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1.
Eur Respir J ; 54(5)2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary hypertension is a rare but important cause of mortality after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children. This complication is poorly characterised in the literature. We report here a series of children who developed pulmonary hypertension after HSCT. METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2015, we retrospectively analysed 366 children who underwent HSCT (age range 0.5-252 months; median 20.3 months). During the post-HSCT course, echocardiography scans motivated by respiratory symptoms identified 31 patients with elevated tricuspid regurgitation velocity (>2.8 m·s-1), confirmed when possible by right heart catheterisation (RHC). RESULTS: 22 patients had confirmed pulmonary hypertension with mean±sd pulmonary arterial pressure 40.1±10 mmHg (range 28-62 mmHg) and pulmonary vascular resistance 17.3±9.2 Wood Units (range 8-42 Wood Units). Among the 13 responders at reactivity test, only one patient responded to calcium channel blockers. Seven patients (32%) died. 15 pulmonary hypertension patients were alive after a mean±sd follow-up of 6.5±2.3 years (range 2-10 years). All survivors could be weaned off pulmonary hypertension treatment after a median follow-up of 5 months (range 3-16). The delay between clinical symptoms and initiation of pulmonary hypertension therapy was significantly longer in patients who subsequently died (mean±sd 33.5±23 days; median 30 days) than in survivors (mean±sd 7±3 days) (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Pulmonary hypertension is a severe complication of HSCT with an underestimated incidence and high mortality. Aggressive and timely up-front combination therapy allowed normalisation of pulmonary pressure and improved survival.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591117

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections are a global burden. Area under the serum concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) ratio is the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter that best predicts vancomycin efficacy. Its therapeutic range is narrow, difficult to achieve because of a wide intersubject variability, especially in children, and is not routinely targeted since the AUC is rarely available. We investigated if an early Bayesian dose adjustment would increase the rate of vancomycin target attainment, in the first 24 hours of treatment (H24), in children.We conducted a single-centre randomized controlled trial in 4 pediatric departments of Necker-Enfants Malades hospital (Paris, France). Patients aged 3 months to 17 years for whom intravenous vancomycin was started were eligible and randomized in a 1:1 ratio: routine care were compared with an early vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (3h after treatment initiation) followed by an early Bayesian dose adjustment using a previously published population-based PK model that included age, bodyweight and serum creatinine as covariates. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients of each group achieving vancomycin therapeutic range at H24, defined by AUC0-24/MIC≥400 and AUC0-24 ≤800mg-h/L.Ninety-nine patients were enrolled: 49 were randomized to the Bayesian group and 50 to the control group. Modified intention-to-treat analysis included 82 patients: 85% of Bayesian group patients achieved H24 vancomycin target versus 57% of control group patients (p=0.007) with no difference regarding iatrogenic events. Early Bayesian dose adjustment increased the proportion of children achieving vancomycin target at H24, which may improve clinical outcomes of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections.

4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1986-1995.e3, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal-dominant signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) deficiency predisposes to recurrent bacterial pneumonia, complicated by bronchiectasis and cavitations. Aspergillosis is a major cause of morbidity in these patients. However, its diagnosis, classification, and treatment are challenging. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the prevalence and describe the clinical, mycological, and radiological presentation and related therapy and outcome of Aspergillus infections of the respiratory tract in the STAT3-deficient patients of the National French cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all pulmonary aspergillosis cases in STAT3-deficient patients (n = 74). Clinical and mycological data were collected up to October 2015 and imaging was centralized. RESULTS: Twenty-one episodes of pulmonary aspergillosis in 13 (17.5%) STAT3-deficient patients were identified. The median age at first episode was 13 years (interquartile range, 10-26 years). Ninety percent of patients had previous bronchiectasis or cavitations. Infections were classified as follows: 5 single aspergilloma, 9 chronic cavity pulmonary aspergillosis, 5 allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis-like disease, and 2 mixed forms of concomitant allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis-like disease and chronic cavity pulmonary aspergillosis. No invasive aspergillosis cases were identified. Aspergillus species were isolated in 71% of episodes and anti-Aspergillus antibodies in 93%. Eleven episodes were breakthrough infections. Antifungal treatment was prolonged, with a median of 13 months, and 6 patients (7 episodes) required surgery, with a high rate of postsurgical complications. One patient died and 6 had a relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic and allergic forms of aspergillosis occurred in 17.5% of STAT3-deficient patients, mostly in lung cavities. Almost half had recurrences, despite prolonged antifungal treatment and/or surgery.

5.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(7): 1363-1373, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876929

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment for some inherited disorders, including selected primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). In the absence of a well-matched donor, HSCT from a haploidentical family donor (HIFD) may be considered. In adult recipients high-dose post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) is increasingly used to mitigate the risks of graft failure and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, data on the use of PTCY in children (and especially those with inherited disorders) are scarce. We reviewed the outcomes of 27 children transplanted with an HIFD and PTCY for a PID (n = 22) or osteopetrosis (n = 5) in a single center. The median age was 1.5 years (range, .2 to 17). HSCT with PTCY was a primary procedure (n = 21) or a rescue procedure after graft failure (n = 6). The conditioning regimen was myeloablative in most primary HSCTs and nonmyeloablative in rescue procedures. After a median follow-up of 25.6 months, 24 of 27 patients had engrafted. Twenty-one patients are alive and have been cured of the underlying disease. The 2-year overall survival rate was 77.7%. The cumulative incidences of acute GVHD grade ≥ II, chronic GVHD, and autoimmune disease were 45.8%, 24.2%, and 29.6%, respectively. There were 2 cases of grade III acute GVHD and no extensive cGVHD. The cumulative incidences of blood viral replication and life-threatening viral events were 58% and 15.6%, respectively. There was evidence of early T cell immune reconstitution. In the absence of an HLA-identical donor, HIFD HSCT with PTCY is a viable option for patients with life-threatening inherited disorders.

6.
Blood Adv ; 2(19): 2550-2553, 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291113

RESUMO

New-onset autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) occurs in 2% to 6% of pediatric patients post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is a significant complication. Incomplete immune recovery following HSCT may predispose to immune dysregulation including autoimmune cytopenias. We describe an innovative therapy for AIHA refractory to proteasome inhibition. In potentially life-threatening AIHA in the context of HSCT, daratumumab may be an effective rescue therapy.

7.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 40(6): 853-860, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28687938

RESUMO

Recently, CLPB deficiency has been shown to cause a genetic syndrome with cataracts, neutropenia, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Surprisingly, the neurological presentation ranges from completely unaffected to patients with virtual absence of development. Muscular hypo- and hypertonia, movement disorder and progressive brain atrophy are frequently reported. We present the foetal, peri- and neonatal features of 31 patients, of which five are previously unreported, using a newly developed clinical severity scoring system rating the clinical, metabolic, imaging and other findings weighted by the age of onset. Our data are illustrated by foetal and neonatal videos. The patients were classified as having a mild (n = 4), moderate (n = 13) or severe (n = 14) disease phenotype. The most striking feature of the severe subtype was the neonatal absence of voluntary movements in combination with ventilator dependency and hyperexcitability. The foetal and neonatal presentation mirrored the course of disease with respect to survival (current median age 17.5 years in the mild group, median age of death 35 days in the severe group), severity and age of onset of all findings evaluated. CLPB deficiency should be considered in neonates with absence of voluntary movements, respiratory insufficiency and swallowing problems, especially if associated with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, neutropenia and cataracts. Being an important differential diagnosis of hyperekplexia (exaggerated startle responses), we advise performing urinary organic acid analysis, blood cell counts and ophthalmological examination in these patients. The neonatal presentation of CLPB deficiency predicts the course of disease in later life, which is extremely important for counselling.


Assuntos
Catarata/metabolismo , Endopeptidase Clp/deficiência , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/metabolismo , Neutropenia/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Atrofia/metabolismo , Encefalopatias , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperecplexia/metabolismo , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos dos Movimentos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Haematologica ; 102(2): e52-e56, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27789675
9.
J Child Neurol ; 31(14): 1584-1590, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27591003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors aimed to collect all brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed in critically ill children in the authors' medical pediatric intensive care unit over a 2-year period (2012-2013) to (1) describe the findings and (2) assess its contribution on practical patient care. METHODS: This is a single-center and retrospective study. All children without traumatic brain injury who underwent a brain MRI during pediatric intensive care unit stays were included. To assess the exam's contribution, the patient's medical condition at the time of the MRI exam was blindly and separately exposed to a pediatric neurologist and a pediatric intensivist. RESULTS: During the study period, 87 patients (7.5%) underwent a brain MRI. Median age was 4 months and 13 children (14.9%) died in pediatric intensive care unit. The most common final diagnosis was postanoxic encephalopathy. Brain MRI was abnormal in 68 patients (78.2%). No serious adverse event occurred during the transport. The neurologist and the intensivist considered brain MRI as indicated during pediatric intensive care unit stay in 65 (74.7%) and 68 patients (78.2%). They deemed that brain MRI had a diagnostic contribution in 76 (87.4%) and 60 (69.0%) patients, respectively. A therapeutic change consecutive to MRI findings occurred in 19 patients (21.8%) and MRI results were associated with a decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatment in 21 patients (24.1%). CONCLUSION: Brain MRI is one component of neuromonitoring, and this study suggests a substantial diagnostic contribution, although its therapeutic impact appears limited to specific diagnoses.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino , Neurologistas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Método Simples-Cego
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