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1.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116854, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequent tumor worldwide. In Spain, it presents a large geographic variability in incidence, suggesting a possible role of environmental factors in its etiology. Therefore, epidemiologic research focused on environmental exposures is necessary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between risk of gastric cancer (by histological type and tumor site) and residential proximity to industrial installations, according to categories of industrial groups and specific pollutants released, in the context of a population-based multicase-control study of incident cancer conducted in Spain (MCC-Spain). METHODS: In this study, 2664 controls and 137 gastric cancer cases from 9 provinces, frequency matched by province of residence, age, and sex were included. Distances from the individuals' residences to the 106 industries located in the study areas were computed. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance (from 1 km to 3 km) to industries, adjusting for matching variables and potential confounders. RESULTS: Overall, no excess risk of gastric cancer was observed in people living close to the industrial installations, with ORs ranging from 0.73 (at ≤2.5 km) to 0.93 (at ≤1.5 km). However, by industrial sector, excess risks (OR; 95%CI) were found near organic chemical industry (3.51; 1.42-8.69 at ≤2 km), inorganic chemical industry (3.33; 1.12-9.85 at ≤2 km), food/beverage sector (2.48; 1.12-5.50 at ≤2 km), and surface treatment using organic solvents (3.59; 1.40-9.22 at ≤3 km). By specific pollutant, a statistically significant excess risk (OR; 95%CI) was found near (≤3 km) industries releasing nonylphenol (6.43; 2.30-17.97) and antimony (4.82; 1.94-12.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest no association between risk of gastric cancer and living in the proximity to the industrial facilities as a whole. However, a few associations were detected near some industrial sectors and installations releasing specific pollutants.

2.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1537-1545, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743289

RESUMO

AIMS: To study whether the consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks is associated with breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers. METHODS: Multicentric population-based case-control study (MCC-Spain) conducted in 12 Spanish provinces. Participants were men and women between 20 and 85 years of age with diagnoses of colorectal (n = 1852), breast (n = 1486), or prostate cancer (n = 953), and population-based controls (n = 3543) frequency-matched by age, sex, and region. Dietary intake was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Foods and drinks were categorized according to their degree of processing based on the NOVA classification. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between ultra-processed food and drink consumption and colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. RESULTS: In multiple adjusted models, consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer (OR for a 10% increase in consumption: 1.11; 95% CI 1.04-1.18). The corresponding odds for breast (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11) and prostate cancer (OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.93-1.12) were indicative of no association. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this large population-based case-control study suggest an association between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks and colorectal cancer. Food policy and public health should include a focus on food processing when formulating dietary guidelines.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5375, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686151

RESUMO

The St Gallen Conference endorsed in 2013 a series of recommendations on early breast cancer treatment. The main purpose of this article is to ascertain the clinical factors associated with St Gallen-2013 recommendations accomplishment. A cohort of 1152 breast cancer cases diagnosed with pathological stage < 3 in Spain between 2008 and 2013 was begun and then followed-up until 2017/2018. Data on patient and tumour characteristics were obtained from medical records, as well as their first line treatment. First line treatments were classified in three categories, according on whether they included the main St Gallen-2013 recommendations, more than those recommended or less than those recommended. Multinomial logistic regression models were carried out to identify factors associated with this classification and Weibull regression models were used to find out the relationship between this classification and survival. About half of the patients were treated according to St Gallen recommendations; 21% were treated over what was recommended and 33% received less treatment than recommended. Factors associated with treatment over the recommendations were stage II (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 4.2, 2.9-5.9), cancer positive to either progesterone (RRR = 8.1, 4.4-14.9) or oestrogen receptors (RRR = 5.7, 3.0-11.0). Instead, factors associated with lower probability of treatment over the recommendations were age (RRR = 0.7 each 10 years, 0.6-0.8), poor differentiation (RRR = 0.09, 0.04-0.19), HER2 positive (RRR = 0.46, 0.26-0.81) and triple negative cancer (RRR = 0.03, 0.01-0.11). Patients treated less than what was recommended in St Gallen had cancers in stage 0 (RRR = 21.6, 7.2-64.5), poorly differentiated (RRR = 1.9, 1.2-2.9), HER2 positive (RRR = 3.4, 2.4-4.9) and luminal B-like subtype (RRR = 3.6, 2.6-5.1). Women over 65 years old had a higher probability of being treated less than what was recommended if they had luminal B-like, HER2 or triple negative cancer. Treatment over St Gallen was associated with younger women and less severe cancers, while treatment under St Gallen was associated with older women, more severe cancers and cancers expressing HER2 receptors.

4.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 30(3): 204-210, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee contains many bioactive substances that can play a role on colorectal cancer. Epidemiological evidence of coffee intake and colorectal cancer is, however, inconsistent. AIM: To provide further information on the risk of colorectal cancer in relation to coffee consumption. METHODS: Data derive from two companion case-control studies conducted in Italy and Spain within the European Union Project on Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in Drinking Water and the Spanish Multi-Case Control study on Cancer. These included a total of 2289 incident cases with colorectal cancer and 3995 controls with information on coffee intake. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for study centre, sex, age, education, smoking, and other covariates. RESULTS: Compared with never coffee drinkers, the OR was 0.99 (95% CI 0.95-1.02) for total coffee consumption. There was no significant trend in risk with dose or duration, the ORs being 0.95 (95% CI 0.72-1.25) for an amount of five or more cups per day of coffee and 0.95 (95% CI 0.75-1.19) for a duration of consumption of 50 years or longer. The OR was 1.04 (95% CI 0.87-1.25) for two or more cups per day of decaffeinated coffee. There were no heterogeneity across strata of various covariates, as well as no apparent differences between various anatomical subsites. CONCLUSION: This large pooled analysis of two studies shows no association of coffee and decaffeinated coffee with colorectal cancer risk.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms linking occupational heat exposure with chronic diseases have been proposed. However, evidence on occupational heat exposure and cancer risk is limited. METHODS: We evaluated occupational heat exposure and female breast cancer risk in a large Spanish case-control study. We enrolled 1,738 breast cancer cases and 1,910 frequency-matched population controls. A Spanish job exposure matrix, MatEmEsp, was used to assign estimates of the proportion of workers exposed (P greater than or equal to 25% for at least one year) and work time with heat stress (wet bulb globe temperature ISO 7243) for each occupation. We used three exposure indices: ever vs. never exposed, lifetime cumulative exposure and duration of exposure (years). We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), applying a lag-period of 5 years, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Ever occupational heat exposure was associated with a moderate but statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.01, 1.46), with significant trends across categories of lifetime cumulative exposure and duration (p-trend = 0.01 and 0.03 respectively). Stronger associations were found for hormone receptor positive disease (OR ever exposure = 1.38; 95% CI 1.12, 1.67). We found no confounding effects from multiple other common occupational exposures, however results attenuated with adjustment for occupational detergent exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some evidence of an association between occupational heat exposure and female breast cancer risk. IMPACT: Our results contribute substantially to the scientific literature. Further investigations are needed, considering multiple occupational exposures.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374289

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between the intake of the major nutrients and prognosis in breast cancer. A cohort based on 1350 women with invasive (stage I-IV) breast cancer (BC) was followed up. Information about their dietary habits before diagnosis was collected using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants without FFQ or with implausible energy intake were excluded. The total amount consumed of each nutrient (Kcal/day) was divided into tertiles, considering as "high intakes" those above third tertile. The main effect studied was overall survival. Cox regression was used to assess the association between death and nutrient intake. During a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 171 deaths were observed. None of the nutrients analysed was associated with mortality in the whole sample. However, in normal-weight women (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2) a high intake of carbohydrates (≥809 Kcal/day), specifically monosaccharides (≥468 Kcal/day), worsened prognostic compared to lowest (≤352 Kcal/day). Hazard Ratios (HRs) for increasing tertiles of intake were HR:2.22 95% CI (1.04 to 4.72) and HR:2.59 95% CI (1.04 to 6.48), respectively (p trend = 0.04)). Conversely, high intakes of polyunsaturated fats (≥135 Kcal/day) improved global survival (HR: 0.39 95% CI (0.15 to 1.02) p-trend = 0.05) compared to the lowest (≤92.8 kcal/day). In addition, a protective effect was found substituting 100 kcal of carbohydrates with 100 kcal of fats in normal-weight women (HR: 0.76 95% CI (0.59 to 0.98)). Likewise, in premenopausal women a high intake of fats (≥811 Kcal/day) showed a protective effect (HR:0.20 95% CI (0.04 to 0.98) p trend = 0.06). Finally, in Estrogen Receptors (ER) negative tumors, we found a protective effect of high intake of animal proteins (≥238 Kcal/day, HR: 0.24 95% CI (0.06 to 0.98). According to our results, menopausal status, BMI and ER status could play a role in the relationship between diet and BC survival and must be taken into account when studying the influence of different nutrients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Dieta , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202919

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of tumors and net survival is increasing. Achieving a higher survival probability reinforces the importance of studying health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). The main aim of this work is to test the relationship between different sociodemographic, clinical and tumor-intrinsic characteristics, and treatment received with HR-QoL measured using SF-12 and the FACT/NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network/Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy) Breast Symptom Index (FBSI). Women with breast cancer recruited between 2008 and 2013 and followed-up until 2017-2018 in a prospective cohort answered two HR-QoL surveys: the SF-12 and FBSI. The scores obtained were related to woman and tumor characteristics using linear regression models. The telephone survey was answered by 1078 women out of 1685 with medical record follow-up (64%). Increases in all three HR-QoL scores were associated with higher educational level. The score differences between women with university qualifications and women with no schooling were 5.43 for PCS-12, 6.13 for MCS-12 and 4.29 for FBSI. Histological grade at diagnosis and recurrence in the follow-up displayed a significant association with mental and physical HR-QoL, respectively. First-line treatment received was not associated with HR-QoL scores. On the other hand, most tumor characteristics were not associated with HR-QoL. As breast cancer survival is improving, further studies are needed to ascertain if these differences still hold in the long run.

8.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114671

RESUMO

Several anticancer properties have been largely attributed to phenolics in in vivo and in vitro studies, but epidemiologic evidence is still scarce. Furthermore, some classes have not been studied in relation to gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the intake of phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other phenolics and the risk of developing GC and its anatomical and histological subtypes. We used data from a multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from different regions of Spain. We included 2700 controls and 329 GC cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of phenolic intake. Our results showed an inverse association between stilbene and lignan intake and GC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.69 and ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.36-0.77, respectively). We found no overall association between total phenolic acid and other polyphenol class intake and GC risk. However, hydroxybenzaldehydes (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.28-0.61), hydroxycoumarins (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71), and tyrosols (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.80) were inversely associated with GC risk. No differences were found in the analysis by anatomical or histological subtypes. In conclusion, a diet high in stilbenes, lignans, hydroxybenzaldehydes, hydroxycoumarins, and tyrosols was associated with a lower GC risk. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092262

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds may exert a favorable effect on the risk of several cancer types, including gastric cancer (GC). However, selected polyphenol classes have not been adequately investigated in relation to GC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between the intake of polyphenols in relation to GC risk. We used data from the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project, including 10 studies from six countries (3471 GC cases and 8344 controls). We carried out an individual participant data pooled analysis using a two-stage approach. The summary odds ratios (ORs) of GC for each compound, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), were computed by pooling study specific ORs obtained through multivariate logistic regression, using random effect models. Inverse associations with GC emerged for total polyphenols (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.54-0.81, for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake), total flavonoids (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55-0.90), anthocyanidins (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.56-0.92), flavanols (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.88), flavanones (OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.44-0.69), total phenolic acids (OR = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.55-0.94), and hydroxybenzoic acids (OR = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.57-0.89). Results were consistent across strata of age, sex, social class, and smoking habit. Suggestive inverse associations were also found for flavonols (OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.51-1.01) and hydroxycinnamic acids (OR = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.58-1.06). Further investigations from longitudinal data are needed to confirm this association.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976649

RESUMO

Experimental evidence indicates that exercise performed at different times of the day may affect circadian rhythms and circadian disruption has been linked to breast and prostate cancer. We examined in a population-based case-control study (MCC-Spain) if the time-of-day when physical activity is done affects prostate and breast cancer risk. Lifetime recreational and household physical activity was assessed by in-person interviews. Information on time-of-day of activity (assessed approximately 3 years after the assessment of lifetime physical activity and confounders) was available for 781 breast cancer cases, 865 population female controls, 504 prostate cases and 645 population male controls from 10 Spanish regions, 2008-2013. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for different activity timings compared to inactive subjects using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for confounders. Early morning (8-10 am) activity was associated with a protective effect compared to no physical activity for both breast (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.48-1.15) and prostate cancer (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.44-1.20); meta-OR for the two cancers combined 0.74 (95%CI = 0.53-1.02). There was no effect observed for breast or prostate cancer for late morning to afternoon activity while a protective effect was also observed for evening activity only for prostate cancer (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.45-1.24). Protective effects of early morning activity were more pronounced for intermediate/evening chronotypes for both cancers. This is the first population-based investigation identifying a differential effect of timing of physical activity on cancer risk with more pronounced effects for morning hour activity. Our results, if confirmed, may improve current physical activity recommendations for cancer prevention.

11.
Environ Int ; 144: 106055, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most frequent tumor in males and the second in females worldwide. In Spain, it is an important and growing health problem, and epidemiologic research focused on potential risk factors, such as environmental exposures, is necessary. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association between colorectal cancer risk and residential proximity to industries, according to pollution discharge route, industrial groups, categories of carcinogens and other toxic substances, and specific pollutants released, in the context of a population-based multicase-control study of incident cancer carried out in Spain (MCC-Spain). METHODS: MCC-Spain included 557 colorectal cancer cases and 2948 controls in 11 provinces, frequency matched by sex, age, and region of residence. Distances were computed from subjects' residences to each of the 134 industries located in the study area. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance (from 1 km to 3 km) to industrial facilities, adjusting for matching variables and other confounders. RESULTS: Excess risk (OR; 95%CI) of colorectal cancer was detected near industries overall for all distances analyzed, from 1 km (2.03; 1.44-2.87) to 3 km (1.26; 1.00-1.59). In general, industries releasing pollutants to air showed higher excess risks than facilities releasing pollution to water. By industrial sector, excess risk (OR; 95%CI) was found near (≤3 km) production of metals (2.66; 1.77-4.00), surface treatment of metals (1.48; 1.08-2.02), glass and mineral fibers (2.06; 1.39-3.07), organic chemical industry (4.80; 3.20-7.20), inorganic chemical industry (6.74; 4.38-10.36), food/beverage sector (3.34; 2.38-4.68), and surface treatment using organic solvents (6.16; 4.06-9.36). By pollutants, the main excess risks (OR; 95%CI) were found near (≤3 km) industries releasing nonylphenol (9.19; 5.91-14.28), antimony (5.30; 3.45-8.15), naphthalene (3.11; 2.16-4.49), organotin compounds (2.64; 1.76-3.98), manganese (2.53; 1.63-3.93), dichloromethane (2.52; 1.74-3.66), and vanadium (2.49; 1.59-3.91). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that residing in the proximity of industries may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer.

12.
Epidemiology ; 31(5): 718-727, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Night-shift work, exposure to artificial light-at-night (ALAN) and particularly blue light spectrum, and the consequent circadian disruption may increase the risk of breast and prostate cancer. Colorectal cancer risk may also be increased among night-shift workers. We investigated the association between exposure to ALAN according to light spectrum and colorectal cancer among subjects who had never worked at night in a general population case-control study in Spain. METHODS: We examined information on 661 incident histologically verified colorectal cancer cases and 1,322 controls from Barcelona and Madrid, 2007-2013. Outdoor ALAN exposure was based on images from the International Space Station (ISS) including data on remotely sensed upward light intensity. We derived adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates and confidence intervals (CI) for visual light, blue light, and spectral sensitivities of the five human photopigments assigned to participant's geocoded longest residence. RESULTS: Exposure to blue light spectrum was positively associated with colorectal cancer (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; highest vs. lowest tertile). ORs were similar (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.3) when further adjusting for area socioeconomic status, diet patterns, smoking, sleep, and family history. We observed no association for outdoor visual light (full spectrum) (OR = 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.2; highest vs. lowest tertile). Analysis of the five photopigments gave similar results with increased risks for shorter wavelengths overlapping with the blue spectrum and no association for longer wavelengths. CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor blue light spectrum exposure that is increasingly prevalent in recent years may be associated with colorectal cancer risk. See video abstract: http://links.lww.com/EDE/B708.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709095

RESUMO

We aimed to study the association between occupational exposure to pesticides and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Spain. Occupational exposure to pesticides (four insecticides, four herbicides and two fungicides) was evaluated using a job-exposure matrix for the Spanish population (MatEmESp) among 302 CLL cases and 1567 population controls in five regions of Spain, 2010-2013. Cumulative exposure scores (CES) were obtained by summing across the exposed jobs the product of prevalence, intensity and duration of exposure to each active substance. Principal components analysis (PCA) and logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, region, education and occupational exposure to solvents were used. Around 20% of controls and 29% of cases were exposed to one or more pesticides. Compared to non-exposed, subjects in the highest tertile (3rd tertile) of CES of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides were more likely to have CLL [OR (95% CI), P-trend; 2.10 (1.38; 3.19), 0.002; 1.77 (1.12; 2.80), 0.12; and 1.67 (1.06; 2.64), 0.10, respectively). Following PCA, the first component (PC1, explaining 70% of the variation) equally led by seven active substances (the insecticide pyrethrin, all herbicides, all fungicides) was associated with a 26% higher odds of having CLL for 1-standard deviation increase in PC1 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.40). These results confirm previous associations between CLL and exposure to pesticides and provide additional evidence by application groups and active substance. However, more research is needed to disentangle independent effects of individual active substances.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3090-3101, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525569

RESUMO

A low intake of fruits and vegetables is a risk factor for gastric cancer, although there is uncertainty regarding the magnitude of the associations. In our study, the relationship between fruits and vegetables intake and gastric cancer was assessed, complementing a previous work on the association betweenconsumption of citrus fruits and gastric cancer. Data from 25 studies (8456 cases and 21 133 controls) with information on fruits and/or vegetables intake were used. A two-stage approach based on random-effects models was used to pool study-specific adjusted (sex, age and the main known risk factors for gastric cancer) odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Exposure-response relations, including linear and nonlinear associations, were modeled using one- and two-order fractional polynomials. Gastric cancer risk was lower for a higher intake of fruits (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64-0.90), noncitrus fruits (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.02), vegetables (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.56-0.84), and fruits and vegetables (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.49-0.75); results were consistent across sociodemographic and lifestyles categories, as well as study characteristics. Exposure-response analyses showed an increasingly protective effect of portions/day of fruits (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.57-0.73 for six portions), noncitrus fruits (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61-0.83 for six portions) and vegetables (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.43-0.60 for 10 portions). A protective effect of all fruits, noncitrus fruits and vegetables was confirmed, supporting further dietary recommendations to decrease the burden of gastric cancer.

15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(3): 667-678, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356254

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to analyse the relative survival with breast cancer in women diagnosed after new treatments were generalised and to ascertain the current effect that tumour characteristics such as grade, stage or subtype have on survival as well as the new AJCC-pathological prognostic score. METHODS: The breast cancer MCC-Spain follow-up study is a prospective cohort study of 1685 incident breast cancer cases. Women between 20 and 85 years old were recruited between the years 2008 and 2013 in 18 hospitals located in 10 Spanish provinces and they have been followed until 2017/2018. Relative survival was estimated after 3, 5 and 8 years of follow-up using Ederer II method. In addition, Weibull regression adjusted by age, hospital, grade and stage was used to investigate prognosis factors. RESULTS: Among components of TNM staging system, tumour size greater than 50 mm (i.e. T3 or T4) more than doubled the risk of dying, while N3 nodal involvement and presence of metastasis had a huge effect on mortality. The AJCC pathological prognostic score strongly correlated with survival; thus, hazard ratios increased as the score rose, being 2.31, 4.00, 4.94, 7.92, 2.26, 14.9 and 58.9 for scores IB, IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, IIIC and IV, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both TNM staging and histological/molecular biomarkers are associated with overall survival in Spanish women with breast cancer; when both are combined in the AJCC pathological prognosis score, the prognostic value improved with risk indices that increased rapidly as the pathological prognosis score increased.

17.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 72, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between socioeconomic level and reproductive factors has been widely studied. For example, it is well known that women with lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have more children, the age at first-born being earlier. However, less is known about to what extent the great socioeconomic changes occurred in a country (Spain) could modify women reproductive factors. The main purpose of this article is to analyze the influence of individual and contextual socioeconomic levels on reproductive factors in Spanish women, and to explore whether this influence has changed over the last decades. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional design using data from 2038 women recruited as population-based controls in an MCC-Spain case-control study. RESULTS: Higher parent's economic level, education level, occupational level and lower urban vulnerability were associated with higher age at first delivery and lower number of pregnancies. These associations were stronger for women born after 1950: women with unfinished primary education had their first delivery 6 years before women with high education if they were born after 1950 (23.4 vs. 29.8 years) but only 3 years before if they were born before 1950 (25.7 vs. 28.0 years). For women born after 1950, the number of pregnancies dropped from 2.1 (unfinished primary school) to 1.7 (high education), whereas it remained almost unchanged in women born before 1950. CONCLUSIONS: Reproductive behavior was associated with both individual and area-level socio-economic indicators. Such association was stronger for women born after 1950 regarding age at first delivery and number of pregnancies and for women born before 1950 regarding consumption of hormonal contraceptives or postmenopausal therapy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Reprodutivo/etnologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260135

RESUMO

There is limited evidence of phenolic compounds acting as protective agents on several cancer types, including breast cancer (BC). Nevertheless, some polyphenol classes have not been investigated and there is a lack of studies assessing the effect on menopausal status and hormone receptor status as influenced by these compounds. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between the intake of all polyphenol classes in relation to the BC risk by menopausal and hormone receptor status. We used data from a population-based multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) including 1472 BC cases and 1577 controls from 12 different regions of Spain. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CI were calculated using logistic regression of mixed effects by quartiles and log2 of polyphenol intakes (adjusted for the residual method) of overall BC, menopausal and receptor status. No associations were found between total intake of polyphenols and BC risk. However, inverse associations were found between stilbenes and all BC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 0.70, 95%CI: 0.56-0.89, Ptrend = 0.001), the consumption of hydroxybenzaldehydes (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.59-0.93, Ptrend = 0.012) and hydroxycoumarins (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.57-0.93; Ptrend = 0.005) were also inversely associated. The intake of stilbenes, hydroxybenzaldehydes and hydroxycoumarins can contribute to BC reduction risk on all menopausal and receptor statuses.

19.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260185

RESUMO

Backgound: Traditional anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) do not fully capture the complex biology of body fat (BF) in the elderly. The Clinica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE) index, based on BMI, is proposed as a better indicator of BF. However, its relation with BMI is not clear. The aim was to compare the agreement between CUN-BAE, BMI, and WC in those aged ≥50 years. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 3153 Caucasian healthy adults was taken from the MCC-Spain study. The Pearson's correlation and its 95% confidence interval (CI), adiposity distribution, and Kappa Index (95%CI) were calculated. Results: The correlation of CUN-BAE with WC is 0.18 (95%CI 0.14-0.21) and that with BMI is moderate (r 0.58; 95%CI 0.55-0.60), but both increased strongly by sex. Agreement (normal weight/overweight/obesity) of CUN-BAE with BMI is 7% and with WC is 18%. Conclusions: The correlation and the degree of agreement of CUN-BAE with BMI and WC are low in individuals aged over 50, but it is higher by sex. Thus, this different criterion of obesity may have clinical applications. More studies with a gold standard are needed to evaluate the CUN-BAE in elderly adults.

20.
Neuroepidemiology ; 54(4): 343-355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We explored the association between ionizing radiation (IR) from pre-natal and post-natal radio-diagnostic procedures and brain cancer risk within the MOBI-kids study. METHODS: MOBI-kids is an international (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Spain, The Netherlands) case-control study including 899 brain tumor (645 neuroepithelial) cases aged 10-24 years and 1,910 sex-, age-, country-matched controls. Medical radiological history was collected through personal interview. We estimated brain IR dose for each procedure, building a look-up table by age and time period. Lifetime cumulative doses were calculated using 2 and 5 years lags from the diagnostic date. Risk was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Neurological, psychological and genetic conditions were evaluated as potential confounders. The main analyses focused on neuroepithelial tumors. RESULTS: Overall, doses were very low, with a skewed distribution (median 0.02 mGy, maximum 217 mGy). ORs for post-natal exposure were generally below 1. ORs were increased in the highest dose categories both for post and pre-natal exposures: 1.63 (95% CI 0.44-6.00) and 1.55 (0.57-4.23), respectively, based on very small numbers of cases. The change in risk estimates after adjustment for medical conditions was modest. CONCLUSIONS: There was little evidence for an association between IR from radio-diagnostic procedures and brain tumor risk in children and adolescents. Though doses were very low, our results suggest a higher risk for pre-natal and early life exposure, in line with current evidence.

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