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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142081, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182185

RESUMO

The high biotic diversity supported by floodplains is ruled by the interplay of geomorphic and hydrological processes at various time scales, from daily fluctuations to decennial successions. Because understanding such processes is a key question in river restoration, we attempted to model changes in taxonomic richness in an assemblage of 58 macroinvertebrate taxa (21 gastropoda and 37 ephemeroptera, plecoptera and trichoptera, EPT) along two successional sequences typical for former braided channels. Individual models relating the occurrence of taxa to overflow and backflow durations were developed from field measurements in 19 floodplain channels of the Rhône floodplain (France) monitored over 10 years. The models were combined to simulate diversity changes along a progressive alluviation and disconnection sequence after the reconnection with the main river of a previously isolated channel. Two scenarios were considered: (i) an upstream + downstream reconnection creating a lotic channel, (ii) a downstream reconnection creating a semi-lotic channel. Reconnection led to a direct increase in invertebrate richness (on average x2.5). However, taxonomical richness showed a constant decrease as isolation progressed and reached an average of 2 for EPT and 7 for gastropods at the end of the scenarios. With more than 80% of the taxonomic models with an AUC equal or higher than 0.7 and slopes of linear relations between observed and predicted richness of 0.75 (gastropods) and 1 (EPT), the Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) provided a good basis for prediction of species assemblages. These models can be used to quantify a priori the sustainability and ecological efficiency of restoration actions and help floodplain restoration planning and management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Animais , França , Hidrologia , Rios
2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14387, 2018 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258085

RESUMO

Recent studies revealed that information on ecological patterns and processes can be investigated using sounds emanating from animal communities. In freshwater environments, animal communities are strongly shaped by key ecological factors such as lateral connectivity and temperature. We predict that those ecological factors are linked to acoustic communities formed by the collection of sounds emitted underwater. To test this prediction, we deployed a passive acoustic monitoring during 15 days in six floodplain channels of the European river Rhône. The six channels differed in their temperature and level of lateral connectivity to the main river. In parallel, we assessed the macroinvertebrate communities of these six channels using classical net sampling methods. A total of 128 sound types and 142 animal taxa were inventoried revealing an important underwater diversity. This diversity, instead of being randomly distributed among the six floodplain channels, was site-specific. Generalized mixed-effects models demonstrated a strong effect of both temperature and lateral connectivity on acoustic community composition. These results, congruent with macroinvertebrate community composition, suggest that acoustic communities reflect the interactions between animal communities and their environment. Overall our study strongly supports the perspectives offered by acoustic monitoring to describe and understand ecological patterns in freshwater environments.


Assuntos
Acústica/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Rios , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Hidrologia , Temperatura
3.
Environ Pollut ; 233: 419-428, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100179

RESUMO

Trace metal risk assessment and environmental quality standard definition require realistic models that quantify metal exposure and accumulation by biota. In the present study we propose a novel trait-based approach to predict whole body concentrations of metals in aquatic invertebrates from concentrations measured in different environmental compartments. Field data from a large riverine floodplain was used to calibrate and test the model. The prediction performance of the trait-based model was unbiased and uncertainty was below the twofold of measured concentrations for the four studied metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb). The relative contribution of feeding, respiration and locomotion patterns as well as metal concentrations in three environmental compartments provided insights into the importance of different uptake pathways. The relation with the sediment (i.e., to what degree taxa live in or directly on the sediment) was shown to be the most important trait to predict metal accumulation. Overall, this study demonstrated the potential use of bioecological traits for the modeling of whole body metal concentrations of entire aquatic invertebrate communities.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Invertebrados/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Biota , Meio Ambiente , Metais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Modelos Químicos , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 587-588: 248-257, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28238435

RESUMO

Floodplain water bodies provide habitat to diversified ecological communities. Floodplains are also among the most impacted aquatic ecosystems. While the link between the lateral connectivity of floodplain sites to the main channel and their plant, fish and invertebrate communities has been well established, detailed information on chemical characteristics and particularly on trace metal spatial distribution and partitioning is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the link between the lateral connectivity and physico-chemical variables, their trace metal concentrations and partitioning as well as the upstream-downstream gradient of these parameters. In connected and disconnected water bodies of the Rhône River upstream and downstream of the city of Lyon, we measured major ions, dissolved organic carbon, trace metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and U) in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment. The results revealed a clear difference between connected and disconnected water bodies. pH, SPM, Na+, and NO3- concentrations were lower in disconnected sites while conductivity, DOC, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were higher. Conductivity and a part of the major ion concentrations increased in the downstream sections. Trace metal concentrations and partitioning varied between connected and disconnected sites. In the dissolved fraction, trace metal concentrations were higher in connected sites. In the surface sediment, concentrations were higher in disconnected sites for the majority of metals. The upstream-downstream gradient was less important than the connected-disconnected gradient. Only three metals in the dissolved fraction (Cu, Cd and Pb) showed a clear increase in downstream sections. Overall, the study shows that the functioning of floodplains produces strong spatial patterns concerning the concentrations and partitioning of trace metals. These findings improve our understanding of trace metal biogeochemistry in floodplains and have important applications for floodplain restoration projects.

5.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 16(12): 2692-702, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25354309

RESUMO

Elimination of sediments from river reservoirs is a common management problem for hydroelectric power plants. Periodical flushing can have negative impacts downstream. This study investigated the impact of a flushing event on the physico-chemical changes in the downstream sections and on the consequences for the benthic macroinvertebrate community. A special emphasis was placed on trace metal fate, partitioning and speciation. The assessment of taxonomic diversity and the frequency of taxa with specific traits was used to estimate the impact on the macroinvertebrate community. Trace metals were measured in the dissolved and particulate fraction, in the surface sediment and in selected macroinvertebrates. Bioanalogical diffusive gradient thin films (DGT) complemented the approach. The results showed an increase of Al, Co, Mn and Ni in the dissolved fraction (Mdis). Crdis, Fedis, Pbdis, and Cudis showed strong spatial variation. In the exchangeable fraction of particulate metals, trends were contrasted, depending on the metal. The calculated free ion and DGT concentrations increased during the flush for all metals, except for Cu. Accumulation in invertebrates increased only in a small number of cases. Macroinvertebrate diversity was negatively impacted as shown by lower taxonomic richness and rarefied richness after the event. Trait profiles were also affected. Overall, the study revealed that flushing operations have an impact on trace metal partitioning between dissolved, suspended particulate matter and sediments, metal speciation, as well as the functional invertebrate diversity.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Invertebrados/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Metais/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Mol Ecol ; 18(6): 1137-44, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19226317

RESUMO

We examined the spatial and temporal variation of species diversity and genetic diversity in a metacommunity comprising 16 species of freshwater gastropods. We monitored species abundance at five localities of the Ain river floodplain in southeastern France, over a period of four years. Using 190 AFLP loci, we monitored the genetic diversity of Radix balthica, one of the most abundant gastropod species of the metacommunity, twice during that period. An exceptionally intense drought occurred during the last two years and differentially affected the study sites. This allowed us to test the effect of natural disturbances on changes in both genetic and species diversity. Overall, local (alpha) diversity declined as reflected by lower values of gene diversity H(S) and evenness. In parallel, the among-sites (beta) diversity increased at both the genetic (F(ST)) and species (F(STC)) levels. These results suggest that disturbances can lead to similar changes in genetic and community structure through the combined effects of selective and neutral processes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Gastrópodes/genética , Variação Genética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Animais , Secas , França , Genética Populacional , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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