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1.
Front Chem ; 10: 800729, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677597

RESUMO

The extensive use of medicinal herbs to traditionally treat disease persists for generations, and scientific evidence on plant-derived extracts has indicated their numerous biological activities. The Bauhinia, popular known as cow's paw ("pata de vaca"), with more than 60 native species, are extensively used in Brazilian popular medicine for the control of diabetes. Therefore, in 2009, B. forficata, B. variegata and/or B. affinis were included in the Brazilian National List of Medicinal Plants of Interest to SUS (RENISUS - Brazil). In this context, this work reports the results of the chemical differentiation of B. forficata, B. variegata, B. longifolia, and B. affinis using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry and unsupervised chemometric tools. Chromatographic conditions were optimized by using the design of experiments (DoE) and chromatographic knowledge. Furthermore, the chemical profile of the studied species was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis that differentiated the four species of Bauhinia, and 55 compounds were also inferred by MS2 experiments, some of them for the first time in B. affinis. In this manner, this work provides important information that could be used in quality control, development of new pharmaceuticals, and food products based on Bauhinia leaves, as well as to explain ethnomedicinal properties, pharmacological and toxicological actions.

2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200686, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705938

RESUMO

The extensive marine biodiversity has proved to be a promising source of substances with biomedical potential. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the Brazilian octocoral Phyllogorgia dilatata (Gorgoniidae) was evaluated against two tumor cell lines and three bacterial strains. The methanol/dichloromethane crude extract presented no antibacterial activity up to the highest concentration tested (512 µg/mL), however it revealed a noteworthy antiproliferative effect against HCT-116 (80%) and MCF-7 (54%) cell lines at 50 µg/mL. Therefore, guided by the cytotoxic activity, a multistep chemical fractionation of the extract provided the subfraction 5 (PDPH2-5) with IC50 values of 3.18 and 17.80 µg/mL against HCT-116 and MCF-7, respectively. The LC-HRMS/MS analysis of PDPH2-5 showed ions of m/z 219.1742 and 219.1743, characterized as (E,E) and (Z,E) germacrone, after a LC-DAD-SPE/NMR analysis of the hexanic fraction and comparisons of NMR data with the literature. Previously reported assessments to the cytotoxic activity of the (E,E)-diastereoisomer disclosed higher IC50 values than that obtained for the PDPH2-5 fraction, suggesting, herein, a potentiated effect of the diastereoisomeric mixture. Such remark encourage further bioactivity studies with stereoisomer mixtures and reduce the urge for compound isolation.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Antineoplásicos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antozoários/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Células MCF-7
3.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500665

RESUMO

Metabolomics and lipidomics have demonstrated increasing importance in underlying biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diseases to identify novel drug targets and/or biomarkers for establishing therapeutic approaches for human health. Particularly, bioactive metabolites and lipids have biological activity and have been implicated in various biological processes in physiological conditions. Thus, comprehensive metabolites, and lipids profiling are required to obtain further advances in understanding pathophysiological changes that occur in cells and tissues. Chirality is one of the most important phenomena in living organisms and has attracted long-term interest in medical and natural science. Enantioselective separation plays a pivotal role in understanding the distribution and physiological function of a diversity of chiral bioactive molecules. In this context, it has been the goal of method development for targeted and untargeted metabolomics and lipidomic assays. Herein we will highlight the benefits and challenges involved in these stereoselective analyses for clinical samples.


Assuntos
Lipidômica/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Estereoisomerismo
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443658

RESUMO

In recent decades, fungi-derived naturally occurring quinazolines have emerged as potential drug candidates. Nevertheless, most studies are conducted for bioactivity assays, and little is known about their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) properties. To perform metabolic studies, the synthesis of the naturally occurring quinazolinone, fiscalin B (1), and its chloro derivative, 4-((1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)-8,10-dichloro-1-isobutyl-1,2-dihydro-6H-pyrazino[2,1-b]quinazoline-3,6(4H)-dione (2), disclosed as an antibacterial agent, was performed in a gram scale using a microwave-assisted polycondensation reaction with 22% and 17% yields, respectively. The structure of the non-natural (+)-fiscalin B was established, for the first time, by X-ray crystallography as (1R,4S)-1, and the absolute configuration of the naturally occurring fiscalin B (-)-1 was confirmed by comparison of its calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra as (1S,4R)-1. in vitro metabolic studies were monitored for this class of natural products for the first time by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The metabolic characteristics of 1 and 2 in human liver microsomes indicated hydration and hydroxylation mass changes introduced to the parent drugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Metaboloma/genética , Pirazinas/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dicroísmo Circular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indóis/síntese química , Indóis/química , Indóis/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Pirazinas/síntese química , Pirazinas/química , Quinazolinas/síntese química , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957353

RESUMO

Phorbas is a widely studied genus of marine sponge and produce structurally rich cytotoxic metabolites. Still, only few studies have assessed metabolites present in Brazilian species. To circumvent redundancy, in this work, we applied and herein report the use of a scouting liquid chromatographic system associate to the design of experiment produced by the DryLab® software to obtain a fast and efficient chromatographic separation of the active hexane fraction, further enabling untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) data. To this end, a crude hydroalcoholic extract of the sponge Phorbas amaranthus collected in Brazilian coast was prepared and partitioned. The cytotoxicity of the crude extract and the fractions was evaluated using tumor cell culture models. Fragmentation pathways assembled from HRMS data allowed the annotation of 18 known Phorbas metabolites, while 17 metabolites were inferred based on Global Natural Product Social Molecular Networking (GNPS), matching with a further 29 metabolites annotated through molecular subnetwork. The workflow employed demonstrates that chromatographic method development can be accelerated by the use of automated scouting systems and DryLab®, which is useful for profiling natural product libraries, as well as data curation by molecular clusters and should be incorporated to the tools of natural product chemists.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Poríferos , Extratos de Tecidos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Lisofosfolipídeos/química , Poríferos/química , Poríferos/metabolismo , Esteroides/análise , Esteroides/química , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/química , Extratos de Tecidos/análise , Extratos de Tecidos/metabolismo , Extratos de Tecidos/toxicidade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485157

RESUMO

Structure-based molecular networking is useful as a dereplication strategy to identify known molecules, unknown close analogues, or compound families. On the other hand, the ligand fishing assay is a remarkable alternative to accelerate the screening process and to overcome the drawbacks of laborious experiments usually adopted in natural product research. The combination of these approaches contributes to high productivity in disclosing active metabolites and a decrease in lead time identification. To provide a valuable data base for the alkaloids of A. salzmannii bark herein we disclose thirty-one isoquinoline alkaloids including benzyltetrahydroisoquinolines, aporphines, proaporphines, and protoberberines. Among these, twenty-six have not been described for A. salzmannii including the unprecedented alkaloid N,O-dimethylcoclaurine N-oxide. In addition, norcoclaurine (1), norreticuline (13), N,O-dimethylcoclaurine N-oxide (15), and N-acetylasimilobine (24) are now reported for the first time as ligand for acetylcholinesterase.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Alcaloides/análise , Annona/química , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas/análise , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Casca de Planta/química
8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 193: 113710, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166842

RESUMO

In T. cruzi, a causative agent of Chagas disease, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (TcPEPCK) is associated with carbohydrate catabolism. Due to its importance in the metabolism of the parasite, it has become a promising target for the development of new drugs against Chagas disease. Aiming to investigate different approaches for ligands screening, TcPEPCK was immobilized on amine-terminated magnetic beads (TcPEPCK-MB) and kinetically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry activity assay with a KMapp value of 10 ± 1 µM to oxaloacetate as substrate. Natural products library affords highly diverse molecular frameworks through their secondary metabolites, herein a ligand fishing TcPEPCK-MB assay is described for prospecting ligands in four ethanolic extracts of Brazilian Cerrado plants: Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae), Diospyros burchellii (Ebenaceae), Anadenanthera falcata (Fabaceae) and Byrsonima coccolobifolia (Malpighiaceae). The chemical characterization of eleven identified ligands was carried out by liquid chromatography tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry experiments. Senecic acid, syneilesinolide A, phytosphingosine and vanillic acid 4-glucopyranoside are herein reported for the first time for Q. grandiflora, D. burchellii, A. falcata, respectively. In addition, the specificity of the assay was observed since only catechin was fished out from the ethanolic extract of B. coccolobifolia leaves, despite the presence of epicatechin epimer.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Brasil , Humanos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Fosfoenolpiruvato , Extratos Vegetais
10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 181: 113097, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931446

RESUMO

The screening of compounds is the initial step in research for the development of new drugs. For this reason, the availability of fast and reliable tools for the screening of a large number of compounds becomes essential. Among the therapeutic targets, the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) is of great interest for its importance as a biological source of superoxide radicals, which contribute to the oxidative stress on organisms and are involved in many pathological processes. In the present study, we validated a new method using an immobilized capillary enzyme reactor in an LC system directly coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to screen for XO ligands. The use of mass spectrometry provided selectivity and speed to the system, eliminating the analytical separation step. The Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) value determined for the immobilized enzyme was 14.5 ±â€¯0.4 µmol L-1, which is consistent with the value previously reported for the XO-ICER with UV detection in a 2D LC method. The on-line approach was successfully applied to assay the XO inhibitory activities of thirty isolated compounds from different classes of natural products and provided greater productivity (288 analysis/day) than 2D LC method (84 analysis/day) of screened samples.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Piranos/farmacologia , Succinatos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Front Chem ; 7: 629, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620424

RESUMO

Secondary metabolites from natural products are a potential source of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), which is a key enzyme in the treatment of many neurodegenerative diseases. Inspired by the reported activities of isoquinoline-derivative alkaloids herein we report the design, one step synthesis and evaluation by capillary enzyme reactor (ICER) of benzyl analogs (1a-1e) of the tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloid stepholidine, which is abundant in Onychopetalum amazonicum. Docking analysis based on the crystal structure of Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE) indicated that π-π interactions were dominant in all planned derivatives and that the residues from esteratic, anionic and peripheral subsites of the enzyme played key interaction roles. Due to the similarities observed when compared with galantamine in the AChE complex, the results suggest that ligand-target interactions would increase, especially for the N-benzyl derivatives. From a series of synthesized compounds, the alkaloids (7R,13aS)-7-benzylstepholidine (1a), (7S,13aS)-7-benzylstepholidine (1b), and (S)-10-O-benzylstepholidine (1d) are reported here for the first time. The on flow bioaffinity chromatography inhibition assay, based on the quantification of choline, revealed the N-benzylated compound 1a and its epimer 1b to be the most active, with IC50 of 40.6 ± 1 and 51.9 ± 1 µM, respectively, and a non-competitive mechanism. The proposed approach, which is based on molecular docking and bioaffinity chromatography, demonstrated the usefulness of stepholidine as a template for the design of rational AChEIs and showed how the target-alkaloid derivatives interact with AChE.

12.
Enzyme Res ; 2019: 6139863, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354985

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is responsible for catalyzing the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) leading to acetate and choline (Ch) release. The inhibition of AChE produces a generalized synaptic collapse that can lead to insect death. Herein we report for the first time the isolation of two AChEs from Atta sexdens which were purified by sulphate ammonium precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography. AsAChE-A and AsAChE-B enzymes have optimum pH of 9.5 and 9.0 and higher activities in 30/50°C and 20°C, respectively, using acetylthiocholine (ATCh) as substrate. Immobilized capillary enzyme reactors (ICERs) were obtained for both enzymes (AsAChE-A-ICER and AsAChE-B-ICER) and their activities were measured by LC-MS/MS through hydrolysis product quantification of the natural substrate ACh. The comparison of activities by LC-MS/MS of both AChEs using ACh as substrate showed that AsAChE-B (free or immobilized) had the highest affinity. The inverse result was observed when the colorimetric assay (Elman method) was used for ATCh as substrate. Moreover, by mass spectrometry and phylogenetic studies, AsAChE-A and AsAChE-B were classified as belonging to AChE-2 and AChE-1 classes, respectively.

13.
Chemosphere ; 234: 461-470, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228848

RESUMO

The performances of distinct BDD anodes (boron doping of 100, 500 and 2500 ppm, with sp3/sp2 carbon ratios of 215, 325, and 284, respectively) in the electrochemical degradation of ciprofloxacin - CIP (0.5 L of 50 mg L-1 in 0.10 M Na2SO4, at 25 °C) were comparatively assessed using a recirculating flow system with a filter-press reactor. Performance was assessed by monitoring the CIP and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations, oxidation intermediates, and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli as a function of electrolysis time. CIP removal was strongly affected by the solution pH (kept fixed), flow conditions, and current density; similar trends were obtained independently of the BDD anode used, but the BDD100 anode yielded the best results. Enhanced mass transport was achieved at a low flow rate by promoting the solution turbulence within the reactor. The fastest complete CIP removal (within 20 min) was attained at j = 30 mA cm-2, pH = 10.0, and qV = 2.5 L min-1 + bypass turbulence promotion. TOC removal was practically accomplished only after 10 h of electrolysis, with quite similar performances by the distinct BDD anodes. Five initial oxidation intermediates were identified (263 ≤ m/z ≤ 348), whereas only two terminal oxidation intermediates were detected (oxamic and formic acids). The antimicrobial activity of the electrolyzed CIP solution was almost completely removed within 10 h of electrolysis. The characteristics of the BDD anodes only had a marked effect on the CIP removal rate (best performance by the least-doped anode), contrasting with other data in the literature.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacina/química , Eletrólise/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/química , Boro , Carbono/análise , Carbono/química , Ciprofloxacina/análise , Diamante , Eletrodos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Oxirredução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731263

RESUMO

This paper reports an online SPE-LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGF2α) in menstrual fluid samples. To meet this goal human peripheral serum was used as surrogate matrix. The analytes were trapped on an OASIS HLB cartridge for 3 min, for sample cleanup and enrichment, and then transferred during only 42 s to an HSS T3 C18 analytical column, for separation and analysis. Prostaglandins (PGs) were detected by selected reaction monitoring in negative ion mode, PGE2 (m/z 351 → 315) and PGF2α (m/z 353 → 193) using isotope-labeled internal standard (PGE2-d4, m/z 355 → 319). The concentration linear range was of 10.34-1.034 ng mL-1 and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 10.34 ng mL-1 for both PGs. Validation parameters were successfully assessed according to the European Medicines Agency guideline (EMA), also comprising the FDA normative. The method showed no matrix effect and process efficiency around 100%, in addition to only 15 min of analysis time with lower solvent consumption. The method application was carried out using two menstrual fluid sample groups: control (n = 15) and treatment group (n = 7; samples from women that used Tahiti lemon juice). The PGF2α levels were found to be higher in treated group than in control group (p ≤ 0.05), denoting an effect of the intake of Tahiti lemon juice on the menstrual inflammatory process. The on-line method herein reported could be useful for the analysis of PGs from large research studies.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Dinoprosta/sangue , Dinoprostona/sangue , Menstruação/sangue , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Dinoprosta/isolamento & purificação , Dinoprostona/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(5): 4438-4449, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876851

RESUMO

The electrochemical degradation of ciprofloxacin-CIP (50 mg L-1 in 0.10 mol L-1 Na2SO4) was investigated using a double-sided Ti-Pt/ß-PbO2 anode in a filter-press flow reactor, with identification of oxidation intermediates and follow-up of antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. The effect of solution pH, flow rate, current density, and temperature on the CIP removal rate was evaluated. All of these parameters did affect the CIP removal performance; thus, optimized electrolysis conditions were further explored: pH = 10, qV = 6.5 L min-1, j = 30 mA cm-2, and θ = 25 °C. Therefore, CIP was removed within 2 h, whereas ~75% of the total organic carbon concentration (TOC) was removed after 5 h and then, the solution no longer presented antimicrobial activity. When the electrochemical degradation of CIP was investigated using a single-sided boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode, its performance in TOC removal was similar to that of the Ti-Pt/ß-PbO2 anode; considering the higher oxidation power of BDD, the surprisingly good comparative performance of the Ti-Pt/ß-PbO2 anode was ascribed to significantly better hydrodynamic conditions attained in the filter-press reactor used with this electrode. Five initial oxidation intermediates were identified by LC-MS/MS and completely removed after 4 h of electrolysis; since they have also been determined in other degradation processes, there must be similarities in the involved oxidation mechanisms. Five terminal oxidation intermediates (acetic, formic, oxamic, propionic, and succinic acids) were identified by LC-UV and all of them (except acetic acid) were removed after 10 h of electrolysis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Ciprofloxacina/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Ciprofloxacina/toxicidade , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Modelos Teóricos , Oxirredução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/instrumentação
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1569: 1-7, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025608

RESUMO

The correct quantification of enantiomers is pivotal in a variety of fields, such as pharmacokinetic studies, enantioselective syntheses, chemical characterization of natural products, authentication of fragrance and food, biodegradation behavior, accurate evaluation of environmental risk, and it can also provide information for sentencing guidance in forensic field. Enantioselective chromatography is the first choice to assess the composition of an enantiomeric mixture. Different notations have been used to express the measured enantiomeric ratios, which compromise the results and represent a challenge for data comparison. This manuscript critically discusses the currently used notations and exemplifies with applications in different fields indicating the advantages and disadvantages of one of the adopted systems. In order to simplify the notations, the use of enantiomeric ratio (e.r.%) as standardization for nonchiroptical methods is proposed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/normas , Técnicas de Química Analítica/instrumentação , Cromatografia , Estereoisomerismo
18.
Org Biomol Chem ; 16(24): 4509-4516, 2018 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873386

RESUMO

One of the most widely used methods to assess the stereochemistry of chiral 2(5H)-furanones is an empirical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) helicity rule. In the present work, an extensive experimental and theoretical investigation of the scope of the above-mentioned empirical rule for acetogenins with a hydroxyl group substituted at C-4 revealed a possible exception to this rule. The underlying causes for this observation are discussed with respect to side chain substitutions, conformational requirements, chromophore handedness as well as a qualitative orbital analysis. Further investigation using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy led to the identification of spectral markers that seem to be more localized and less affected by side chain substitutions. As the presence of a [capital Upsilon]-lactone ring and a hydroxyl group at C-4 is a very common structural feature of Annonaceous acetogenins, we recommend the combined use of ECD and VCD spectroscopy, along with quantum chemical computations, for the stereochemical analysis of structurally related molecules.

19.
Chemosphere ; 206: 674-681, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783052

RESUMO

The role of the supporting electrolyte - SE (Na2SO4; NaCl; Na2CO3; NaNO3; Na3PO4 - 0.1 M ionic strength) in the galvanostatic (10 mA cm-2) electrochemical degradation of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin (ENRO; 100 mg L-1) using a filter-press flow cell with a boron-doped diamond anode was investigated (flow rate, solution volume, and temperature were kept fixed at 420 L h-1, 1.0 L, and 25 °C, respectively). The electrochemical degradation performance with the different SEs was assessed by following up [ENRO], total organic carbon concentration (TOC), oxidation intermediates (detected by LC and LC-QqTOF), and antimicrobial activity towards Escherichia coli as the electrolyses progressed. With NaCl as SE, complete removal of ENRO was attained ∼10 times faster than with the other salts. The determination of terminal oxidation intermediates (short-chain carboxylic acids) produced during the electrolyses allowed concluding that their nature and number is indeed affected by the salt used as SE, most probably due to distinct electrogenerated oxidants. With NaCl, the antimicrobial activity of the electrolyzed solution decreased gradually (to ∼20%) from 8 to 16 h of electrolysis due to the cleavage of the fluoroquinolone structure. On the other hand, with Na2SO4, Na2CO3 and NaNO3 as SEs the growth of Escherichia coli cells was observed only after ∼14 h, whereas it was completely inhibited with Na3PO4. Clearly, the electrooxidation and mineralization of ENRO is strongly affected by the SEs used, which determine the degradation mechanism and, consequently, the removal rates of the solution's organic load and antimicrobial activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Eletrólitos/química , Fluoroquinolonas/química , Boro/química , Eletrodos , Enrofloxacina , Cinética , Oxirredução
20.
Molecules ; 23(2)2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473869

RESUMO

Chiral natural product molecules are generally assumed to be biosynthesized in an enantiomerically pure or enriched fashion. Nevertheless, a significant amount of racemates or enantiomerically enriched mixtures has been reported from natural sources. This number is estimated to be even larger since the enantiomeric purity of secondary metabolites is rarely checked in the natural product isolation pipeline. This latter fact may have drastic effects on the evaluation of the biological activity of chiral natural products. A second bottleneck is the determination of their absolute configurations. Despite the widespread use of optical rotation and electronic circular dichroism, most of the stereochemical assignments are based on empirical correlations with similar compounds reported in the literature. As an alternative, the combination of vibrational circular dichroism and quantum chemical calculations has emerged as a powerful and reliable tool for both conformational and configurational analysis of natural products, even for those lacking UV-Vis chromophores. In this review, we aim to provide the reader with a critical overview of the occurrence of enantiomeric mixtures of secondary metabolites in nature as well the best practices for their detection, enantioselective separation using liquid chromatography, and determination of absolute configuration by means of vibrational circular dichroism and density functional theory calculations.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia , Dicroísmo Circular , Modelos Teóricos , Estrutura Molecular , Metabolismo Secundário , Análise Espectral , Fluxo de Trabalho
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