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1.
Chem Senses ; 492024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38818785

RESUMO

Only a few studies have investigated olfactory function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) using psychophysical testing, and there is a scarcity of data regarding taste evaluation in the existing literature. The primary objectives of this study were to assess both smell and taste in patients with OSAS and to explore the correlation between the severity of symptoms and sensory perception. A total of 85 OSAS patients and a control group comprising 81 subjects were enrolled. Initial assessments included anamnesis, nasal endoscopy, and the completion of questionnaires (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Visual Analogue Scale, Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders, and the importance of olfaction questionnaire). The diagnosis of OSAS was confirmed by polysomnography, while nasal airflow was evaluated using rhinomanometry. Olfaction was assessed using the Sniffin' Sticks test, and the Threshold-Discrimination-Identification (TDI) score was calculated. Taste evaluation was conducted in a subgroup of participants (42 patients, 38 controls) using taste strips. The mean TDI score was 31 ±â€…5.6 for OSAS patients and 35 ±â€…4.6 for controls, indicating a significant difference (P < 0.001). Similarly, the taste score was 7 ±â€…3.0 for OSAS patients and 12.6 ±â€…3.2 for controls (P < 0.001). No correlations were observed between TDI and Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) (r = -0.12; P = 0.28), as well as between the taste score and AHI (r = -0.31; P = 0.22). However, a weak but significant correlation between TDI score and Epworth Sleepiness Scale was detected (r = -0.05; P = 0.002). The study revealed a significant decrease in sensory perception among patients with OSAS, though open questions persist about the pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Olfato , Paladar , Humanos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Polissonografia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Idoso
2.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 45(4): 104275, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biologic agents are considered a new revolutionized therapy for severe and recurrent forms of CRSwNP which disease burden is not sufficiently controlled by conservative and/or surgical treatments. Recent Research has focused on evaluating their real-life efficacy in CRSwNP, as only limited reports on real-life data are available. However, in most studies, the response to treatment is evaluated in terms of improvement in Nasal Polyp Score (NPS) or in Sino-Nasal Outcome test (SNOT-22) scores. However, both criteria do not consider nasal immunophlogosis, which can be easily assessed by nasal cytology. The aim of our study was to evaluate changings in the nasal inflammatory infiltrate of CRSwNP patients treated with Dupilumab for 12 months. METHODS: 27 patients suffering from severe CRSwNP treated with Dupilumab were recruited. Nasal cytology findings, NPS, SNOT-22, ACT scores and blood eosinophil count at T0 (before treatment) and at T1 (after 1 year of treatment) were compared. RESULTS: After 1 year of biological therapy with Dupilumab, NPS, SNOT-22 and, among the 17 asthmatic patients, ACT scores improved significantly. At T1, a statistically significant percentage of patients showed negative citology. Moreover, a significant reduction in the mast cell-eosinophilic pattern and an increase of neutrophils and bacteria was reported. CONCLUSIONS: The response to treatment can be considered both in the case of negative nasal cytology and in the case of the appearance of neutrophils and bacteria. In this context, eosinophils, the specific target of biological therapies, play a crucial role in regulating tissue homeostasis and, consequently, the nasal immunophlogosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Pólipos Nasais , Rinite , Humanos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Feminino , Pólipos Nasais/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Eosinófilos , Fatores de Tempo , Teste de Desfecho Sinonasal , Idoso , Mucosa Nasal/patologia
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(22)2023 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38001716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an indolent behavior; however, a subgroup of this tumor presents an aggressive behavior with a tendency to recur. The aim of this multicenter study was to identify and stratify those patients with AciCC at high risk of tumor recurrence. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out involving 77 patients treated with surgery between January 2000 and September 2022, in different Italian referral centers. Data about tumor characteristics and its recurrence were collected. The histological specimens and slides were independently reviewed by a senior pathologist coordinator (L.C.) and the institution's local head and neck pathologist. RESULTS: The patients' age average was 53.6 years, with a female prevalence in the group. The mean follow-up was 67.4 months (1-258, SD 59.39). The five-year overall survival (OS) was 83.2%. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 60% (95% CI 58.2-61.7). A high incidence of necrosis, extraglandular spread, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), atypical mitosis, and cellular pleomorphism was observed in the high-risk tumors compared to the low-risk ones. CONCLUSION: AciCC generally had an indolent behavior, optimal OS, DFS with few cervical node metastases, and rare distant relapses. This multicenter retrospective case series provides evidence of the need for clinical-epidemiological-histological stratification for patients at risk of poor outcomes. Our results suggest that the correct definition of high-risk AciCC should include tumor size, the presence of necrosis, extraglandular spread, LVI, atypical mitosis, and cellular pleomorphism.

4.
Acta Biomed ; 94(4): e2023218, 2023 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37539610

RESUMO

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nose and the paranasal sinuses characterized by the presence of nasal polyps and persistent symptoms of nasal obstruction, anterior or posterior rhinorrhea, facial pain or pressure, and reduction or loss of smell, lasting longer than 12 weeks. Several therapeutic strategies are nowadays available to treat CRSwNP as a function of disease severity. However, a standardized therapeutic algorithm has not yet been proposed. Since CRSwNP severity can be assessed by the Clinical-Cytological Grading (CCG) and the consequent reduction in patients' Quality of Life can be defined with the Sino Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22), we aimed to propose a new diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm, that takes into consideration both the characteristics of the patients, including the CCG, nasal obstruction, and SNOT-22, and all the therapies available today.


Assuntos
Obstrução Nasal , Pólipos Nasais , Rinite , Sinusite , Humanos , Pólipos Nasais/complicações , Pólipos Nasais/diagnóstico , Pólipos Nasais/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Rinite/complicações , Rinite/diagnóstico , Rinite/terapia , Sinusite/complicações , Sinusite/diagnóstico , Sinusite/terapia , Doença Crônica
6.
J Pers Med ; 13(7)2023 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37511695

RESUMO

(1) Background: Otitis externa (OE) is a common inflammatory disease of the external ear canal. Given the numerous manifestations of OE, the high rate of recurrence of the disease, as well as the emergence of resistance to antibiotics, therapeutic strategies are numerous and still not well standardized. The aim of this study was to investigate the patient journey of Italian patients suffering from OE, paying greater attention to new therapeutic options. (2) Methods: We conducted a national survey to evaluate the characteristics of patients affected by OE and to analyze the most-prescribed treatments. (3) Results: OE is a common, often relapsing disease that has several clinical manifestations. Prior to observation, the combination of corticosteroids and topical antibiotics was the most common therapeutic strategy. At the time of observation, new liposomal ozone-based preparations were the most-prescribed treatment. (4) Conclusions: This multi-center study investigated key aspects of the OE patient journey, highlighting the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. Restoring a correct ear microbiome is the therapeutic goal. In this context, new liposomal ozone-based drugs represent a promising therapeutic strategy.

7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 12101, 2023 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37495667

RESUMO

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is defined as a Type 2 eosinophilic disease, while CRSsNP is considered a Type 1 neutrophilic disease. Since neutrophils are also activated in eosinophilic CRSwNP, the eosinophil-neutrophil dualism has been revaluated. Among the inflammatory cells infiltrating sinus-nasal tissues, the role of mast cells (MCs) is not already recognized, although Clinical-Cytological Grading, which defines the severity of CRSwNP, attributes to mixed eosinophil-MC forms of CRSwNP a greater risk of recurrence. We aimed to examine nasal polyps from both a cytological and histopathological point of view, to evaluate the presence and localization of MCs. Cytological and histological examination of 39 samples of nasal polyps were performed. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the presence of Tryptase + CD117 + MCs, which were counted both in the epithelial layer and in the lamina propria. A statistically significant correlation was found between intraepithelial MCs and CRSwNP severity (p < 0.001) and between the total eosinophil count and the total mast cell count (p < 0.001). Cytological examination and immunohistochemistry were comparable in detecting the presence of intraepithelial MCs (p = 0.002). The histological cut-off of 6 intraepithelial MCs was identified to detect severe CRSwNP (p < 0.001). MCs have been shown to be located in the lamina propria of almost all eosinophilic nasal polyps without significantly affecting their severity. Intraepithelial MCs are associated with greater severity of CRSwNP. Histopathological criteria of the eosinophil-MC form of CRSwNP in addition to the eosinophilic one, should be defined to guarantee patients effective and tailored treatments.


Assuntos
Pólipos Nasais , Rinite , Sinusite , Humanos , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Rinite/complicações , Pólipos Nasais/patologia , Sinusite/patologia , Doença Crônica
8.
Prog Orthod ; 24(1): 19, 2023 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37246168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of interdental widths and palatal morphology on the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has not been well investigated in adult patients yet. The aim of this paper was to assess the morphology of maxilla and mandibular dental arches on three-dimensional (3D) casts and to correlate these measurements with the severity of OSA. METHODS: Sixty-four patients (8 women and 56 men, mean age 52.4) with a diagnosis of mild-to-moderate OSA were retrospectively enrolled. On each patient, home sleep apnea test and 3D dental models were collected. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were recorded, as well as the dental measurements including inter-molar distance, anterior and posterior widths of maxillary and mandibular arches, upper and lower arch lengths, palatal height, and palatal surface area. The respiratory and dental variables were then correlated. RESULT: A statistically inverse correlation was found between ODI and anterior width of lower arch, maxillary arch length, palatal height, and palatal area. AHI showed a significant inverse correlation with anterior width of mandibular arch and maxillary length. CONCLUSION: A significant inverse correlation between maxillary and mandibular morphology and respiratory parameters was shown in the present paper.


Assuntos
Arco Dental , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Palato , Mandíbula
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1143351, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36968832

RESUMO

Knowledge of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) has increased rapidly over the past decade. However, the study of the histological features of nasal polyps has not gone hand in hand with the study of the inflammatory mechanisms underlying CRSwNP. Indeed, precisely because they are benign neoformations, nasal polyps have not attracted the attention of pathologists over the years. Nasal cytology has shown that CRSwNP, generally defined as a Type-2 disease, is characterized not only by eosinophilic but also mast cell inflammation and, in particular, the most severe forms of CRSwNP are precisely characterized by a mixed eosinophilic-mast cell inflammation. Interestingly, mast cells cannot be visualized by histology due to limitations in staining and magnification, and therefore are not commonly described in histological reports of nasal polyps. However, immunohistochemistry can highlight these latter cells and specifically this technique has recently demonstrated that mast cells are located in the lamina propria of almost all types of polyps and in the epithelial level of the most severe forms. Unfortunately, the latter technique is not commonly carried out in clinical practice by virtue of the high cost and time burden. On the other hand, nasal cytology is an easy-to-apply and economic diagnostic tool, commonly practiced in rhinological setting, which can effectively fill the gap between histology and immunohistochemistry, allowing to non-invasively establish the endotype of nasal polyps and to highlight all cytotypes, including mast cells, that cannot be visualized by the other two techniques. The recent demonstration of the close correlation between mast cell intraepithelial infiltrate and CRSwNP severity paves the way for new therapeutic possibilities aimed at reducing not only eosinophilic infiltration but also mast cell infiltration.

10.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(3)2023 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36767010

RESUMO

To date, the use of barbed sutures for the surgical management of patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with retropalatal collapse and vibration has significantly increased. A systematic review was carried out, which included clinical studies that used barbed sutures for the treatment of snoring. A qualitative analysis, including six clinical studies, was conducted. Of these, five were studies on barbed pharyngoplasties, and one study involved a minimally invasive surgical procedure. The population consisted of 176 patients, aged 26 to 58 years old. Overall, the included studies showed a mean gain in the snoring Visual Analog Scale of 5.67 ± 1.88, with a mean preoperative value of 8.35 ± 1.17 and a postoperative value of 2.68 ± 1.27. No major complications were described. Given the lack and heterogeneity of this evidence, the conclusion calls for being cautious. In carefully selected snorers and obstructive sleep apnea patients, the use of barbed sutures could represent a valid therapeutic strategy for snoring, ensuring a statistically significant improvement in the subjective parameters. Further studies on a larger scale that assess the role of barbed pharyngoplasties in snoring surgery and more extended follow-up studies are needed in order to confirm these promising results.

11.
Sleep Breath ; 27(1): 31-38, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the use of barbed pharyngoplasty (BP) has become widespread in snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) palatal surgery, but there are no studies regarding the short- and long-term complications resulting from these different techniques. This systematic review aimed to report the complications and side effects of different BP techniques. METHODS: An electronic search was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Ovid databases. The PRISMA statement was followed. Databases were searched from inception through September 2, 2021. RESULTS: We included 14 prospective clinical studies consisting of 769 patients aged 23 to 81 years. The associated intra-operative complications of BP were as follows: partial thread extrusion (2.9%), self-limited bleeding (2.9%), broken needle (1.0%), and suture rupture (1.0%). Short-term complications were as follows: thread/knot extrusion (12.4%), dysphagia (5.6%), bleeding (1.5%), velopharyngeal insufficiency (1.5%), anterior pharyngoplasty dehiscence (1.2%), tonsillar haemorrhage (1.0%), excessive postnasal discharge (1.0%), barbed suture failure (0.5%), acute infection (0.2%), mucosal granulomas (0.2%), chipped tooth caused by mouth gag displacement (0.2%), and fibrous scar (0.2%). Long-term complications were as follows: foreign body sensation (7.8%), sticky mucus in throat (5.9%), dysphagia (3.6%), rhinolalia (3.1%), throat phlegm (1.1%), nose regurgitation (0.8%), dry throat (0.6%), and throat lump (0.3%). CONCLUSION: BP is a safe technique free of significant side effects and major complications. However, in this review, patients undergoing BP were very heterogeneous in terms of characteristics of patients chosen and severity of diseases, surgical technique used (myoresective vs non-myoresective), time of follow-up, and mono level vs multilevel surgery. More studies on a larger scale with long-term follow-up are needed to confirm these promising results.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Faringe , Humanos , Faringe/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Pescoço
12.
Sleep Breath ; 27(1): 103-108, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460429

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recently, new non-invasive electrical stimulation devices have been developed with the aim to increase the tongue muscle tone for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and snorers. The aim of this study was to provide a review of the first results found in the literature regarding the efficacy of non-invasive electric stimulation devices for the treatment of primary snoring and OSA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Ovid databases. The PRISMA statement was followed. Databases were searched from inception through September, 2021. RESULTS: Four studies met the criteria for inclusion in this review, for a total of 265 patients. Two devices were included in this review, Apone-Stim 400 Muscle Stimulator and eXciteOSA. All studies suggested that these new devices are effective in improving snoring by approximately 50% after device training, without major complications. However data regarding OSA improvement are conflicting. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoral non-invasive electrical stimulation devices can be considered a valid option to current therapies for snoring. Further studies are needed to support these interesting new devices for treatment of OSA.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Ronco , Humanos , Ronco/terapia , Estimulação Elétrica , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Língua
14.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 280(4): 1523-1528, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376525

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Biofilm formation has been recently recognised as one of the most important etiopathological mechanisms underlying chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and its recalcitrance. In this context, nasal cytology (NC) has become an integral part of diagnostic work up of patients suffering from sino-nasal diseases, since it is an easy-to-apply, reproducible and non-invasive diagnostic tool that allows to assess both the nasal inflammatory infiltrate and the presence of biofilms on nasal mucosal surface, further orienting the therapeutic choices in case of infectious diseases for eradicating infections and biofilms. Nevertheless, biofilms are typically resistant to common antibiotic treatments and may trigger or maintain chronic inflammation. Hence, the importance of correctly detecting the presence of biofilm and identifying new effective treatments. PURPOSE: The aim of this brief review is to better clarify the role of biofilm in the pathogenesis and recurrence of sino-nasal disorders and to highlight the role of nasal cytology (NC) in the rhino-allergologic diagnostic path and in the evaluation of the effectiveness of new treatments.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Pólipos Nasais , Rinite , Humanos , Rinite/diagnóstico , Rinite/terapia , Rinite/patologia , Pólipos Nasais/patologia , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Doença Crônica , Biofilmes
16.
Int J Dent ; 2022: 4629341, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36187733

RESUMO

Objectives: To present a new short self-test, called the OSA wellness scale (OWS), for assessing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes in obstructive apnea syndrome (OSA) patients treated with mandibular advancement device (MAD). Methods: 51 OSA patients (8 women and 43 men, mean age 52.3) treated with a fully customizable MAD device (Protrusor) were retrospectively enrolled. Each patient received a home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) at baseline (T0) and after three months of MAD treatment (T1). Two self-test evaluations, the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), and OWS were also submitted at T0 and T1. The OWS was a short self-test of 8 questions for evaluating the daytime HRQoL. Patients gave an assessment from 0 to 3 for each question. At the end of the questionnaire, the patients had a score from 0 to 24, resulting from the sum of all 8 scores. The higher the score, the greater the patient's perceived state of discomfort. Results: At T1, a significant decrease in the oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was shown (p < 0.0001), while no significant changes in body mass index (BMI) were found. Both the ESS and the OWS records showed a significant reduction in daytime sleepiness and HRQoL (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The OWS could be a useful method to verify and numerically compare the perceived quality of life in OSA patients, before and after MAD therapy.

17.
Acta Biomed ; 93(4): e2022249, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Allergic rhinitis (AR) and non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) belong to field of vasomotor rhinitis, characterized by nasal hyper-reactivity. Since AR and NAR are two separate nosological entities, these rhinopaties can coexist in the same patient in up to 15-20% of cases. Overlapped rhinitis (ORs) are associated with intense and persistent symptoms and are often misdiagnosed. Typically, when medical treatment fails, patients undergo turbinate surgery. We evaluated which rhinopaties are most at risk of undergoing turbinate surgery and established the percentage of ORs.  Methods: The study included 120 patients undergoing turbinate surgery for turbinate hypertrophy. Anterior rhinoscopy, nasal endoscopy, nasal cytology, skin prick tests (SPT) and/or specific IgE serum assays (CAP-RAST) were performed preoperative on all patients. RESULTS: Among patients with indication for turbinate surgery, 75% suffered from AR, whereas 25% of them had NAR. On closer analysis, only 7 (8%) of allergic patients presented a "pure" allergy.  NAR with eosinophils and mast cells (NARESMA) represented the most common type of superimposed rhinitis (62.5%), while NAR with mast cells (NARMA) and with eosinophils (NARES) represented 25% and 12.5% of the superimposed forms, respectively. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients undergoing turbinate surgery actually have complex forms of rhinitis. The non-allergic component of ORs often causes therapeutic failure. NARESMAs overlapping ARs are at most risk of undergoing turbinate surgery. Correctly framing a rhino-allergological patient is essential in order to guarantee the most adequate treatment. Hence the importance of introducing in clinical practice investigations, including allergy tests and nasal cytology.


Assuntos
Rinite Alérgica , Rinite , Eosinófilos , Humanos , Rinite/diagnóstico , Rinite/cirurgia , Rinite Alérgica/cirurgia , Testes Cutâneos , Conchas Nasais/cirurgia
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(6): 2106720, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985019

RESUMO

Recurrent infections of upper and lower respiratory tract have an important clinical and economic impact, which can be reduced through appropriate preventive measures, including the use of immunomodulating agents, such as OM-85, which proved to be effective and safe in both adults and children. Although OM-85 can be useful for the prevention of respiratory tract infections, it is still underused in clinical practice. In order to evaluate the level of awareness of the disease burden of recurrent respiratory infections in adults and children and to assess the level of agreement on the prophylactic and therapeutic approach to the disease, including the use of immunomodulants, a Delphi study was performed. A board of six experts in the field of respiratory infections was appointed to elaborate a series of statements covering four main topics (disease, prevention, OM-85, and future strategies), which were thereafter voted by a panel of 30 experts. Results showed that prevention is unanimously recognized as the most important intervention to reduce disease burden, and the use of immunomodulation to improve the effectiveness of vaccination is gaining increasing favor among clinicians. In this respect, OM-85 is recognized as the most studied immunomodulating agent currently available, whose efficacy and safety make it a valuable tool to optimize the management of recurrent respiratory infections in both adults and children. In particular, the combined use of OM-85 and influenza vaccine was recognized as an effective and safe approach to improve the current prevention strategies in order to reduce the burden of recurrent respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Reinfecção , Técnica Delphi , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myringotomy with ventilation tube (VT) insertion is one the most performed procedures in children and adolescents worldwide. VTs usually remain in the eardrum between 6 and 12 months and during this period otorrhoea is the most frequent complication. For years, parents have been advised to protect the ears of children with VTs from contact with water, as water exposure in the middle ear is likely to cause acute otitis media. However, there is a growing evidence that water should not traverse VTs unless under significant pressure, so routine water precautions should not be prescribed. Despite these recommendations, many otolaryngologists and paediatricians continue to prescribe earplugs during bathing or swimming or advise against aquatic activities. There are already two reviews in the current literature on this topic: the first used strict selection criteria and included only 2 high-quality studies, while the second presented evidence up to 2005. The aim of this review is to identify, summarize and critically appraise the current evidence concerning water precautions for children with VTs. METHODS: Two independent reviewers separately searched for related scientific papers. A qualitative synthesis analysis was performed considering the selected studies regarding the effects of water exposure on paediatric subjects with VTs. RESULTS: Four randomized clinical trials (RCT) and five prospective cohort studies were included, for a total of 1299 patients aged from 3 months to 14 years. No statistically significant difference in otorrhoea incidence between water exposure with and without ear protection in children with VTs, and between water exposure and no water exposure in children with VTs, was found. Therefore avoiding water is at best inconvenient and at worst may delay learning to swim. The decision to protect the ear when exposed to water should be individualized and protection should be recommended during the first month after surgery and in cases of recurrent otorrhoea. CONCLUSION: Based on the literature available, allowing water surface activities with no ear protection seems to present a minimum risk, so it is not necessary to prohibit patients from swimming. However, some recommendations should be followed.


Assuntos
Otopatias , Otite Média , Adolescente , Criança , Otopatias/cirurgia , Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas , Orelha Média , Humanos , Ventilação da Orelha Média , Otite Média/cirurgia
20.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(12): 5821-5829, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the demographic data, surgical and adjuvant treatment data and the survival outcomes in adult patients affected by acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland (AciCC). METHODS: A retrospective multicenter analysis of patients treated for AciCC of the parotid gland from 2000 to 2021 was performed. Exclusion criteria were pediatric (0-18 years) patients, the absence of follow-up and patients with secondary metastatic disease to the parotid gland. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with survival. RESULTS: The study included 81 adult patients with AciCC of the parotid gland. The median age was 46.3 years (SD 15.81, range 19-84 years), with a gender female prevalence (F = 48, M = 33). The mean follow-up was 77.7 months (min 4-max 361, SD 72.46). The 5 years overall survival (OS) was 97.5%. The 5 years disease-free survival (DFS) was 60%. No statistical differences have been found in prognosis for age (< 65 or ≥ 65 years), sex, surgery type (superficial vs profound parotid surgery), radicality (R0 vs R1 + Rclose), neck dissection, early pathologic T and N stages and adjuvant therapy (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study did not find prognostic factor for poorest outcome. In contrast with the existing literature, our results showed how also high-grade tumours cannot be considered predictive of recurrence or aggressive behaviour.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Acinares , Neoplasias Parotídeas , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/patologia , Glândula Parótida/patologia , Neoplasias Parotídeas/cirurgia , Glucosamina , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
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