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1.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 27, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) and severe, refractory disease achieved remission through intensive immunosuppressive treatment followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, disease relapsed in most cases. More recently selected SJIA patients received allogenic HSCT from a HLA-identical sibling or a HLA matched unrelated donor. While most transplanted patients achieved sustained SJIA remission off-treatment, the procedure-related morbidity was high. CASE REPORT: A girl presented SJIA with a severe disease course since the age of 15 months. She was refractory to the combination of methotrexate and steroids to anti-interleukin (IL)-1, then anti-IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors, and thalidomide. Given the high disease burden and important treatment-related toxicity the indication for a haploidentical HSCT from her mother was validated, as no HLA matched donor was available. The patient received a T replete bone marrow graft at the age of 3.7 years. Conditioning regimen contained Rituximab, Alemtuzumab, Busulfan, and Fludarabine. Cyclophosphamide at D + 3 and + 4 post HSCT was used for graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis, followed by Cyclosporin A and Mycophenolate Mofetil. Post HSCT complications included severe infections, grade 3 intestinal graft-versus-host-disease, autoimmune thyroiditis, and immune thrombocytopenia. Three years after HSCT, the child is alive and well, notwithstanding persistent hypothyroidy requiring substitution. Immune thrombocytopenia had resolved. Most importantly, SJIA was in complete remission, off immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSION: Allogenic HSCT may be a therapeutic option, even with a HLA haplo-identical alternative donor, in patients with inflammatory diseases such as SJIA. Despite increased experience with this treatment, the risk of life-threatening complications restrains its indication to selected patients with severe, refractory disease.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534079

RESUMO

Phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3) deficiency is a rare congenital disorder of glycosylation. Most of patients with autosomal recessive hypomorphic mutations in PGM3 encoding for phosphoglucomutase 3 present with eczema, skin and lung infections, elevated serum IgE, as well as neurological and skeletal features. A few PGM3-deficient patients suffer from a more severe disease with nearly absent T cells and severe skeletal dysplasia. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing on two kindred to identify the underlying genetic etiology of a severe combined immunodeficiency with developmental defect. We report here two novel homozygous missense variants (p.Gly359Asp and p.Met423Thr) in PGM3 identified in three patients from two unrelated kindreds with severe combined immunodeficiency, neurological impairment, and skeletal dysplasia. Both variants segregated with the disease in the two families. They were predicted to be deleterious by in silico analysis. PGM3 enzymatic activity was found to be severely impaired in primary fibroblasts and Epstein-Barr virus immortalized B cells from the kindred carrying the p.Met423Thr variant. Our findings support the pathogenicity of these two novel variants in severe PGM3 deficiency.

5.
J Exp Med ; 217(11)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812031

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) preferentially infects epithelial cells and B lymphocytes and sometimes T and NK lymphocytes. Persistence of EBV-infected cells results in severe lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Diagnosis of EBV-driven T or NK cell LPD and chronic active EBV diseases (CAEBV) is difficult, often requiring biopsies. Herein, we report a flow-FISH cytometry assay that detects cells expressing EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs), allowing rapid identification of EBV-infected cells among PBMCs. EBV-infected B, T, and/or NK cells were detectable in various LPD conditions. Diagnosis of CAEBV in 22 patients of Caucasian and African origins was established. All exhibited circulating EBV-infected T and/or NK cells, highlighting that CAEBV is not restricted to native American and Asian populations. Proportions of EBV-infected cells correlated with blood EBV loads. We showed that EBV-infected T cells had an effector memory activated phenotype, whereas EBV-infected B cells expressed plasma cell differentiation markers. Thus, this method achieves accurate and unambiguous diagnoses of different forms of EBV-driven LPD and represents a powerful tool to study their pathophysiological mechanisms.

7.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 23: 100581, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300528

RESUMO

Glycogenosis type Ib (GSD1B) causes not only hypoglycemia but also infections and "Crohn's disease like" inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can significantly impair patient's quality of life. We retrospectively evaluated infectious and digestive complications in 9 French patients (3 girls, 6 boys) diagnosed at 0.8 years on average, with a mean follow-up of 19.1 years. Infections occurred earlier than IBD, at mean ages of 1.7 and 3.8 years, respectively. The number of acute hospitalizations was 0.7/year due to infectious (0.4/year) or digestive symptoms (0.4/year). Clinical presentations allowed separating patients into mild (n = 5) and severe (n = 4) intestinal involvement. Patients in the severe group had more serious digestive symptoms but also earlier neutropenia (median 0.3 vs. 1.5 years, p =0 .046) with a tendency to a lower neutrophil count (NC) during follow-up, and a higher number of acute hospitalizations (median 1.3/year vs. 0.2/year, p =0 .014) due to digestive symptoms (median 0.6/year vs. 0.05/year, p = 0,012) and infections (median 0.8/year vs. 0.2/year, p =0 .014). Treatments included G-CSF and cotrimoxazole (n = 7), 5-aminosalicylic acid (n = 2), and a polymeric solution enriched in the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-ß (n = 4, "severe" group), and immunomodulatory treatment (n = 1). In conclusion, infections and IBD are rare but severe complications in GSD1B. Neutropenia tended to be more prevalent in the severe IBD group than in the mild IBD group. Dietetic treatment with specific anti-inflammatory solutions seems particularly appropriate in these patients.

8.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(4): 704-711, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843562

RESUMO

Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is a rare disease characterized by erosive photosensitivity and chronic hemolysis due to a defect of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen-III-synthase (UROS). To date, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy for the devastating early and severe form of the disease. We describe 6 patients with CEP treated with HSCT (3 of them twice after failure of a first graft) between 1994 and 2016 in our center, including 2 of the very first living patients treated more than 20 years ago. Four patients are doing well at 6 to 25 years post-HSCT, with near-normal biochemical parameters of porphyrin metabolism without the cutaneous or hematologic features of CEP. One patient died within the first year after HSCT from severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and 1 child died of unexplained acute hepatic failure at 1 year after HSCT, despite full donor chimerism. Retrospectively, it appears that all but 1 child had increased transaminase activity with onset from the early postnatal period, which was significantly more marked in the child who died of liver failure. In contrast, liver function values progressively normalized after engraftment in all other children. Liver pathology before HSCT for 3 patients revealed varying degrees of portal, centrilobular, and perisinusoidal fibrosis; clarification of hepatocytes; and cytosolic porphyrin deposits. The liver porphyrin content in biopsy specimens was >60 times the normal values. Despite difficult engraftment, the long-term efficacy of HSCT in CEP appears to be favorable and reinforces its benefits for the severe form of CEP. Hepatic involvement requires careful evaluation before and after HSCT and further investigation into its pathophysiology and care.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591117

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections are a global burden. Area under the serum concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) ratio is the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter that best predicts vancomycin efficacy. Its therapeutic range is narrow, difficult to achieve because of a wide intersubject variability, especially in children, and is not routinely targeted since the AUC is rarely available. We investigated if an early Bayesian dose adjustment would increase the rate of vancomycin target attainment, in the first 24 hours of treatment (H24), in children.We conducted a single-centre randomized controlled trial in 4 pediatric departments of Necker-Enfants Malades hospital (Paris, France). Patients aged 3 months to 17 years for whom intravenous vancomycin was started were eligible and randomized in a 1:1 ratio: routine care were compared with an early vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (3h after treatment initiation) followed by an early Bayesian dose adjustment using a previously published population-based PK model that included age, bodyweight and serum creatinine as covariates. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients of each group achieving vancomycin therapeutic range at H24, defined by AUC0-24/MIC≥400 and AUC0-24 ≤800mg-h/L.Ninety-nine patients were enrolled: 49 were randomized to the Bayesian group and 50 to the control group. Modified intention-to-treat analysis included 82 patients: 85% of Bayesian group patients achieved H24 vancomycin target versus 57% of control group patients (p=0.007) with no difference regarding iatrogenic events. Early Bayesian dose adjustment increased the proportion of children achieving vancomycin target at H24, which may improve clinical outcomes of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections.

11.
Eur Respir J ; 54(5)2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary hypertension is a rare but important cause of mortality after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children. This complication is poorly characterised in the literature. We report here a series of children who developed pulmonary hypertension after HSCT. METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2015, we retrospectively analysed 366 children who underwent HSCT (age range 0.5-252 months; median 20.3 months). During the post-HSCT course, echocardiography scans motivated by respiratory symptoms identified 31 patients with elevated tricuspid regurgitation velocity (>2.8 m·s-1), confirmed when possible by right heart catheterisation (RHC). RESULTS: 22 patients had confirmed pulmonary hypertension with mean±sd pulmonary arterial pressure 40.1±10 mmHg (range 28-62 mmHg) and pulmonary vascular resistance 17.3±9.2 Wood Units (range 8-42 Wood Units). Among the 13 responders at reactivity test, only one patient responded to calcium channel blockers. Seven patients (32%) died. 15 pulmonary hypertension patients were alive after a mean±sd follow-up of 6.5±2.3 years (range 2-10 years). All survivors could be weaned off pulmonary hypertension treatment after a median follow-up of 5 months (range 3-16). The delay between clinical symptoms and initiation of pulmonary hypertension therapy was significantly longer in patients who subsequently died (mean±sd 33.5±23 days; median 30 days) than in survivors (mean±sd 7±3 days) (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Pulmonary hypertension is a severe complication of HSCT with an underestimated incidence and high mortality. Aggressive and timely up-front combination therapy allowed normalisation of pulmonary pressure and improved survival.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1986-1995.e3, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal-dominant signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) deficiency predisposes to recurrent bacterial pneumonia, complicated by bronchiectasis and cavitations. Aspergillosis is a major cause of morbidity in these patients. However, its diagnosis, classification, and treatment are challenging. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the prevalence and describe the clinical, mycological, and radiological presentation and related therapy and outcome of Aspergillus infections of the respiratory tract in the STAT3-deficient patients of the National French cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all pulmonary aspergillosis cases in STAT3-deficient patients (n = 74). Clinical and mycological data were collected up to October 2015 and imaging was centralized. RESULTS: Twenty-one episodes of pulmonary aspergillosis in 13 (17.5%) STAT3-deficient patients were identified. The median age at first episode was 13 years (interquartile range, 10-26 years). Ninety percent of patients had previous bronchiectasis or cavitations. Infections were classified as follows: 5 single aspergilloma, 9 chronic cavity pulmonary aspergillosis, 5 allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis-like disease, and 2 mixed forms of concomitant allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis-like disease and chronic cavity pulmonary aspergillosis. No invasive aspergillosis cases were identified. Aspergillus species were isolated in 71% of episodes and anti-Aspergillus antibodies in 93%. Eleven episodes were breakthrough infections. Antifungal treatment was prolonged, with a median of 13 months, and 6 patients (7 episodes) required surgery, with a high rate of postsurgical complications. One patient died and 6 had a relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic and allergic forms of aspergillosis occurred in 17.5% of STAT3-deficient patients, mostly in lung cavities. Almost half had recurrences, despite prolonged antifungal treatment and/or surgery.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Job , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/deficiência , Adolescente , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome de Job/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Job/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Job/epidemiologia , Masculino , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspergilose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(7): 1363-1373, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876929

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment for some inherited disorders, including selected primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). In the absence of a well-matched donor, HSCT from a haploidentical family donor (HIFD) may be considered. In adult recipients high-dose post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) is increasingly used to mitigate the risks of graft failure and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, data on the use of PTCY in children (and especially those with inherited disorders) are scarce. We reviewed the outcomes of 27 children transplanted with an HIFD and PTCY for a PID (n = 22) or osteopetrosis (n = 5) in a single center. The median age was 1.5 years (range, .2 to 17). HSCT with PTCY was a primary procedure (n = 21) or a rescue procedure after graft failure (n = 6). The conditioning regimen was myeloablative in most primary HSCTs and nonmyeloablative in rescue procedures. After a median follow-up of 25.6 months, 24 of 27 patients had engrafted. Twenty-one patients are alive and have been cured of the underlying disease. The 2-year overall survival rate was 77.7%. The cumulative incidences of acute GVHD grade ≥ II, chronic GVHD, and autoimmune disease were 45.8%, 24.2%, and 29.6%, respectively. There were 2 cases of grade III acute GVHD and no extensive cGVHD. The cumulative incidences of blood viral replication and life-threatening viral events were 58% and 15.6%, respectively. There was evidence of early T cell immune reconstitution. In the absence of an HLA-identical donor, HIFD HSCT with PTCY is a viable option for patients with life-threatening inherited disorders.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adolescente , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/epidemiologia , Doadores de Tecidos
15.
Blood Adv ; 2(19): 2550-2553, 2018 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291113

RESUMO

New-onset autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) occurs in 2% to 6% of pediatric patients post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is a significant complication. Incomplete immune recovery following HSCT may predispose to immune dysregulation including autoimmune cytopenias. We describe an innovative therapy for AIHA refractory to proteasome inhibition. In potentially life-threatening AIHA in the context of HSCT, daratumumab may be an effective rescue therapy.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/diagnóstico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/mortalidade , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 427, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740390

RESUMO

Introduction: Current international guidelines strongly recommend catheter removal in case of S. aureus central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLASBI), but a catheter salvage strategy may be considered in children given age-related specificities. No data is available regarding the outcome of this strategy in children. This study aims to evaluate catheter salvage strategy in children with S. aureus CLABSI, and to determine treatment failure rates and associated risk factors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data for all children <18 years having S. aureus CLABSI on a long-term central venous catheter in a tertiary hospital from 2010 to 2014. We defined catheter salvage strategy as a central venous catheter left in place ≥3 days after initiation of empiric treatment for suspected bacteremia, and catheter salvage strategy failure as the persistence or relapse of bacteremia with a S. aureus strain harboring the same antibiotic susceptibility pattern, or the occurrence or the worsening of local or systemic infectious complication between 72 h and 28 days after the first positive blood culture. Results: During the study period, 49 cases of S. aureus CLABSI on long-term central venous catheters were observed in 41 children (including 59% with long-term parenteral nutrition) and 6 (15%) isolates were resistant to methicillin. A catheter salvage strategy was chosen in 37/49 (76%) cases and failed in 12/37 (32%) cases. Initial presence of bloodstream co-infection, serum concentration of vancomycin under the targeted value and inadequate empiric treatment were significantly associated with catheter salvage therapy failure. Conclusions: The catheter salvage strategy of S. aureus CLABSI on a long-term central venous catheter was frequent in the studied hospital and failed only in one third of cases.

17.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 40(6): 853-860, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28687938

RESUMO

Recently, CLPB deficiency has been shown to cause a genetic syndrome with cataracts, neutropenia, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Surprisingly, the neurological presentation ranges from completely unaffected to patients with virtual absence of development. Muscular hypo- and hypertonia, movement disorder and progressive brain atrophy are frequently reported. We present the foetal, peri- and neonatal features of 31 patients, of which five are previously unreported, using a newly developed clinical severity scoring system rating the clinical, metabolic, imaging and other findings weighted by the age of onset. Our data are illustrated by foetal and neonatal videos. The patients were classified as having a mild (n = 4), moderate (n = 13) or severe (n = 14) disease phenotype. The most striking feature of the severe subtype was the neonatal absence of voluntary movements in combination with ventilator dependency and hyperexcitability. The foetal and neonatal presentation mirrored the course of disease with respect to survival (current median age 17.5 years in the mild group, median age of death 35 days in the severe group), severity and age of onset of all findings evaluated. CLPB deficiency should be considered in neonates with absence of voluntary movements, respiratory insufficiency and swallowing problems, especially if associated with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, neutropenia and cataracts. Being an important differential diagnosis of hyperekplexia (exaggerated startle responses), we advise performing urinary organic acid analysis, blood cell counts and ophthalmological examination in these patients. The neonatal presentation of CLPB deficiency predicts the course of disease in later life, which is extremely important for counselling.


Assuntos
Catarata/metabolismo , Endopeptidase Clp/deficiência , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/metabolismo , Neutropenia/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Atrofia/metabolismo , Encefalopatias , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperecplexia/metabolismo , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos dos Movimentos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Haematologica ; 102(2): e52-e56, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27789675
19.
J Child Neurol ; 31(14): 1584-1590, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27591003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors aimed to collect all brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed in critically ill children in the authors' medical pediatric intensive care unit over a 2-year period (2012-2013) to (1) describe the findings and (2) assess its contribution on practical patient care. METHODS: This is a single-center and retrospective study. All children without traumatic brain injury who underwent a brain MRI during pediatric intensive care unit stays were included. To assess the exam's contribution, the patient's medical condition at the time of the MRI exam was blindly and separately exposed to a pediatric neurologist and a pediatric intensivist. RESULTS: During the study period, 87 patients (7.5%) underwent a brain MRI. Median age was 4 months and 13 children (14.9%) died in pediatric intensive care unit. The most common final diagnosis was postanoxic encephalopathy. Brain MRI was abnormal in 68 patients (78.2%). No serious adverse event occurred during the transport. The neurologist and the intensivist considered brain MRI as indicated during pediatric intensive care unit stay in 65 (74.7%) and 68 patients (78.2%). They deemed that brain MRI had a diagnostic contribution in 76 (87.4%) and 60 (69.0%) patients, respectively. A therapeutic change consecutive to MRI findings occurred in 19 patients (21.8%) and MRI results were associated with a decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatment in 21 patients (24.1%). CONCLUSION: Brain MRI is one component of neuromonitoring, and this study suggests a substantial diagnostic contribution, although its therapeutic impact appears limited to specific diagnoses.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino , Neurologistas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Método Simples-Cego
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