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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525650

RESUMO

The genetic cause for several families with gastric cancer (GC) aggregation is unclear, with marked relevance in early-onset patients. We aimed to identify new candidate genes involved in GC germline predisposition. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of germline samples was performed in 20 early-onset GC patients without previous germline mutation identified. WES was also performed in nine tumor samples to analyze the somatic profile using SigProfilerExtractor tool. Sequencing germline data were filtered to select those variants with plausible pathogenicity, rare frequency and previously involved in cancer. Then, a manual filtering was performed to prioritize genes according to current knowledge and function. These genetic variants were prevalidated with Integrative Genomics Viewer 2.8.2 (IGV). Subsequently, a further selection step was carried out according to function and information obtained from tumor samples. After IGV and selection step, 58 genetic variants in 52 different candidate genes were validated by Sanger sequencing. Among them, APC, FAT4, CTNND1 and TLR2 seem to be the most promising genes because of their role in hereditary cancer syndromes, tumor suppression, cell adhesion and Helicobacter pylori recognition, respectively. These encouraging results represent the open door to the identification of new genes involved in GC germline predisposition.

2.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 396, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. RESULTS: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk. METHODS: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL (N = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium (N = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). RESULTS: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis. IMPACT: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115781

RESUMO

Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X (FCCTX) comprises a heterogeneous group of families with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) and other related tumors, but with mismatch repair-proficient, microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors. Unfortunately, the genetic basis underlying their cancer predisposition remains unknown. Although pathogenic germline variants in BRIP1 increase the risk of developing hereditary ovarian cancer, the involvement of BRIP1 in hereditary CRC is still not well known. Our aim was to identify new BRIP1 variants associated with inherited CRC. Affected and non-affected individuals from 18 FCCTX or high-risk MSS CRC families were evaluated by whole-exome sequencing, and another 62 CRC patients from FCCTX or high-risk MSS CRC families were screened by an NGS multigene panel. The families were recruited at the Genetic Counseling Unit of Hospital Clínico San Carlos of Madrid. A total of three different BRIP1 mutations in three unrelated families were identified. Among them, there were two frameshift variants [c.1702_1703del, p.(Asn568TrpfsTer9) and c.903del, p.(Leu301PhefsTer2)] that result in the truncation of the protein and are thus classified as pathogenic (class 5). The remaining was a missense variant [c.2220G>T, p.(Gln740His)] considered a variant of uncertain significance (class 3). The segregation and loss of heterozygosity studies provide evidence linking the two BRIP1 frameshift variants to CRC risk, with suggestive but not definitive evidence that the third variant may be benign. The results here presented suggest that germline BRIP1 pathogenic variants could be associated with hereditary CRC predisposition.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.

6.
JCI Insight ; 5(18)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841224

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome is the most common cause of hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC), and it is characterized by DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. The term Lynch-like syndrome (LLS) is used for patients with MMR-deficient tumors and neither germline mutation in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, or EPCAM nor MLH1 somatic methylation. Biallelic somatic inactivation or cryptic germline MMR variants undetected during genetic testing have been proposed to be involved. Sixteen patients with early-onset LLS CRC were selected for germline and tumor whole-exome sequencing. Two potentially pathogenic germline MCM8 variants were detected in a male patient with LLS with fertility problems. A knockout cellular model for MCM8 was generated by CRISPR/Cas9 and detected genetic variants were produced by mutagenesis. DNA damage, microsatellite instability, and mutational signatures were monitored. DNA damage was evident for MCM8KO cells and the analyzed genetic variants. Microsatellite instability and mutational signatures in MCM8KO cells were compatible with the involvement of MCM8 in MMR. Replication in an independent familial cancer cohort detected additional carriers. Unexplained MMR-deficient CRC cases, even showing somatic biallelic MMR inactivation, may be caused by underlying germline defects in genes different than MMR genes. We suggest MCM8 as a gene involved in CRC germline predisposition with a recessive pattern of inheritance.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 159(1): 227-240.e7, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A significant proportion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases have familial aggregation but little is known about the genetic factors that contribute to these cases. We performed an exhaustive functional characterization of genetic variants associated with familial CRC. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing analyses of 75 patients from 40 families with a history of CRC (including early-onset cases) of an unknown germline basis (discovery cohort). We also sequenced specific genes in DNA from an external replication cohort of 473 families, including 488 patients with colorectal tumors that had normal expression of mismatch repair proteins (validation cohort). We disrupted the Fas-associated factor 1 gene (FAF1) in DLD-1 CRC cells using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing; some cells were transfected with plasmids that express FAF1 missense variants. Cells were analyzed by immunoblots, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and functional assays monitoring apoptosis, proliferation, and assays for Wnt signaling or nuclear factor (NF)-kappa-B activity. RESULTS: We identified predicted pathogenic variant in the FAF1 gene (c.1111G>A; p.Asp371Asn) in the discovery cohort; it was present in 4 patients of the same family. We identified a second variant in FAF1 in the validation cohort (c.254G>C; p.Arg85Pro). Both variants encoded unstable FAF1 proteins. Expression of these variants in CRC cells caused them to become resistant to apoptosis, accumulate beta-catenin in the cytoplasm, and translocate NF-kappa-B to the nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: In whole-exome sequencing analyses of patients from families with a history of CRC, we identified variants in FAF1 that associate with development of CRC. These variants encode unstable forms of FAF1 that increase resistance of CRC cells to apoptosis and increase activity of beta-catenin and NF-kappa-B.

8.
J Med Genet ; 57(10): 677-682, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is a clinical entity characterised by large and/ormultiple serrated polyps throughout the colon and increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The basis for SPS genetic predisposition is largely unknown. Common, low-penetrance genetic variants have been consistently associated with CRC susceptibility, however, their role in SPS genetic predisposition has not been yet explored. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate if common, low-penetrance genetic variants for CRC risk are also implicated in SPS genetic susceptibility. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in 219 SPS patients and 548 asymptomatic controls analysing 65 CRC susceptibility variants. A risk prediction model for SPS predisposition was developed. RESULTS: Statistically significant associations with SPS were found for seven genetic variants (rs4779584-GREM1, rs16892766-EIF3H, rs3217810-CCND2, rs992157-PNKD1/TMBIM1, rs704017-ZMIZ1, rs11196172-TCF7L2, rs6061231-LAMA5). The GREM1 risk allele was remarkably over-represented in SPS cases compared with controls (OR=1.573, 1.21-2.04, p value=0.0006). A fourfold increase in SPS risk was observed when comparing subjects within the highest decile of variants (≥65) with those in the first decile (≤50). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants for CRC risk are also involved in SPS susceptibility, being the most relevant ones rs4779584-GREM1, rs16892766-EIF3H and rs3217810-CCND2.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 597, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001714

RESUMO

Physical activity has been associated with lower risks of breast and colorectal cancer in epidemiological studies; however, it is unknown if these associations are causal or confounded. In two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses, using summary genetic data from the UK Biobank and GWA consortia, we found that a one standard deviation increment in average acceleration was associated with lower risks of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.98, P-value = 0.04) and colorectal cancer (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.90, P-value = 0.01). We found similar magnitude inverse associations for estrogen positive (ER+ve) breast cancer and for colon cancer. Our results support a potentially causal relationship between higher physical activity levels and lower risks of breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Based on these data, the promotion of physical activity is probably an effective strategy in the primary prevention of these commonly diagnosed cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Exercício Físico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Acelerometria , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
10.
Elife ; 92020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939734

RESUMO

Somatic copy number alterations (CNAs) are a hallmark of cancer, but their role in tumorigenesis and clinical relevance remain largely unclear. Here, we developed CNApp, a web-based tool that allows a comprehensive exploration of CNAs by using purity-corrected segmented data from multiple genomic platforms. CNApp generates genome-wide profiles, computes CNA scores for broad, focal and global CNA burdens, and uses machine learning-based predictions to classify samples. We applied CNApp to the TCGA pan-cancer dataset of 10,635 genomes showing that CNAs classify cancer types according to their tissue-of-origin, and that each cancer type shows specific ranges of broad and focal CNA scores. Moreover, CNApp reproduces recurrent CNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma and predicts colon cancer molecular subtypes and microsatellite instability based on broad CNA scores and discrete genomic imbalances. In summary, CNApp facilitates CNA-driven research by providing a unique framework to identify relevant clinical implications. CNApp is hosted at https://tools.idibaps.org/CNApp/.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(6): 1568-1577, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525256

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disorder for which the majority of the underlying germline predisposition factors remain still unidentified. Here, we combined whole-exome sequencing (WES) and linkage analysis in families with multiple relatives affected by CRC to identify candidate genes harboring rare variants with potential high-penetrance effects. Forty-seven affected subjects from 18 extended CRC families underwent WES. Genome-wide linkage analysis was performed under linear and exponential models. Suggestive linkage peaks were identified on chromosomes 1q22-q24.2 (maxSNP = rs2134095; LODlinear = 2.38, LODexp = 2.196), 7q31.2-q34 (maxSNP = rs6953296; LODlinear = 2.197, LODexp = 2.149) and 10q21.2-q23.1 (maxSNP = rs1904589; LODlinear = 1.445, LODexp = 2.195). These linkage signals were replicated in 10 independent sets of random markers from each of these regions. To assess the contribution of rare variants predicted to be pathogenic, we performed a family-based segregation test with 89 rare variants predicted to be deleterious from 78 genes under the linkage intervals. This analysis showed significant segregation of rare variants with CRC in 18 genes (weighted p-value > 0.0028). Protein network analysis and functional evaluation were used to suggest a plausible candidate gene for germline CRC predisposition. Etiologic rare variants implicated in cancer germline predisposition may be identified by combining traditional linkage with WES data. This approach can be used with already available NGS data from families with several sequenced members to further identify candidate genes involved germline predisposition to disease. This approach resulted in one candidate gene associated with increased risk of CRC but needs evidence from further studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Exoma , Ligação Genética , Cromossomos Humanos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Penetrância , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
12.
Gut ; 69(8): 1460-1471, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide an understanding of the role of common genetic variations in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, we report an updated field synopsis and comprehensive assessment of evidence to catalogue all genetic markers for CRC (CRCgene2). DESIGN: We included 869 publications after parallel literature review and extracted data for 1063 polymorphisms in 303 different genes. Meta-analyses were performed for 308 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 158 different genes with at least three independent studies available for analysis. Scottish, Canadian and Spanish data from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) were incorporated for the meta-analyses of 132 SNPs. To assess and classify the credibility of the associations, we applied the Venice criteria and Bayesian False-Discovery Probability (BFDP). Genetic associations classified as 'positive' and 'less-credible positive' were further validated in three large GWAS consortia conducted in populations of European origin. RESULTS: We initially identified 18 independent variants at 16 loci that were classified as 'positive' polymorphisms for their highly credible associations with CRC risk and 59 variants at 49 loci that were classified as 'less-credible positive' SNPs; 72.2% of the 'positive' SNPs were successfully replicated in three large GWASs and the ones that were not replicated were downgraded to 'less-credible' positive (reducing the 'positive' variants to 14 at 11 loci). For the remaining 231 variants, which were previously reported, our meta-analyses found no evidence to support their associations with CRC risk. CONCLUSION: The CRCgene2 database provides an updated list of genetic variants related to CRC risk by using harmonised methods to assess their credibility.

