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Immunity ; 52(5): 825-841.e8, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396847


CD8+ T cell exhaustion is a major barrier to current anti-cancer immunotherapies. Despite this, the developmental biology of exhausted CD8+ T cells (Tex) remains poorly defined, restraining improvement of strategies aimed at "re-invigorating" Tex cells. Here, we defined a four-cell-stage developmental framework for Tex cells. Two TCF1+ progenitor subsets were identified, one tissue restricted and quiescent and one more blood accessible, that gradually lost TCF1 as it divided and converted to a third intermediate Tex subset. This intermediate subset re-engaged some effector biology and increased upon PD-L1 blockade but ultimately converted into a fourth, terminally exhausted subset. By using transcriptional and epigenetic analyses, we identified the control mechanisms underlying subset transitions and defined a key interplay between TCF1, T-bet, and Tox in the process. These data reveal a four-stage developmental hierarchy for Tex cells and define the molecular, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms that could provide opportunities to improve cancer immunotherapy.

Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Epigênese Genética/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/imunologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/genética
Genome Res ; 29(6): 907-919, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138618


The processes and mechanisms of virus infection fate decisions that are the result of a dynamic virus-immune system interaction with either an efficient effector response and virus elimination or an alleviated immune response and chronic infection are poorly understood. Here, we characterized the host response to acute and chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infections by gene coexpression network analysis of time-resolved splenic transcriptomes. First, we found an early attenuation of inflammatory monocyte/macrophage prior to the onset of T cell exhaustion, and second, a critical role of the XCL1-XCR1 communication axis during the functional adaptation of the T cell response to the chronic infection state. These findings not only reveal an important feedback mechanism that couples T cell exhaustion with the maintenance of a lower level of effector T cell response but also suggest therapy options to better control virus levels during the chronic infection phase.

Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Modelos Biológicos , Biologia de Sistemas , Viroses/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Doença Aguda , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doença Crônica , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos
Front Immunol ; 10: 1002, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130969


The host immune response against infection requires the coordinated action of many diverse cell subsets that dynamically adapt to a pathogen threat. Due to the complexity of such a response, most immunological studies have focused on a few genes, proteins, or cell types. With the development of "omic"-technologies and computational analysis methods, attempts to analyze and understand complex system dynamics are now feasible. However, the decomposition of transcriptomic data sets generated from complete organs remains a major challenge. Here, we combined Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis (WGCNA) and Digital Cell Quantifier (DCQ) to analyze time-resolved mouse splenic transcriptomes in acute and chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) infections. This enabled us to generate hypotheses about complex immune functioning after a virus-induced perturbation. This strategy was validated by successfully predicting several known immune phenomena, such as effector cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) expansion and exhaustion. Furthermore, we predicted and subsequently verified experimentally macrophage-CD8 T cell cooperativity and the participation of virus-specific CD8+ T cells with an early effector transcriptome profile in the host adaptation to chronic infection. Thus, the linking of gene expression changes with immune cell kinetics provides novel insights into the complex immune processes within infected tissues.

Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/genética , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Doença Aguda , Animais , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/imunologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL