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1.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 19(1): 278, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behaviour change interventions targeting physical activity, diet, sleep and sedentary behaviour of teenagers show promise when delivered through smartphones. However, to date there is no evidence of effectiveness of multicomponent smartphone-based interventions. Utilising a user-centred design approach, we developed a theory-based, multi-dimensional system, PEGASO Fit For Future (PEGASO F4F), which exploits sophisticated game mechanics involving smartphone applications, a smartphone game and activity sensors to motivate teenagers to take an active role in adopting and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. This paper describes the study protocol to assess the feasibility, usability and effectiveness (knowledge/awareness and behavioural change in lifestyle) of the PEGASO system. METHODS: We are conducting a quasi-experimental controlled cluster trial in 4 sites in Spain, Italy, and UK (England, Scotland) over 6 months. We plan to recruit 525, in a 2:1 basis, teenagers aged 13-16 years from secondary schools. The intervention group is provided with the PEGASO system whereas the comparison group continues their usual educational routine. Outcomes include feasibility, acceptance, and usability of the PEGASO system as well as between and within group changes in motivation, self-reported diet, physical activity, sedentary and sleeping behaviour, anthropometric measures and knowledge about a healthy lifestyle. DISCUSSION: PEGASO F4F will provide evidence into the cross-cultural similarities and differences in the feasibility, acceptability and usability of a multi-dimensional smartphone based behaviour change intervention for teenagers. The study will explore facilitating factors, challenges and barriers of engaging teenagers to adapt and maintain a healthy lifestyle when using smartphone technology. Positive results from this ICT based multi component intervention may have significant implications both at clinical level, improving teenagers health and at public health level since it can present an influential tool against the development of chronic disease during adulthood. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov Registration number: NCT02930148, registered 4 October 2016.

2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(5): 273-280, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840583

RESUMO

Objective The activity of brown adipose tissue is sensitive to changes in ambient temperature. A lower exposure to cold could result in an increased risk of developing diabetes at population level, although this factor has not yet been sufficiently studied. Design We studied 5072 subjects, participants in a national, cross-sectional population-based study representative of the Spanish adult population (Di@bet.es study). All subjects underwent a clinical, demographic and lifestyle survey, a physical examination and blood sampling (75 g oral glucose tolerance test). Insulin resistance was estimated with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The mean annual temperature (°C) in each individual municipality was collected from the Spanish National Meteorology Agency. Results Linear regression analysis showed a significant positive association between mean annual temperature and fasting plasma glucose (ß: 0.087, P < 0.001), 2 h plasma glucose (ß: 0.049, P = 0.008) and HOMA-IR (ß: 0.046, P = 0.008) in multivariate adjusted models. Logistic regression analyses controlled by multiple socio-demographic variables, lifestyle, adiposity (BMI) and geographical elevation showed increasing odds ratios for prediabetes (WHO 1999), ORs 1, 1.26 (0.95-1.66), 1.08 (0.81-1.44) and 1.37 (1.01-1.85) P for trend = 0.086, diabetes (WHO 1999) ORs 1, 1.05 (0.79-1.39), 1.20 (0.91-1.59) and 1.39 (1.02-1.90) P = 0.037, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥75th percentile of the non-diabetic population): ORs 1, 1.03 (0.82-1.30), 1.22 (0.96-1.55), 1.26 (0.98-1.63) (P for trend = 0.046) as the mean annual temperature (into quartiles) rose. Conclusions Our study reports an association between ambient temperature and the prevalence of dysglycemia and insulin resistance in Spanish adults, consistent with the hypothesis that a lower exposure to cold could be associated with a higher risk of metabolic derangements.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Glicemia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
J Nutr ; 149(2): 258-269, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is becoming a serious problem, and prevention programs are needed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, after 1 y, the effectiveness of a multicomponent, school-based obesity intervention program. METHODS: This intervention, conducted in Barcelona, Spain, was a quasi-experimental obesity primary prevention intervention targeting schoolchildren aged 9-10 y. Participants were assigned to an intervention group (IG) (1464 students) or to a comparison group (CG) (1609 students). The intervention consisted of a 9-session classroom program, 6 weekly sessions of physical education and out-of-school physical activity, and a workshop for families. It lasted from October 2011 to May 2012. Data obtained at baseline (spring 2011) and follow-up (spring 2012) included information on nutrition and physical activity, through 2 self-reported questionnaires, and measurement of weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. The cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of obesity was calculated from triceps skinfold measures. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to determine the association between the intervention and the CIR of obesity. The effect size of the program was estimated with Cohen's criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of obesity at baseline was 12.7%. At the 12-mo follow-up, the incidence of obesity was 7.8% in the IG compared with 11.4% in the CG (P < 0.005), representing 31% fewer new cases of obesity in the IG. The Cohen's d effect size of the program was 0.33. In the multilevel analysis, there was a protective effect of the intervention on the CIR of obesity at 12 mo (OR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5, 0.9) (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: The first Prevención de la Obesidad Infantil en Barcelona (Childhood Obesity Prevention in Barcelona) (POIBA) intervention, targeting children aged 9-10 y, reduced the incidence of obesity as measured by adiposity. The intervention could prevent 1 in 3 new cases of childhood obesity in this age range.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Criança , Exercício , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
Clin Nutr ; 38(6): 2592-2598, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The prevalence of obesity and overweight among children is increasing, representing a new and pressing societal problem. Excess weight in childhood is an independent risk factor for adult obesity. Although school-based interventions are generally considered effective in the short term, few studies analyze their longterm impact. The aim of study was to assess if the effect of the intervention on body mass Index (BMI) immediately after the intervention remained eight years later (AVall Study). METHODS: In 2006-2008, an intervention for primary school children promoted healthy eating habits and physical activity in the school setting using the Investigation, Vision, Action and Change (IVAC) educational methodology, which involves children as active participants in healthy change. At baseline, parents reported their weight, height and educational level by questionnaire. Children's weight and height were measured in situ in 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2016, and levels of physical activity were assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel mixed effects linear regression was used to assess changes in BMI over time. RESULTS: Increases in BMI from 2006 to 2016 were 0.68 kg/m2 (95% CI, 0.02, 1.34; P = 0.045) higher in the control group than in the intervention group. The prevalence of obesity and overweight combined in 2006 and 2016 was 22.2% and 27.9%, respectively, in the control group and 25.6% and 21.2% respectively, in the intervention group. Changes in BMI in the intervention group were maintained from 2006 on: at the end of the intervention in 2008, -0.4 kg/m2 (P = 0.001); in 2010, -0.23 g/m2 (P = 0.012); in 2012, -0.63 kg/m2 (P < 0.001) and in 2016, -0.27 kg/m2 (P = 0.025). The child's BMI increased by 0.52 kg/m2 (P = 0.046) if the father was obese, by 1.26 kg/m2 (p = 0.011) if the mother was obese, and by 2.37 kg/m2 (P < 0.001) if both parents were obese. Parental education levels were not associated with childhood obesity. CONCLUSIONS: A school-based healthy eating habits and physical activity intervention using IVAC methodology contributed to lower increases in BMI among children in primary school. Although parental BMI also influenced children's BMI, the intervention was effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01156805.

5.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682848

RESUMO

To date it is not clear what the role of dairy products is in metabolic diseases like diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Therefore, the aim of this study is to test the association between dairy product consumption and those pathologies. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 5081 adults included in the di@bet.es study, from 100 health centers around Spain. Food frequency questionnaires were carried out concerning consumption habits, which included dairy product consumption. Logistic regression models were used for the association analyses between the variables controlling confounding variables. Women had a higher consumption of milk, cheese, or yogurt than men (p < 0.0001), but men consumed more sugar dairy products (p < 0.001). People who live in the North of Spain consume more dairy products than those who live in the East. Dairy product consumption was inversely associated with the presence of hypertension regardless of age, sex, geographical region, and body mass index (BMI) (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.743; p = 0.022). The presence of obesity was inversely associated with dairy consumption regardless of age, sex, and geographical region (OR 0.61; p < 0.001). Milk consumption was not associated with diabetes. Our results show that consuming dairy products is associated with a better metabolic profile in the Spanish population.


Assuntos
Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Diabetologia ; 62(3): 408-417, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483858

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Against a background of a near-universally increasing incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes, recent reports from some countries suggest a slowing in this increase. Occasional reports also describe cyclical variations in incidence, with periodicities of between 4 and 6 years. METHODS: Age/sex-standardised incidence rates for the 0- to 14-year-old age group are reported for 26 European centres (representing 22 countries) that have registered newly diagnosed individuals in geographically defined regions for up to 25 years during the period 1989-2013. Poisson regression was used to estimate rates of increase and test for cyclical patterns. Joinpoint regression software was used to fit segmented log-linear relationships to incidence trends. RESULTS: Significant increases in incidence were noted in all but two small centres, with a maximum rate of increase of 6.6% per annum in a Polish centre. Several centres in high-incidence countries showed reducing rates of increase in more recent years. Despite this, a pooled analysis across all centres revealed a 3.4% (95% CI 2.8%, 3.9%) per annum increase in incidence rate, although there was some suggestion of a reduced rate of increase in the 2004-2008 period. Rates of increase were similar in boys and girls in the 0- to 4-year-old age group (3.7% and 3.7% per annum, respectively) and in the 5- to 9-year-old age group (3.4% and 3.7% per annum, respectively), but were higher in boys than girls in the 10- to 14-year-old age group (3.3% and 2.6% per annum, respectively). Significant 4 year periodicity was detected in four centres, with three centres showing that the most recent peak in fitted rates occurred in 2012. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Despite reductions in the rate of increase in some high-risk countries, the pooled estimate across centres continues to show a 3.4% increase per annum in incidence rate, suggesting a doubling in incidence rate within approximately 20 years in Europe. Although four centres showed support for a cyclical pattern of incidence with a 4 year periodicity, no plausible explanation for this can be given.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
7.
Clin Epidemiol ; 10: 549-560, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785141

RESUMO

Background: The validity of a cardiovascular risk self-screening method was assessed. The results obtained for self-measurement of blood pressure, a point-of-care system's assessment of lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin, and a self-administered questionnaire (sex, age, diabetes, tobacco consumption) were compared with the standard screening (gold standard) conducted by a health professional. Methods: Crossover clinical trial on a population-based sample from Girona (north-eastern Spain), aged 35-74, with no cardiovascular disease at recruitment. Participants were randomized to one of the two risk assessment sequences (standard screening followed by self-screening or vice versa). Cardiovascular risk was estimated with the Framingham-REGICOR function. Concordance between methods was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were estimated, considering 5% cardiovascular risk as the cutoff point. ClinicalTrials.gov Registration #NCT02373319. Clinical Research Ethic Committee of the Parc de Salut Mar Registration #2014/5815/I. Results: The median cardiovascular risk in men was 2.56 (interquartile range: 1.42-4.35) estimated by standard methods and 2.25 (1.28-4.07) by self-screening with ICC=0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.93). In women, the cardiovascular risk was 1.14 (0.61-2.10) by standard methods and 1.10 (0.56-2.00) by self-screening, with ICC=0.89 (0.87-0.90). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the self-screening method were 0.74 (0.63-0.82), 0.97 (0.95-0.99), 0.86 (0.77-0.93), and 0.94 (0.91-0.96), respectively, in men. In women, these values were 0.50 (0.30-0.70), 0.99 (0.98-1), 0.81 (0.54-0.96), and 0.97 (0.95-0.99), respectively. Conclusion: The self-screening method for assessing cardiovascular risk provided similar results to the standard method. Self-screening had high clinical performance to rule out intermediate or high cardiovascular risk.

8.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(4): 274-282, abr. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171755

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos. Estudiar la validez de la función SCORE original de bajo riesgo sin y con colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de alta densidad y SCORE calibrada en población española. Métodos. Análisis agrupado con datos individuales de 12 estudios de cohorte de base poblacional. Se incluyó a 30.919 participantes de 40-64 años sin enfermedades cardiovasculares en el momento del reclutamiento, que se siguieron durante 10 años para la mortalidad cardiovascular contemplada en el proyecto SCORE. La validez de las funciones se analizó mediante el área bajo la curva ROC (discriminación) y el test de Hosmer-Lemeshow (calibración), respectivamente. Resultados. Se dispuso de 286.105 personas/año. La mortalidad a 10 años por causas cardiovasculares fue del 0,6%. La razón de casos esperados/observados fue de 9,1, 6,5 y 9,1 en varones y de 3,3, 1,3 y 1,9 en mujeres con las funciones SCORE original de bajo riesgo sin y con colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de alta densidad y SCORE calibrada, respectivamente; diferencias estadísticamente significativas con el test de calibración de Hosmer-Lemeshow entre la mortalidad predicha con SCORE y la observada (p < 0,001 en ambos sexos y en todas las funciones). Las áreas bajo la curva ROC con SCORE original fueron 0,68 en varones y 0,69 en mujeres. Conclusiones. Todas las versiones de las funciones SCORE disponibles en España sobreestiman significativamente la mortalidad cardiovascular observada en la población española. A pesar de la aceptable capacidad de discriminación, la predicción del número de acontecimientos cardiovasculares mortales (calibración) fue significativamente imprecisa (AU)


Introduction and objectives. To assess the validity of the original low-risk SCORE function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and SCORE calibrated to the Spanish population. Methods. Pooled analysis with individual data from 12 Spanish population-based cohort studies. We included 30 919 individuals aged 40 to 64 years with no history of cardiovascular disease at baseline, who were followed up for 10 years for the causes of death included in the SCORE project. The validity of the risk functions was analyzed with the area under the ROC curve (discrimination) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (calibration), respectively. Results. Follow-up comprised 286 105 persons/y. Ten-year cardiovascular mortality was 0.6%. The ratio between estimated/observed cases ranged from 9.1, 6.5, and 9.1 in men and 3.3, 1.3, and 1.9 in women with original low-risk SCORE risk function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calibrated SCORE, respectively; differences were statistically significant with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test between predicted and observed mortality with SCORE (P < .001 in both sexes and with all functions). The area under the ROC curve with the original SCORE was 0.68 in men and 0.69 in women. Conclusions. All versions of the SCORE functions available in Spain significantly overestimate the cardiovascular mortality observed in the Spanish population. Despite the acceptable discrimination capacity, prediction of the number of fatal cardiovascular events (calibration) was significantly inaccurate (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia
9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(3): 494-506, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106481

RESUMO

Factors underlying metabolic phenotypes, such as the metabolically healthy but obese phenotype, remain unclear. Differences in metabolic phenotypes-particularly, among individuals with a similar body mass index-could be related to concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). To our knowledge, no studies have analyzed POPs and metabolic phenotypes in normal-weight persons. We investigated the relationships between serum concentrations of POPs and metabolic phenotypes in 860 normal-weight, overweight, and obese participants in the 2002 Catalan Health Interview Survey (Spain). POP concentrations were significantly higher in metabolically unhealthy than in metabolically healthy individuals. In models adjusting for body mass index and other confounders, hexachlorobenzene, ß-hexachlorocyclohexane, and polychlorinated biphenyls were associated with the unhealthy metabolic phenotype and metabolic syndrome. Among normal-weight individuals, the adjusted prevalence ratio of having an unhealthy phenotype for the upper category of the sum of orders of the 6 mentioned POPs (all individually associated with metabolic phenotypes) was 4.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.7, 10.0). Among overweight and obese individuals, the corresponding prevalence ratio for the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls was 1.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.8). Our results supported the hypothesis that POP concentrations are associated with unhealthy metabolic phenotypes, not only in obese and overweight individuals but also (and probably more strongly) in normal-weight individuals.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Hexaclorobenzeno/sangue , Hexaclorocicloexano/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 71(4): 274-282, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28566245

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the validity of the original low-risk SCORE function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and SCORE calibrated to the Spanish population. METHODS: Pooled analysis with individual data from 12 Spanish population-based cohort studies. We included 30 919 individuals aged 40 to 64 years with no history of cardiovascular disease at baseline, who were followed up for 10 years for the causes of death included in the SCORE project. The validity of the risk functions was analyzed with the area under the ROC curve (discrimination) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (calibration), respectively. RESULTS: Follow-up comprised 286 105 persons/y. Ten-year cardiovascular mortality was 0.6%. The ratio between estimated/observed cases ranged from 9.1, 6.5, and 9.1 in men and 3.3, 1.3, and 1.9 in women with original low-risk SCORE risk function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calibrated SCORE, respectively; differences were statistically significant with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test between predicted and observed mortality with SCORE (P < .001 in both sexes and with all functions). The area under the ROC curve with the original SCORE was 0.68 in men and 0.69 in women. CONCLUSIONS: All versions of the SCORE functions available in Spain significantly overestimate the cardiovascular mortality observed in the Spanish population. Despite the acceptable discrimination capacity, prediction of the number of fatal cardiovascular events (calibration) was significantly inaccurate.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/normas , Distribuição por Sexo , Espanha/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
11.
Int J Cardiol ; 249: 83-89, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) reduces mortality in most myocardial infarction (MI) patients but the effect on elderly patients with comorbidities is unclear. Our aim was to analyse the effect of PCI on in-hospital mortality of MI patients, by age, sex, ST elevation on presentation, diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Cohort study of 79,791 MI patients admitted at European hospitals during 2000-2014. The effect of PCI on in-hospital mortality was analysed by age group (18-74, ≥75years), sex, presence of ST elevation, DM and CKD, using propensity score matching. The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent a fatal event was calculated. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: PCI was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in ST and non-ST elevation MI (STEMI and NSTEMI) patients. The effect was stronger in men [Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.30 (0.25-0.35)] than in women [0.46 (0.39-0.54)] aged ≥75years, and in NSTEMI [0.22 (0.17-0.28)] than in STEMI patients [0.40 (0.31-0.5)] aged <75years. PCI reduced in-hospital mortality risk in patients with and without DM or CKD (54-72% and 52-73% reduction in DM and CKD patients, respectively). NNT was lower in patients with than without CKD [≥75years: STEMI=6(5-8) vs 9(8-10); NSTEMI=10(8-13) vs 16(14-20)]. Sensitivity analyses such as exclusion of hospital stays <2days yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: PCI decreased in-hospital mortality in MI patients regardless of age, sex, and presence of ST elevation, DM and CKD. This supports the recommendation for PCI in elderly patients with DM or CKD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/cirurgia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Sistema de Registros , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco
12.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 86(4): 197-212, abr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-161542

RESUMO

Objetivo: Actualizar la revision bibliográfica sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones clínicas en obesidad infantil propuestas en una Guía de Práctica Clínica, excluyendo los tratamientos farmacológicos y quirúrgicos y el abordaje de la prevención. Método: Revisión sistemática de las bases de datos electrónicas Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE y SCOPUS replicando la búsqueda de la Guía de Práctica Clínica, desde el año 2010 a 2014. Se tuvieron en cuenta las Guías de Práctica Clínica del National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Se priorizaron las revisiones sistemáticas. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de la calidad de los estudios. Resultados: De 3.703 documentos identificados se incluyeron 48 en la revisión. Los estudios mostraron gran heterogeneidad en cuanto al tipo y duración de la intervención, y a la medida de los resultados. En general, la adherencia a los tratamientos ha sido baja. Las intervenciones multicomponentes que incluyen alimentación, actividad física, sedentarismo y cambios de conducta, que implican a la familia y comienzan en edades precoces, son las más efectivas en la reducción del índice de masa corporal. No existe consenso en los criterios de derivación a la atención especializada. Conclusiones: Se recomienda implementar programas multicomponentes llevados a cabo por profesionales con formación previa, con participación de la familia, y que aborde aspectos conductuales, individuales y sociodemográficos. La falta de adherencia es uno de los motivos de fracaso de las intervenciones. Sería necesario mejorar y homogeneizar los criterios de diagnóstico, las medidas de resultados y los criterios de derivación (AU)


Objective: To update the literature review on the effectiveness of clinical interventions on childhood obesity, proposed in Clinical Practice Guidelines, excluding prevention and pharmacological and surgical treatments. Method: A systematic review was carried out in electronic databases of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, and SCOPUS, replicating the search for the Clinical Practice Guidelines, from 2009 to 2014. The Clinical Practice Guidelines of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence were taken as a reference. Systematic reviews were given priority, and the quality of the studies was assesse. Results: Out of a total of 3,703 documents initially identified, 48 were finally included. Studies showed great heterogeneity in the type and duration of interventions, and in outcome measures. Adherence to treatment was, in general, low. Multi-component interventions including diet, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and behaviour changes, involving the family, and starting at early ages, were the most effective for reducing body mass index. There is no consensus on criteria for referral to specialised care. Conclusions: It is recommended to implement multi-component programs conducted by professionals with previous training, involving the family, and addressing behavioural, individual and socio-demographic aspects. Lack of adherence is one of the reasons for failure of interventions. Diagnostic and referral criteria, the outcome measures, and the type and duration of interventions need to be improved and standardised (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Sobrepeso/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Índice de Massa Corporal , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Comportamento Sedentário , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde
13.
Nutr Hosp ; 34(1): 102-110, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28244779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in the relationship between smoking history and both general and central fatness in adults from a Mediterranean setting. Materials and methods: The ENCAT 1992-1993 and 2002-2003 surveys were used; samples consisted of 482 men, 589 women from 1992-1993, and 515 men, 613 women from 2002-2003, aged 25-60 years. Measured anthropometry and self-reported data on smoking habits, diet, lifestyle and SES were collected. General fatness was defined as WHO's BMI overweight and obesity, and central fatness was defined as WHO's Increased-Risk-for-metabolic-complications Waist Circumference (IR WC) and Substantially-Increased-Risk WC (SIR WC). Simple logistic regression was used to estimate multivariate-adjusted associations between general/central fatness and smoking history. RESULTS: By 2002-2003, most associations observed in 1992-1993 had been strongly attenuated: only male current-heavy-smoking remained associated with IR/SIR WC (three-fold) and female current-moderate-smokers were 0.57 times less likely to have an IR/SIR WC (p < 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Although causality cannot be established, results suggest a positive association between heavy smoking and central fatness among men, but no association between former smoking and general/central fatness; findings strengthen arguments for promoting smoking cessation to reduce smoking -and obesity- associated morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Prevalência , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Espanha/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 25(4): 788-793, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the reference range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in different BMI categories and its impact on the classification of hypothyroidism. METHODS: The study included 3,928 individuals free of thyroid disease (without previous thyroid disease, no interfering medications, TSH <10 µUI/mL and thyroid peroxidase antibodies [TPO Abs] <50 IU/mL) who participated in a national, cross-sectional, population-based study and were representative of the adult population of Spain. Data gathered included clinical and demographic characteristics, physical examination, and blood and urine sampling. TSH, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and TPO Ab were analyzed by electrochemiluminescence (E170, Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland). RESULTS: The reference range (p2.5-97.5) for TSH was estimated as 0.6 to 4.8 µUI/mL in the underweight category (BMI<20 kg/m2 ), 0.6 to 5.5 µUI/mL in the normal-weight category (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m2 ), 0.6 to 5.5 µUI/mL in the overweight category (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2 ), 0.5 to 5.9 µUI/mL in the obesity category (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m2 ), and 0.7 to 7.5 µUI/mL in the morbid obesity category (BMI ≥40). By using the reference criteria for the normal-weight population, the prevalence of high TSH levels increased threefold in the morbid obesity category (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Persons with morbid obesity might be inappropriately classified if the standard ranges of normality of TSH for the normal-weight population are applied to them.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Tireotropina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/complicações , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Espanha , Magreza/sangue , Magreza/complicações , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(1): 102-110, ene.-feb. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-161148

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine trends in the relationship between smoking history and both general and central fatness in adults from a Mediterranean setting. Materials and methods: The ENCAT 1992-1993 and 2002-2003 surveys were used; samples consisted of 482 men, 589 women from 1992-1993, and 515 men, 613 women from 2002-2003, aged 25-60 years. Measured anthropometry and self-reported data on smoking habits, diet, lifestyle and SES were collected. General fatness was defined as WHO’s BMI overweight and obesity, and central fatness was defined as WHO’s Increased-Risk-for-metabolic-complications Waist Circumference (IR WC) and Substantially-Increased-Risk WC (SIR WC). Simple logistic regression was used to estimate multivariate-adjusted associations between general/central fatness and smoking history. Results: By 2002-2003, most associations observed in 1992-1993 had been strongly attenuated: only male current-heavy-smoking remained associated with IR/ SIR WC (three-fold) and female current-moderate-smokers were 0.57 times less likely to have an IR/SIR WC (p < 0.10). Conclusions: Although causality cannot be established, results suggest a positive association between heavy smoking and central fatness among men, but no association between former smoking and general/central fatness; findings strengthen arguments for promoting smoking cessation to reduce smoking –and obesity–associated morbidity and mortality (AU)


Objetivos: examinar las tendencias en la relación entre el historial tabáquico y el exceso de peso general y central, en adultos de una región mediterránea. Materiales y métodos: se utilizaron las encuestas ENCAT 1992-1993 y 2002-2003. Tamaño muestral: 482 hombres, 589 mujeres de 1992-1993, y 515 hombres, 613 mujeres de 2002-2003, de edades comprendidas entre 25-60 años. Se recogieron medidas antropométricas y datos autoinformados sobre hábito tabáquico, dieta, estilo de vida y estado socioeconómico (ESE). El exceso de peso general se definió como sobrepeso y obesidad según IMC (clasificación OMS), y el central como el «Riesgo Aumentado de enfermedad metabólica según el Perímetro de la Cintura» (RA PC) y el «Riesgo Aumentado Sustancialmente de enfermedad metabólica según el Perímetro de la Cintura» (RAS PC) (clasificación OMS). Se utilizó la regresión logística simple para estimar asociaciones multivariantes ajustadas entre exceso de peso e historial tabáquico. Resultados: en 2002-2003, la mayoría de las asociaciones observadas en la primera encuesta se vieron considerablemente atenuadas: únicamente en varones fumadores actuales de más de 20 cigarrillos/día se mantuvo la asociación con RA/RAS PC (siendo el triple que en 2002-2003) y las mujeres fumadoras moderadas resultaron tener 0,57 veces menos probabilidades de tener un RA/RAS PC (p < 0,10). Conclusiones: a pesar de no poder establecer una causalidad, los resultados sugieren una asociación positiva entre fumar más de 20 cigarrillos/día y el exceso de peso central entre los hombres, pero ninguna asociación entre el extabaquismo y el exceso de peso general/central; estos hallazgos refuerzan los argumentos para promover el abandono del tabaco y poder así reducir la morbimortalidad asociada al tabaquismo y la obesidad (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relação Cintura-Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 86(4): 197-212, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27117539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the literature review on the effectiveness of clinical interventions on childhood obesity, proposed in Clinical Practice Guidelines, excluding prevention and pharmacological and surgical treatments. METHOD: A systematic review was carried out in electronic databases of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, and SCOPUS, replicating the search for the Clinical Practice Guidelines, from 2009 to 2014. The Clinical Practice Guidelines of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence were taken as a reference. Systematic reviews were given priority, and the quality of the studies was assessed. RESULTS: Out of a total of 3,703 documents initially identified, 48 were finally included. Studies showed great heterogeneity in the type and duration of interventions, and in outcome measures. Adherence to treatment was, in general, low. Multi-component interventions including diet, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and behaviour changes, involving the family, and starting at early ages, were the most effective for reducing body mass index. There is no consensus on criteria for referral to specialised care. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended to implement multi-component programs conducted by professionals with previous training, involving the family, and addressing behavioural, individual and socio-demographic aspects. Lack of adherence is one of the reasons for failure of interventions. Diagnostic and referral criteria, the outcome measures, and the type and duration of interventions need to be improved and standardised.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Thyroid ; 27(2): 156-166, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Spain and its association with various clinical, environmental, and demographic variables. METHODS: The study included 4554 subjects (42.4% men) with a mean age of 50 years (range 18-93 years), who were participants in a national, cross-sectional, population-based survey conducted in 2009-2010. Data gathered included clinical and demographic characteristics, physical examination, and blood sampling. Thyrotropin, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) concentrations were analyzed by electrochemiluminescence. Urinary iodine (UI) levels were measured in an isolated urine sample. RESULTS: The prevalence of treated hypothyroidism, untreated subclinical hypothyroidism, and untreated clinical hypothyroidism was 4.2% [confidence interval (CI) 3.6-4.9%], 4.6% [CI 4.0-5.2%], and 0.3% [CI 0.1-0.5%], respectively. The prevalence of total hypothyroidism (including all fractions) was 9.1% [CI 8.2-10.0%]. The prevalence of total hyperthyroidism was 0.8% [CI 0.6-1.1]. A total of 7.5% [CI 6.7-8.3%] of the population tested positive for TPOAbs (≥50 IU/mL). In multivariate logistic regression models, TPOAbs were strongly associated with both hypothyroidism (p < 0.001) and hyperthyroidism (p = 0.005), whereas high UI levels (>200 µg/g creatinine) were associated with hypothyroidism (p < 0.001). The positive association between UI and hypothyroidism remained for both treated (p < 0.001) and untreated (p < 0.05) hypothyroidism, whereas it was especially significant for non-autoimmune (TPOAbs negative) forms (p < 0.001). At UI levels ≥200 µg/g, there was a positive correlation between UI and thyrotropin levels (ß = 0.152, p < 0.001) and a negative correlation between UI and free triiodothyronine levels (ß = -0.134, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: According to the data, a large proportion (10%) of the Spanish population has some evidence of thyroid dysfunction. High TPOAb concentrations were associated with both hypo- and hyperthyroidism, whereas high UI concentrations were associated with hypothyroidism.


Assuntos
Hipertireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertireoidismo/imunologia , Hipertireoidismo/metabolismo , Hipotireoidismo/imunologia , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Iodo/urina , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/imunologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 90: e1-e11, 2016 Nov 03.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27808084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The PEGASO Project aims to design a technological system aimed at European adolescents to promote healthy lifestyles. The objective was to explore teenagers and their parents and teachers perceptions with regards to mobile technology use in promoting a healthier lifestyle, in terms of food and physical activity. METHODS: Qualitative study based on primary data obtained through four focus groups analysis (three teenager groups between 13 and 15 y and 1 parent/teacher group). Verbatim transcriptions have been analysed following content analysis perspective. RESULTS: Four different categories were identified: 1: social and cultural context, 2: adolescents and health, 3: role of technology in teenagers' lives and 4: use of technology to acquire healthier habits. Each category helped to arise various subcategories linked to the relation between teens and health: holistic health concept, health/disease perception directly related with feeling physically fit and social acceptance. With regards to technology, the arisen themes were: feeling connected with others, importance of entertainment/games, omnipresent use of Smartphones and risk of excessive dependence on technology. The difference between teens and adults with regards to health and technology categories were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Both teens and adults think that for technology to be effective in acquiring healthier habits it has to help teens to improve and maintain their self-esteem, in an entertaining way and using their own communication codes, mainly audio-visual ones, always under the umbrella of a holistic and integrated perception of health.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Smartphone , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pais , Psicologia do Adolescente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoimagem , Espanha , Telemedicina/instrumentação
20.
Diabetes Care ; 39(11): 1987-1995, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27493134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a common cause of shortened life expectancy. We aimed to assess the association between diabetes and cause-specific death. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used the pooled analysis of individual data from 12 Spanish population cohorts with 10-year follow-up. Participants had no previous history of cardiovascular diseases and were 35-79 years old. Diabetes status was self-reported or defined as glycemia >125 mg/dL at baseline. Vital status and causes of death were ascertained by medical records review and linkage with the official death registry. The hazard ratios and cumulative mortality function were assessed with two approaches, with and without competing risks: proportional subdistribution hazard (PSH) and cause-specific hazard (CSH), respectively. Multivariate analyses were fitted for cardiovascular, cancer, and noncardiovascular noncancer deaths. RESULTS: We included 55,292 individuals (15.6% with diabetes and overall mortality of 9.1%). The adjusted hazard ratios showed that diabetes increased mortality risk: 1) cardiovascular death, CSH = 2.03 (95% CI 1.63-2.52) and PSH = 1.99 (1.60-2.49) in men; and CSH = 2.28 (1.75-2.97) and PSH = 2.23 (1.70-2.91) in women; 2) cancer death, CSH = 1.37 (1.13-1.67) and PSH = 1.35 (1.10-1.65) in men; and CSH = 1.68 (1.29-2.20) and PSH = 1.66 (1.25-2.19) in women; and 3) noncardiovascular noncancer death, CSH = 1.53 (1.23-1.91) and PSH = 1.50 (1.20-1.89) in men; and CSH = 1.89 (1.43-2.48) and PSH = 1.84 (1.39-2.45) in women. In all instances, the cumulative mortality function was significantly higher in individuals with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is associated with premature death from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and noncardiovascular noncancer causes. The use of CSH and PSH provides a comprehensive view of mortality dynamics in a population with diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Expectativa de Vida , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias/complicações , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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