13.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1300-1312.e20, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Human studies examining associations between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and colorectal cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We conducted complementary serologic and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether alterations in circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 are associated with colorectal cancer development. METHODS: Serum levels of IGF1 were measured in blood samples collected from 397,380 participants from the UK Biobank, from 2006 through 2010. Incident cancer cases and cancer cases recorded first in death certificates were identified through linkage to national cancer and death registries. Complete follow-up was available through March 31, 2016. For the MR analyses, we identified genetic variants associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3. The association of these genetic variants with colorectal cancer was examined with 2-sample MR methods using genome-wide association study consortia data (52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 individuals without [controls]) RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 7.1 years, 2665 cases of colorectal cancer were recorded. In a multivariable-adjusted model, circulating level of IGF1 associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation increment of IGF1, 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.17). Similar associations were found by sex, follow-up time, and tumor subsite. In the MR analyses, a 1 standard deviation increment in IGF1 level, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio 1.08; 95% CI 1.03-1.12; P = 3.3 × 10-4). Level of IGFBP3, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation increment, 1.12; 95% CI 1.06-1.18; P = 4.2 × 10-5). Colorectal cancer risk was associated with only 1 variant in the IGFBP3 gene region (rs11977526), which also associated with anthropometric traits and circulating level of IGF2. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of blood samples from almost 400,000 participants in the UK Biobank, we found an association between circulating level of IGF1 and colorectal cancer. Using genetic data from 52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 controls, a higher level of IGF1, determined by genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to determine how this signaling pathway might contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/análise , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 10(10): e00100, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is a complex disorder with a high risk of colorectal cancer for which the germline factors remain largely unknown. Here, we combined whole-exome sequencing (WES) and linkage studies in families with multiple members affected by SPS to identify candidate genes harboring rare variants with higher penetrance effects. METHODS: Thirty-nine affected subjects from 16 extended SPS families underwent WES. Genome-wide linkage analysis was performed under linear and exponential models. The contribution of rare coding variants selected to be highly pathogenic was assessed using the gene-based segregation test. RESULTS: A significant linkage peak was identified on chromosome 3p25.2-p22.3 (maxSNP = rs2293787; LODlinear = 2.311, LODexp = 2.11), which logarithm of the odds (LOD) score increased after fine mapping for the same marker (maxSNP = rs2293787; LODlinear = 2.4, LODexp = 2.25). This linkage signal was replicated in 10 independent sets of random markers from this locus. To assess the contribution of rare variants predicted to be pathogenic, we performed a family-based segregation test with 11 rare variants predicted to be deleterious from 10 genes under the linkage intervals. This analysis showed significant segregation of rare variants with SPS in CAPT7, TMEM43, NGLY1, and FBLN2 genes (weighted P value > 0.007). DISCUSSION: Protein network analysis suggested FBLN2 as the most plausible candidate genes for germline SPS predisposition. Etiologic rare variants implicated in disease predisposition may be identified by combining traditional linkage with WES data. This powerful approach was effective for the identification of a new candidate gene for hereditary SPS.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
16.
Mol Aspects Med ; 69: 62-72, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108140

RESUMO

The somatic mutation spectrum imprinted in the genome of a tumor represents the mutational processes that have been active in that tumor. Large sequencing efforts in various cancer types have resulted in the identification of multiple mutational signatures, of which several have been linked to specific biological mechanisms. Several pan-cancer mutational signatures have been identified, while other signatures are only found in specific tissue types. Research on tumors from individuals with specific DNA repair defects has led to links between specific mutational signatures and mutational processes. Studying mutational signatures in cancers that are likely the result of a genetic predisposition may represent an interesting strategy to identify constitutional DNA repair defects, including those underlying polyposis and colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Envelhecimento/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Reparo do DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mutagênicos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética
17.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 10(6): e00047, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136360

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over the past 20 years, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) have emerged as potential precursors and biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, data regarding their molecular pathogenesis, as well as their endoscopic and histological identification, remain inconsistent. METHODS: A wide cohort of ACF from 100 control subjects and 100 case patients, including patients with adenoma and CRC, were characterized for endoscopic, morphologic, and molecular features. RESULTS: We observed that among all the endoscopic features evaluated, only the number of large ACF correlated with CRC risk (P = 0.003), whereas the histological classification, as assessed by 2 different pathologists, was inconsistent and did not differ between control and case patients. Moreover, only a few APC and BRAF mutations and no microsatellite instability were detected in our samples. KRAS mutations were detected in 16.3% of ACF samples, which also exhibited increased MGMT hypermethylation. However, none of those events were found to be predictive of CRC risk. DISCUSSION: Although ACF might be preneoplastic lesions of the colon, they are not suitable biomarkers for assessing CRC progression.


Assuntos
Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/patologia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Reto/patologia , Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/genética , Adenoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
18.
Mol Aspects Med ; 69: 27-40, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935834

RESUMO

Most next generation sequencing (NGS) studies identified candidate genetic variants predisposing to colorectal cancer (CRC) but do not tackle its functional interpretation to unequivocally recognize a new hereditary CRC gene. Besides, germline variants in already established hereditary CRC-predisposing genes or somatic variants share the same need when trying to categorize those with relevant significance. Functional genomics approaches have an important role in identifying the causal links between genetic architecture and phenotypes, in order to decipher cellular function in health and disease. Therefore, functional interpretation of identified genetic variants by NGS platforms is now essential. Available approaches nowadays include bioinformatics, cell and molecular biology and animal models. Recent advances, such as the CRISPR-Cas9, ZFN and TALEN systems, have been already used as a powerful tool with this objective. However, the use of cell lines is of limited value due to the CRC heterogeneity and its close interaction with microenvironment. Access to tridimensional cultures or organoids and xenograft models that mimic the in vivo tissue architecture could revolutionize functional analysis. This review will focus on the application of state-of-the-art functional studies to better tackle new genes involved in germline predisposition to this neoplasm.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edição de Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Mol Aspects Med ; 69: 10-26, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862463

RESUMO

The present article summarizes recent developments in the characterization of genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC). The main themes covered include new hereditary CRC and polyposis syndromes, non-CRC hereditary cancer genes found mutated in CRC patients, strategies used to identify novel causal genes, and review of candidate genes that have been proposed to predispose to CRC and/or colonic polyposis. We provide an overview of newly described genes and syndromes associated with predisposition to CRC and polyposis, including: polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis, NTHL1-associated polyposis, mismatch repair gene biallelic inactivation-related adenomatous polyposis (including MSH3- and MLH3-associated polyposes), GREM1-associated mixed polyposis, RNF43-associated serrated polyposis, and RPS20 mutations as a rare cause of hereditary nonpolyposis CRC. The implementation of next generation sequencing approaches for genetic testing has exposed the presence of pathogenic germline variants in genes associated with hereditary cancer syndromes not traditionally linked to CRC, which may have an impact on genetic testing, counseling and surveillance. The identification of new hereditary CRC and polyposis genes has not deemed an easy endeavor, even though known CRC-related genes explain a small proportion of the estimated familial risk. Whole-genome sequencing may offer a technology for increasing this proportion, particularly if applied on pedigree data allowing linkage type of analysis. The final section critically surveys the large number of candidate genes that have been recently proposed for CRC predisposition.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos
20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(3)2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871259

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) shows aggregation in some families but no alterations in the known hereditary CRC genes. We aimed to identify new candidate genes which are potentially involved in germline predisposition to familial CRC. An integrated analysis of germline and tumor whole-exome sequencing data was performed in 18 unrelated CRC families. Deleterious single nucleotide variants (SNV), short insertions and deletions (indels), copy number variants (CNVs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) were assessed as candidates for first germline or second somatic hits. Candidate tumor suppressor genes were selected when alterations were detected in both germline and somatic DNA, fulfilling Knudson's two-hit hypothesis. Somatic mutational profiling and signature analysis were also performed. A series of germline-somatic variant pairs were detected. In all cases, the first hit was presented as a rare SNV/indel, whereas the second hit was either a different SNV (3 genes) or LOH affecting the same gene (141 genes). BRCA2, BLM, ERCC2, RECQL, REV3L and RIF1 were among the most promising candidate genes for germline CRC predisposition. The identification of new candidate genes involved in familial CRC could be achieved by our integrated analysis. Further functional studies and replication in additional cohorts are required to confirm the selected candidates.

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