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Autoimmun Rev ; 19(2): 102455, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838162


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-induced myopathy is among the most common causes of muscle disease. An association has recently been described between programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) inhibitors and immune-related adverse events (irAE) affecting the muscle. Here, we report the clinical and pathological findings of nine unrelated patients with PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors-associated myopathy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 317 muscle biopsies performed for diagnostic purposes from January 2017 to June 2019. Patients were attended in two tertiary centers and muscle biopsies were performed and analyzed by two myology experts. Muscle biopsies were frozen in cooled isopenthane, cryostat sectioned and stained. Immunohistochemistry studies were also performed as a routine procedure in our lab. RESULTS: We identified 9 patients receiving anti-PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors consulting for either muscle weakness, asthenia, myasthenic-like syndrome or other muscle related-symptoms, along with biopsy-proven inflammatory myopathy. One had concomitant myocarditis. In most of the cases muscle biopsy showed a marked phenomenon of necrosis, macrophagy and muscle regeneration with perivascular inflammatory infiltrates with a large component of macrophagic cells. A tendency to perifascicular atrophy was also noticed. The expression of MHC class I antigens predominated in the perifascicular zones. Raised muscle enzymes were detected in 7 patients. CONCLUSION: A characteristic clinic-pathological pattern, including a myasthenia gravis-like syndrome plus myositis was found in patients receiving PD-1 and PD-1 L inhibitors. A large component of macrophages resembling granulomas seems to be the pathological hallmark of the syndrome. Further information is required to understand the wide spectrum of immune-related adverse events involving the muscle during or after treatment with anti-PD-1 inhibitors, but the pathological picture seems to be characteristic.

Histopathology ; 75(6): 799-812, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861172


AIMS: The clinical implications of the programmed cell death 1 (PD1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis in patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are largely unknown, and its association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status and PD-L1 copy number alterations (CNAs) has not been thoroughly studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: PD1/PD-L1 expression was studied in 50 adult post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, and the correlations with PD-L1 CNAs, EBV, clinicopathological features and outcome were evaluated. Thirty-seven (74%) cases were classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), nine (18%) cases were classified as polymorphic, and four (8%) cases were classified as classic Hodgkin lymphoma. Thirty-four cases were EBV-positive, with 29 of 34 (85%) having latency II or III, and 15 of 34 (44%) having viral replication. PD-L1 expression in tumour cells and tumour-associated macrophages was observed in 30 (60%) and 37 (74%) cases, respectively. PD1 positivity was seen in 16 (32%) cases. PD-L1 expression was associated with EBV with latency II or III (P = 0.001) and organ rejection (P = 0.04), and, in DLBCL, with non-germinal centre type DLBCL (P < 0.001). Cases with PD-L1-positive tumour cells showed a higher number of PD-L1 CNAs than PD-L1-negative cases (P = 0.001). Patients with EBV/latency III/replication and simultaneous PD-L1 expression showed the worst overall survival (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The PD1/PD-L1 axis is deregulated in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, with frequent PD-L1 expression and PD1 negativity. PD-L1 expression is associated with EBV latency II or III and PD-L1 CNAs, and probably reflects a proinflammatory tumour microenvironment. The combined analysis of EBV status and PD-L1 expression may help to identify deeply immunosuppressed patients who can benefit from immune reconstitution approaches.

Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16112, 2018 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382145


Postmortem studies, including the complete diagnostic autopsy (CDA) and the minimally invasive autopsy (MIA), an innovative approach to post-mortem sampling and cause of death investigation, are commonly performed within 24 hours after death because the quality of the tissues deteriorates over time. This short timeframe may hamper the feasibility of the procedure. In this study, we compared the diagnostic performance of the two postmortem procedures when carried out earlier and later than 24 hours after death, as well as the impact of increasing postmortem intervals (PMIs) on the results of the microbiological tests in a series of 282 coupled MIA/CDA procedures performed at the Maputo Central Hospital in Mozambique between 2013 and 2015. 214 procedures were conducted within 24 hours of death (early autopsies), and 68 after 24 hours of death (late autopsies). No significant differences were observed in the number of non-conclusive diagnoses (2/214 [1%] vs. 1/68 [1%] p = 0.5645 for the CDA; 27/214 [13%] vs. 5/68 [7%] p = 0.2332 for the MIA). However, increasing PMIs were associated with a raise in the number of bacteria identified (rate: 1.014 per hour [95%CI: 1.002-1.026]; p = 0.0228). This increase was mainly due to rising numbers of bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family and Pseudomonas genus strains. Thus, performing MIA or CDA more than 24 hours after death can still render reliable diagnostic results, not only for non-infectious conditions but also for many infectious diseases, although, the contribution of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. as etiological agents of infections leading to death may be overestimated.

Autopsia/métodos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Adulto , Bactérias/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido