populated (1%) mismatch-like conformation in which the methylamino group is syn. This ability to rapidly interchange between Watson-Crick or mismatch-like forms, combined with different syn:anti isomer preferences when paired (~1:100) versus unpaired (~10:1), explains how m6A robustly slows duplex annealing without affecting melting at elevated temperatures via two pathways in which isomerization occurs before or after duplex annealing. Our model quantitatively predicts how m6A reshapes the kinetic landscape of nucleic acid hybridization and conformational transitions, and provides an explanation for why the modification robustly slows diverse cellular processes.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Adenosina/química , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Pareamento de Bases , DNA/genética , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Uridina/química , Uridina/genética , Uridina/metabolismo
2.
Proteins ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375467

RESUMO

Since the identification of the SARS-CoV-2 virus as the causative agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic, considerable effort has been spent characterizing the interaction between the Spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. This has provided a detailed picture of the end point structure of the RBD-ACE2 binding event, but what remains to be elucidated is the conformation and dynamics of the RBD prior to its interaction with ACE2. In this work, we utilize molecular dynamics simulations to probe the flexibility and conformational ensemble of the unbound state of the receptor-binding domain from SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. We have found that the unbound RBD has a localized region of dynamic flexibility in Loop 3 and that mutations identified during the COVID-19 pandemic in Loop 3 do not affect this flexibility. We use a loop-modeling protocol to generate and simulate novel conformations of the CoV2-RBD Loop 3 region that sample conformational space beyond the ACE2 bound crystal structure. This has allowed for the identification of interesting substates of the unbound RBD that are lower energy than the ACE2-bound conformation, and that block key residues along the ACE2 binding interface. These novel unbound substates may represent new targets for therapeutic design.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5531, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139729

RESUMO

Biomolecules form dynamic ensembles of many inter-converting conformations which are key for understanding how they fold and function. However, determining ensembles is challenging because the information required to specify atomic structures for thousands of conformations far exceeds that of experimental measurements. We addressed this data gap and dramatically simplified and accelerated RNA ensemble determination by using structure prediction tools that leverage the growing database of RNA structures to generate a conformation library. Refinement of this library with NMR residual dipolar couplings provided an atomistic ensemble model for HIV-1 TAR, and the model accuracy was independently supported by comparisons to quantum-mechanical calculations of NMR chemical shifts, comparison to a crystal structure of a substate, and through designed ensemble redistribution via atomic mutagenesis. Applications to TAR bulge variants and more complex tertiary RNAs support the generality of this approach and the potential to make the determination of atomic-resolution RNA ensembles routine.


Assuntos
Quimioinformática/métodos , HIV-1/química , Dobramento de RNA , RNA Viral/ultraestrutura , Repetição Terminal Longa de HIV , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/ultraestrutura , Modelos Químicos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética
5.
Sci Adv ; 6(41)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028531

RESUMO

RNAs form critical components of biological processes implicated in human diseases, making them attractive for small-molecule therapeutics. Expanding the sites accessible to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy will provide atomic-level insights into RNA interactions. Here, we present an efficient strategy to introduce 19F-13C spin pairs into RNA by using a 5-fluorouridine-5'-triphosphate and T7 RNA polymerase-based in vitro transcription. Incorporating the 19F-13C label in two model RNAs produces linewidths that are twice as sharp as the commonly used 1H-13C spin pair. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of the 19F nucleus allows for clear delineation of helical and nonhelical regions as well as GU wobble and Watson-Crick base pairs. Last, the 19F-13C label enables rapid identification of a small-molecule binding pocket within human hepatitis B virus encapsidation signal epsilon (hHBV ε) RNA. We anticipate that the methods described herein will expand the size limitations of RNA NMR and aid with RNA-drug discovery efforts.

6.
Biophys Chem ; 267: 106476, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035752

RESUMO

An automated fragmentation quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach (AFNMR) has shown promising results in chemical shift calculations for biomolecules. Sample results for ubiquitin, and an RNA hairpin and helix are presented, and used to recent directions in quantum calculations. Trends in chemical shift are stable with regards to change in density functional or basis sets, and the use of the small "pcSseg-0" basis, which was optimized for chemical shift prediction [1], opens the way to more extensive conformational averaging, which can often be necessary, even for fairly well-defined structures.


Assuntos
Teoria da Densidade Funcional , RNA/química , Ubiquitina/química , Automação , Modelos Moleculares
7.
Biochemistry ; 59(42): 4093-4107, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945658

RESUMO

Heme dissociations disrupt function and structural integrity of human hemoglobin and trigger various cardiovascular complications. These events become significant in methemoglobins that have undergone autoxidation of ferrous into ferric heme. We have structurally characterized the heme disassociation pathways for adult tetrameric methemoglobins using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. These reveal that bis-histidine hemichromes, characterized here by the coordination of heme iron to both the F8 (proximal) and E7 (distal) histidines, are seen as intermediates following dissociation of the water molecule distally bound to each heme iron. Later, the breaking of coordination between heme iron and proximal histidine disrupts the F helix and pushes it away from the heme cavity, enabling both bulk solvent penetration and disruption of tetramer interface interactions. The interactions inhibiting heme dissociation were then seen to be (i) either a direct or a water-molecule-mediated interaction between distal histidine and heme iron and (ii) stacking between heme and the αCE1/ßCD1 phenylalanine residue. These interactions are less important in the ß than in α subunits due to a more flexible ß subunit CE loop region. The absence of a distal histidine interaction in the H(E7)L mutant and increased heme cavity volume in the V(E11)A mutant both promoted heme escape from the protein interior. Adult and fetal hemoglobins were seen to share a general heme disassociation pathway and intermediates due to the conservation of key heme pocket residues. The intermediates seen here are analyzed in light of experimental studies of heme dissociation and pathways of certain hemoglobinopathies.


Assuntos
Metemoglobina/química , Metemoglobina/metabolismo , Heme/química , Heme/metabolismo , Hemeproteínas/química , Hemeproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Conformação Proteica
8.
J Biol Chem ; 295(49): 16585-16603, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963105

RESUMO

The functional mechanisms of multidomain proteins often exploit interdomain interactions, or "cross-talk." An example is human Pin1, an essential mitotic regulator consisting of a Trp-Trp (WW) domain flexibly tethered to a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) domain, resulting in interdomain interactions important for Pin1 function. Substrate binding to the WW domain alters its transient contacts with the PPIase domain via means that are only partially understood. Accordingly, we have investigated Pin1 interdomain interactions using NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The PREs show that apo-Pin1 samples interdomain contacts beyond the range suggested by previous structural studies. They further show that substrate binding to the WW domain simultaneously alters interdomain separation and the internal conformation of the WW domain. A 4.5-µs all-atom MD simulation of apo-Pin1 suggests that the fluctuations of interdomain distances are correlated with fluctuations of WW domain interresidue contacts involved in substrate binding. Thus, the interdomain/WW domain conformations sampled by apo-Pin1 may already include a range of conformations appropriate for binding Pin1's numerous substrates. The proposed coupling between intra-/interdomain conformational fluctuations is a consequence of the dynamic modular architecture of Pin1. Such modular architecture is common among cell-cycle proteins; thus, the WW-PPIase domain cross-talk mechanisms of Pin1 may be relevant for their mechanisms as well.


Assuntos
Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/química , Apoproteínas/química , Apoproteínas/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutagênese , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/genética , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/metabolismo , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Marcadores de Spin , Especificidade por Substrato , Domínios WW
9.
J Biomol NMR ; 74(6-7): 321-331, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363430

RESUMO

Many regulatory RNAs undergo dynamic exchanges that are crucial for their biological functions and NMR spectroscopy is a versatile tool for monitoring dynamic motions of biomolecules. Meaningful information on biomolecular dynamics requires an accurate measurement of relaxation parameters such as longitudinal (R1) rates, transverse (R2) rates and heteronuclear Overhauser effect (hNOE). However, earlier studies have shown that the large 13C-13C interactions complicate analysis of the carbon relaxation parameters. To investigate the effect of 13C-13C interactions on RNA dynamic studies, we performed relaxation measurements on various RNA samples with different labeling patterns and compared these measurements with the computational simulations. For uniformly labeled samples, contributions of the neighboring carbon to R1 measurements were observed. These contributions increased with increasing magnetic field and overall correlation time ([Formula: see text]) for R1 rates, necessitating more careful analysis for uniformly labeled large RNAs. In addition, the hNOE measurements were also affected by the adjacent carbon nuclei. Unlike R1 rates, R1ρ rates showed relatively good agreement between uniformly- and site-selectively labeled samples, suggesting no dramatic effect from their attached carbon, in agreement with previous observations. Overall, having more accurate rate measurements avoids complex analysis and will be a key for interpreting 13C relaxation rates for molecular motion that can provide valuable insights into cellular molecular recognition events.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13/métodos , Carbono/química , RNA/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional
10.
Science ; 368(6489): 413-417, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327595

RESUMO

Heterogeneous transcriptional start site usage by HIV-1 produces 5'-capped RNAs beginning with one, two, or three 5'-guanosines (Cap1G, Cap2G, or Cap3G, respectively) that are either selected for packaging as genomes (Cap1G) or retained in cells as translatable messenger RNAs (mRNAs) (Cap2G and Cap3G). To understand how 5'-guanosine number influences fate, we probed the structures of capped HIV-1 leader RNAs by deuterium-edited nuclear magnetic resonance. The Cap1G transcript adopts a dimeric multihairpin structure that sequesters the cap, inhibits interactions with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, and resists decapping. The Cap2G and Cap3G transcripts adopt an alternate structure with an elongated central helix, exposed splice donor residues, and an accessible cap. Extensive remodeling, achieved at the energetic cost of a G-C base pair, explains how a single 5'-guanosine modifies the function of a ~9-kilobase HIV-1 transcript.


Assuntos
Pareamento de Bases , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , HIV-1/genética , Capuzes de RNA/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Composição de Bases , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Guanosina/química , Humanos , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Capuzes de RNA/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1271, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152274

RESUMO

Protein dynamics are integral to biological function, yet few techniques are sensitive to collective atomic motions. A long-standing goal of X-ray crystallography has been to combine structural information from Bragg diffraction with dynamic information contained in the diffuse scattering background. However, the origin of macromolecular diffuse scattering has been poorly understood, limiting its applicability. We present a finely sampled diffuse scattering map from triclinic lysozyme with unprecedented accuracy and detail, clearly resolving both the inter- and intramolecular correlations. These correlations are studied theoretically using both all-atom molecular dynamics and simple vibrational models. Although lattice dynamics reproduce most of the diffuse pattern, protein internal dynamics, which include hinge-bending motions, are needed to explain the short-ranged correlations revealed by Patterson analysis. These insights lay the groundwork for animating crystal structures with biochemically relevant motions.


Assuntos
Movimento (Física) , Muramidase/química , Difração de Raios X , Cristalização , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fônons
12.
Biophys J ; 118(6): 1381-1400, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075750

RESUMO

Hemoglobin functions as a tetrameric oxygen transport protein, with each subunit containing a heme cofactor. Its denaturation, either in vivo or in vitro, involves autoxidation to methemoglobin, followed by cofactor loss and globin unfolding. We have proposed a global disassembly scheme for human methemoglobin, linking hemin (ferric protoporphyrin IX) disassociation and apoprotein unfolding pathways. The model is based on the evaluation of circular dichroism and visible absorbance measurements of guanidine-hydrochloride-induced disassembly of methemoglobin and previous measurements of apohemoglobin unfolding. The populations of holointermediates and equilibrium disassembly parameters were estimated quantitatively for adult and fetal hemoglobins. The key stages are characterized by hexacoordinated hemichrome intermediates, which are important for preventing hemin disassociation from partially unfolded, molten globular species during early disassembly and late-stage assembly events. Both unfolding experiments and independent small angle x-ray scattering measurements demonstrate that heme disassociation leads to the loss of tetrameric structural integrity. Our model predicts that after autoxidation, dimeric and monomeric hemichrome intermediates occur along the disassembly pathway inside red cells, where the hemoglobin concentration is very high. This prediction suggests why misassembled hemoglobins often get trapped as hemichromes that accumulate into insoluble Heinz bodies in the red cells of patients with unstable hemoglobinopathies. These Heinz bodies become deposited on the cell membranes and can lead to hemolysis. Alternatively, when acellular hemoglobin is diluted into blood plasma after red cell lysis, the disassembly pathway appears to be dominated by early hemin disassociation events, which leads to the generation of higher fractions of unfolded apo subunits and free hemin, which are known to damage the integrity of blood vessel walls. Thus, our model provides explanations of the pathophysiology of hemoglobinopathies and other disease states associated with unstable globins and red cell lysis and also insights into the factors governing hemoglobin assembly during erythropoiesis.


Assuntos
Heme , Hemoglobinas , Eritrócitos , Hemólise , Humanos , Metemoglobina
13.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 76(Pt 1): 51-62, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909743

RESUMO

The refinement of biomolecular crystallographic models relies on geometric restraints to help to address the paucity of experimental data typical in these experiments. Limitations in these restraints can degrade the quality of the resulting atomic models. Here, an integration of the full all-atom Amber molecular-dynamics force field into Phenix crystallographic refinement is presented, which enables more complete modeling of biomolecular chemistry. The advantages of the force field include a carefully derived set of torsion-angle potentials, an extensive and flexible set of atom types, Lennard-Jones treatment of nonbonded interactions and a full treatment of crystalline electrostatics. The new combined method was tested against conventional geometry restraints for over 22 000 protein structures. Structures refined with the new method show substantially improved model quality. On average, Ramachandran and rotamer scores are somewhat better, clashscores and MolProbity scores are significantly improved, and the modeling of electrostatics leads to structures that exhibit more, and more correct, hydrogen bonds than those refined using traditional geometry restraints. In general it is found that model improvements are greatest at lower resolutions, prompting plans to add the Amber target function to real-space refinement for use in electron cryo-microscopy. This work opens the door to the future development of more advanced applications such as Amber-based ensemble refinement, quantum-mechanical representation of active sites and improved geometric restraints for simulated annealing.


Assuntos
Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Proteínas/química , Software , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662799

RESUMO

The structures of biological macromolecules would not be known to their present extent without X-ray crystallography. Most simulations of globular proteins in solution begin by surrounding the crystal structure of the monomer in a bath of water molecules, but the standard simulation employing periodic boundary conditions is already close to a crystal lattice environment. With simple protocols, the same software and molecular models can perform simulations of the crystal lattice, including all asymmetric units and solvent to fill the box. Throughout the history of molecular dynamics, studies of crystal lattices have served to investigate the quality of the underlying force fields, correlate the simulated ensembles to experimental structure factors, and extrapolate the behavior in lattices to behavior in solution. Powerful new computers are enabling molecular simulations with greater realism and statistical convergence. Meanwhile, the advent of exciting new methods in crystallography, including femtosecond free-electron lasers and image reconstruction for time-resolved crystallography on slurries of small crystals, is expanding the range of structures accessible to X-ray diffraction. We review past fusions of simulations and crystallography, then look ahead to the ways that simulations of crystal structures will enhance structural biology in the future.

16.
J Biol Chem ; 294(39): 14442-14453, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406019

RESUMO

Collagens carry out critical extracellular matrix (ECM) functions by interacting with numerous cell receptors and ECM components. Single glycine substitutions in collagen III, which predominates in vascular walls, result in vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS), leading to arterial, uterine, and intestinal rupture and an average life expectancy of <50 years. Collagen interactions with integrin α2ß1 are vital for platelet adhesion and activation; however, how these interactions are impacted by vEDS-associated mutations and by specific amino acid substitutions is unclear. Here, we designed collagen-mimetic peptides (CMPs) with previously reported Gly → Xaa (Xaa = Ala, Arg, or Val) vEDS substitutions within a high-affinity integrin α2ß1-binding motif, GROGER. We used these peptides to investigate, at atomic-level resolution, how these amino acid substitutions affect the collagen III-integrin α2ß1 interaction. Using a multitiered approach combining biological adhesion assays, CD, NMR, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we found that these substitutions differentially impede human mesenchymal stem cell spreading and integrin α2-inserted (α2I) domain binding to the CMPs and were associated with triple-helix destabilization. Although an Ala substitution locally destabilized hydrogen bonding and enhanced mobility, it did not significantly reduce the CMP-integrin interactions. MD simulations suggested that bulkier Gly → Xaa substitutions differentially disrupt the CMP-α2I interaction. The Gly → Arg substitution destabilized CMP-α2I side-chain interactions, and the Gly → Val change broke the essential Mg2+ coordination. The relationship between the loss of functional binding and the type of vEDS substitution provides a foundation for developing potential therapies for managing collagen disorders.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Colágeno/química , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Integrina alfa2beta1/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular , Colágeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Integrina alfa2beta1/química , Integrina alfa2beta1/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Ligação Proteica
17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(30): 11984-11996, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310109

RESUMO

We have shown that the key state in N2 reduction to two NH3 molecules by the enzyme nitrogenase is E4(4H), the "Janus" intermediate, which has accumulated four [e-/H+] and is poised to undergo reductive elimination of H2 coupled to N2 binding and activation. Initial 1H and 95Mo ENDOR studies of freeze-trapped E4(4H) revealed that the catalytic multimetallic cluster (FeMo-co) binds two Fe-bridging hydrides, [Fe-H-Fe]. However, the analysis failed to provide a satisfactory picture of the relative spatial relationships of the two [Fe-H-Fe]. Our recent density functional theory (DFT) study yielded a lowest-energy form, denoted as E4(4H)(a), with two parallel Fe-H-Fe planes bridging pairs of "anchor" Fe on the Fe2,3,6,7 face of FeMo-co. However, the relative energies of structures E4(4H)(b), with one bridging and one terminal hydride, and E4(4H)(c), with one pair of anchor Fe supporting two bridging hydrides, were not beyond the uncertainties in the calculation. Moreover, a structure of V-dependent nitrogenase resulted in a proposed structure analogous to E4(4H)(c), and additional structures have been proposed in the DFT studies of others. To resolve the nature of hydride binding to the Janus intermediate, we performed exhaustive, high-resolution CW-stochastic 1H-ENDOR experiments using improved instrumentation, Mims 2H ENDOR, and a recently developed pulsed-ENDOR protocol ("PESTRE") to obtain absolute hyperfine interaction signs. These measurements are coupled to DFT structural models through an analytical point-dipole Hamiltonian for the hydride electron-nuclear dipolar coupling to its "anchoring" Fe ions, an approach that overcomes limitations inherent in both experimental interpretation and computational accuracy. The result is the freeze-trapped, lowest-energy Janus intermediate structure, E4(4H)(a).


Assuntos
Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Nitrogenase/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Nitrogenase/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica
18.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219473, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291328

RESUMO

Computed, high-resolution, spatial distributions of solvation energy and entropy can provide detailed information about the role of water in molecular recognition. While grid inhomogeneous solvation theory (GIST) provides rigorous, detailed thermodynamic information from explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations, recent developments in the 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory allow many of the same quantities to be calculated in a fraction of the time. However, 3D-RISM produces atomic-site, rather than molecular, density distributions, which are difficult to extract physical meaning from. To overcome this difficulty, we introduce a method to reconstruct molecular density distributions from atomic-site density distributions. Furthermore, we assess the quality of the resulting solvation thermodynamics density distributions by analyzing the binding site of coagulation Factor Xa with both GIST and 3D-RISM. We find good qualitative agreement between the methods for oxygen and hydrogen densities as well as direct solute-solvent energetic interactions. However, 3D-RISM predicts lower energetic and entropic penalties for moving water from the bulk to the binding site.


Assuntos
Enzimas/química , Conformação Molecular , Soluções/química , Termodinâmica , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Solventes , Água/química
19.
Biochemistry ; 58(15): 1963-1974, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950607

RESUMO

A( syn)-T and G( syn)-C+ Hoogsteen base pairs in protein-bound DNA duplexes can be difficult to resolve by X-ray crystallography due to ambiguous electron density and by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy due to poor chemical shift dispersion and size limitations with solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Here we describe an NMR strategy for characterizing Hoogsteen base pairs in protein-DNA complexes, which relies on site-specifically incorporating 13C- and 15N-labeled nucleotides into DNA duplexes for unambiguous resonance assignment and to improve spectral resolution. The approach was used to resolve the conformation of an A-T base pair in a crystal structure of an ∼43 kDa complex between a 34 bp duplex DNA and the integration host factor (IHF) protein. In the crystal structure (Protein Data Bank entry 1IHF ), this base pair adopts an unusual Hoogsteen conformation with a distorted sugar backbone that is accommodated by a nearby nick used to aid in crystallization. The NMR chemical shifts and interproton nuclear Overhauser effects indicate that this base pair predominantly adopts a Watson-Crick conformation in the intact DNA-IHF complex under solution conditions. Consistent with these NMR findings, substitution of 7-deazaadenine at this base pair resulted in only a small (∼2-fold) decrease in the IHF-DNA binding affinity. The NMR strategy provides a new approach for resolving crystallographic ambiguity and more generally for studying the structure and dynamics of protein-DNA complexes in solution.


Assuntos
Pareamento de Bases , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , DNA/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Sequência de Bases , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Substâncias Macromoleculares/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/química , Nucleotídeos/genética , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos
20.
Annu Rev Biophys ; 48: 275-296, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857399

RESUMO

It would often be useful in computer simulations to use an implicit description of solvation effects, instead of explicitly representing the individual solvent molecules. Continuum dielectric models often work well in describing the thermodynamic aspects of aqueous solvation and can be very efficient compared to the explicit treatment of the solvent. Here, we review a particular class of so-called fast implicit solvent models, generalized Born (GB) models, which are widely used for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of proteins and nucleic acids. These approaches model hydration effects and provide solvent-dependent forces with efficiencies comparable to molecular-mechanics calculations on the solute alone; as such, they can be incorporated into MD or other conformational searching strategies in a straightforward manner. The foundations of the GB model are reviewed, followed by examples of newer, emerging models and examples of important applications. We discuss their strengths and weaknesses, both for fidelity to the underlying continuum model and for the ability to replace explicit consideration of solvent molecules in macromolecular simulations.


Assuntos
Solventes/química , Simulação por Computador , Ácidos Nucleicos/química , Proteínas/química , Termodinâmica
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