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2.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg ; : 1-5, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050205

RESUMO

Giant perivascular spaces (PVS) are rare, CSF-filled, dilated cavities lined by the pia mater that are most often asymptomatic radiological findings but can sometimes cause neurological symptoms. We present two exceptional cases of secondary focal dystonia induced by the mass effect on the basal ganglia caused by giant diencephalic PVSs. In both cases, we chose a surgical stereotactic drainage approach as a treatment strategy that allowed controlling the movement disorders. The beneficial therapeutic effect was sustained at long-term follow-up. We believe that similar cases could be addressed successfully with this method.

4.
Mov Disord ; 34(11): 1644-1654, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether structural alterations underpin apathy and depression in de novo parkinsonian patients is unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether apathy and depression in de novo parkinsonian patients are related to structural alterations and how structural abnormalities relate to serotonergic or dopaminergic dysfunction. METHODS: We compared the morphological and microstructural architecture in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging coupled with white matter tract-based spatial statistics in a multimodal imaging case-control study enrolling 14 apathetic and 13 nonapathetic patients with de novo Parkinson's disease and 15 age-matched healthy controls, paired with PET imaging of the presynaptic dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. RESULTS: De novo parkinsonian patients with apathy had bilateral microstructural alterations in the medial corticostriatal limbic system, exhibiting decreased fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity in the anterior striatum and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex in conjunction with serotonergic dysfunction. Furthermore, microstructural alterations extended to the medial frontal cortex, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and subcallosal gyrus, the medial thalamus, and the caudal midbrain, suggesting disruption of long-range nondopaminergic projections originating in the brainstem, in addition to microstructural alterations in callosal interhemispheric connections and frontostriatal association tracts early in the disease course. In addition, microstructural abnormalities related to depressive symptoms in apathetic and nonapathetic patients revealed a distinct, mainly right-sided limbic subnetwork involving limbic and frontal association tracts. CONCLUSIONS: Early limbic microstructural alterations specifically related to apathy and depression emphasize the role of early disruption of ascending nondopaminergic projections and related corticocortical and corticosubcortical networks which underpin the variable expression of nonmotor and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

5.
Neurology ; 93(1): e97-e105, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the postoperative attempted and completed suicide rates after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in a single-center cohort and to determine factors associated with attempted and completed suicide. METHODS: We retrospectively included all patients with Parkinson disease (PD) who underwent bilateral STN-DBS surgery at the Grenoble University Hospital between 1993 and 2016. For each patient who committed or attempted suicide, 2 patients with PD with STN-DBS without any suicidal behaviors were matched for age (±1 year), sex, and year of surgery (±2 years). Clinical data were collected from medical records. Detailed preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations, including frontal and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores, were gathered. RESULTS: A total of 534 patients with PD were included. Completed and attempted suicide percentages were 0.75% (4 of 534) and 4.11% (22 of 534), respectively. The observed suicide rate in the first postoperative year (187.20 of 100,000 per year, 1 of 534) was higher than the expected National Observatory on Suicide Risks rate adjusted for age and sex (standardized mortality ratio 8.1). This rate remained similar over the second and third postoperative years. In a comparison of the 26 patients completing/attempting suicide and the 52 controls, the first group showed more frequent history of suicidal ideation/suicide attempts and psychotic symptoms, higher percentage of family psychiatric history, higher psychiatric medication use, and higher preoperative frontal and BDI scores on neuropsychological evaluations. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide behaviors can occur after STN-DBS, especially during the first 3 years. A careful multidisciplinary assessment and long-term follow-up are recommended to recognize and treat this potentially preventable risk for mortality.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/efeitos adversos , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Suicídio , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Núcleo Subtalâmico
6.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1713-1730, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050087

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive disorder caused by biallelic pathogenic variants of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). This disease is characterized by progressive ataxia, telangiectasia, immune deficiency, predisposition to malignancies, and radiosensitivity. However, hypomorphic variants may be discovered associated with very atypical phenotypes, raising the importance of evaluating their pathogenic effects. In this study, multiple functional analyses were performed on lymphoblastoid cell lines from 36 patients, comprising 49 ATM variants, 24 being of uncertain significance. Thirteen patients with atypical phenotype and presumably hypomorphic variants were of particular interest to test strength of functional analyses and to highlight discrepancies with typical patients. Western-blot combined with transcript analyses allowed the identification of one missing variant, confirmed suspected splice defects and revealed unsuspected minor transcripts. Subcellular localization analyses confirmed the low level and abnormal cytoplasmic localization of ATM for most A-T cell lines. Interestingly, atypical patients had lower kinase defect and less altered cell-cycle distribution after genotoxic stress than typical patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the pathogenic effects of the 49 variants, highlighted the strength of KAP1 phosphorylation test for pathogenicity assessment and allowed the establishment of the Ataxia-TeLangiectasia Atypical Score to predict atypical phenotype. Altogether, we propose strategies for ATM variant detection and classification.

7.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 63: 94-99, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD), freezing of gait (FOG) is a highly disabling gait disorder. Though deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an efficient treatment for advanced PD, the management of STN DBS refractory FOG remains challenging. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term impact on FOG of unilateral stimulation reduction in PD treated with bilateral STN DBS. METHODS: Patients with bilateral STN DBS for at least one year and refractory FOG were included in a randomized, double blind, cross-over clinical trial. They were randomized to chronic (CHR) vs. experimental (EXP) stimulation (30% amplitude reduction contralateral to the least affected body side), each condition for 4 weeks. Gait and FOG were assessed both in the OFF and ON medication conditions. Primary outcome was the difference in the FOG percentage during gait assessment and in a composite gait score in CHR vs. EXP stimulation. RESULTS: The study was stopped early for futility. Of the 12 patients included, eight dropped out because of re-emerging of PD symptoms. In the four patients who sustained the experimental condition, the FOG percentage did not improve, whether in the OFF (CHR: 13.4% vs. EXP: 16.8%) or in the ON (CHR: 19.5% vs. EXP: 19.8%) medication condition. There was no change in the composite gait score (CHR: 5.5 ±â€¯1.3 vs. EXP: 6.3 ±â€¯3.3). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients did not tolerate the unilateral amplitude reduction of STN DBS in the long-term. Moreover, this strategy failed to improve FOG in patients who could sustain the procedure. CLINICALTRIAL. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02704195.

8.
Mov Disord ; 33(12): 1878-1886, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impulse control disorders are frequently associated with dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease. Genetic studies have suggested a high heritability of impulse control disorders in the general population and in PD. The aim of this study was to identify candidate gene variants associated with impulse control disorders and related behaviors in PD. METHODS: We performed a multicenter case-control study in PD patients with (cases) or without impulse control disorders and related behaviors despite significant dopamine agonist exposure of >300 mg levodopa-equivalent daily dose during 12 months (controls). Behavioral disorders were assessed using the Ardouin scale. We investigated 50 variants in 24 candidate genes by a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex and age at PD onset. RESULTS: The analysis was performed on 172 cases and 132 controls. Cases were younger (60 ± 8 vs 63 ± 8 years; P < 0.001) and had a higher family history of pathological gambling (12% vs 5%, P = 0.03). No variant was significantly associated with impulse control disorders or related behaviors after correction for multiple testing, although the 2 top variants were close to significant (OPRM1 rs179991, OR, 0.49; 95%CI, 0.32-0.76; P = 0.0013; Bonferroni adjusted P = 0.065; DAT1 40-base pair variable number tandem repeat, OR, 1.82; 95%CI, 1.24-2.68; P = 0.0021; Bonferroni adjusted P = 0.105). CONCLUSIONS: Our results are suggestive of a novel association of the opioid receptor gene OPRM1 with impulse control disorders and related behaviors in PD and confirm a previous association with DAT1. Although replication in independent studies is needed, our results bring potential new insights to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of impulse control disorders. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/metabolismo , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/complicações , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Fatores de Risco
9.
Mov Disord Clin Pract ; 5(3): 265-272, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363450

RESUMO

Background: Non-motor fluctuations represent a main source of disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Among them, neuropsychiatric fluctuations are the most frequent and are often under-recognized by patients and physicians, partly because specific tools for assessment of neuropsychiatric fluctuations are lacking. Objective: To develop a scale for detecting and evaluating the presence and the severity of neuropsychological symptoms during the ON and OFF phases of non-motor fluctuations. Methods: Neuropsychiatric symptoms reported by PD patients in the OFF- and the ON-medication conditions were collected using different neuropsychiatric scales (BDI-II, BAI, Young, VAS, etc.). Subsequently, tree phases of a pilot study was performed for cognitive pretesting, identification of ambiguous or redundant items (item reduction), and to obtain preliminary data of acceptability of the new scale. In all the three phases, the scale was applied in both the OFF and ON condition during a levodopa challenge. Results: Twenty items were selected for the final version of the neuropsychiatric fluctuation scale (NFS): ten items measured the ON neuropsychological symptoms and ten items the OFF neuropsychological manifestations. Each item rated from 0-3, providing respective subscores from 0 to 30. Conclusions: Once validated, our NFS can be used to identify and quantify neuropsychiatric fluctuations during motor fluctuations. The main novelty is that it could be used in acute settings. As such, the NFS can assess the neuropsychiatric state of the patient at the time of examination. The next step will be to validate the NFS to be used in current practice.

10.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 174(9): 653-663, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224159

RESUMO

Impulse control disorders (ICDs) and other related behaviors, such as punding and dopamine dysregulation syndrome, are frequent yet underrecognized non-motor complications of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) in Parkinson's disease (PD); they can also have a major negative impact on quality of life. They result from complex interactions between a given individual's predispositions, non-physiological dopaminergic stimulation and PD pathology. Also, sensitization of the mesocorticolimbic pathway, reflected by the psychotropic effects of dopaminergic treatment, plays a crucial role in the emergence of these addictive behaviors. While early detection of changes in behavior, less use of dopamine agonists (DA) that have a relative selectivity for mesocorticolimbic dopamine receptors, and fractionation of levodopa dosages to avoid non-physiological pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors are key strategies in the management of this hyperdopaminergic behavioral spectrum, other complementary approaches are also addressed in this review.


Assuntos
Dopaminérgicos/efeitos adversos , Dopaminérgicos/uso terapêutico , Dopamina , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/etiologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 39(12): 5014-5027, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259598

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease impairs the decoding of emotional stimuli reflecting alterations of the limbic cortico-subcortical network. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the behavioral and electrophysiological effects of both levodopa and subthalamic stimulation on emotional processing in Parkinson's disease. Operated patients (n =16) and matched healthy subjects performed an emotional Stroop task, in which the emotion expressed by a face must be recognized while ignoring an emotional distractive word and that includes a neutral control sub-task. Patients were tested in the four possible treatment conditions (off stim/off med; on stim/off med; off stim/on med; and on stim/on med). High-resolution electroencephalography was recorded while performing the task. Patients made significantly more mistakes in facial emotion recognition than healthy subjects (p < .005). Untreated patients performed worse in the emotional trials than in the control sub-task (p < .05). Fearful faces induced significantly slower reaction times than happy faces in patients (p = .0002), but not in the healthy subjects. The emotional Stroop effect with levodopa was significantly higher than with subthalamic stimulation when fearful faces were assessed (p = .0243). Conversely, treatments did not modulate the Stroop effect of the control sub-task. EEG demonstrated that, compared with the untreated state, levodopa but not subthalamic stimulation significantly increases the amplitude of the event-related potential N170 (p = .002 vs. p = .1, respectively), an electrophysiological biomarker of early aspects of facial processing. The activity of the N170 cortical sources within the right fusiform gyrus was increased by levodopa (p < .05) but not by stimulation. While levodopa normalizes the recognition of emotional facial expression and early EEG markers of emotional processing, subthalamic stimulation does not. Thus, operated patients require dopaminergic medication in addition to stimulation to treat emotional symptoms of Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Levodopa/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Núcleo Subtalâmico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Teste de Stroop , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 118, 2018 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915200

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and serious psychiatric disorder. Although subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been studied as a treatment for OCD patients the underlying mechanism of this treatment and the optimal method of stimulation are unknown. To study the neural basis of subthalamic nucleus DBS in OCD patients we used a novel, implantable DBS system with long-term local field potential sensing capability. We focus our analysis on two patients with OCD who experienced severe treatment-resistant symptoms and were implanted with subthalamic nucleus DBS systems. We studied them for a year at rest and during provocation of OCD symptoms (46 recording sessions) and compared them to four Parkinson's disease (PD) patients implanted with subthalamic nucleus DBS systems (69 recording sessions). We show that the dorsal (motor) area of the subthalamic nucleus in OCD patients displays a beta (25-35 Hz) oscillatory activity similar to PD patients whereas the ventral (limbic-cognitive) area of the subthalamic nucleus displays distinct theta (6.5-8 Hz) oscillatory activity only in OCD patients. The subthalamic nucleus theta oscillatory activity decreases with provocation of OCD symptoms and is inversely correlated with symptoms severity over time. We conclude that beta oscillations at the dorsal subthalamic nucleus in OCD patients challenge their pathophysiologic association with movement disorders. Furthermore, theta oscillations at the ventral subthalamic nucleus in OCD patients suggest a new physiological target for OCD therapy as well as a promising input signal for future emotional-cognitive closed-loop DBS.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta , Adulto , Idoso , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(8): 836-843, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports on behavioural outcomes after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease are controversial and limited to short-term data. Long-term observation in a large cohort allows a better counselling and management. METHODS: To determine whether a long-term treatment with subthalamic stimulation induces or reduces impulse control behaviours, neuropsychiatric fluctuations and apathy, 69 patients treated with subthalamic stimulation are prospectively and retrospectively assessed using Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's Disease before and after 3-10 years of stimulation. RESULTS: At a mean follow-up of 6 years, all impulse control disorders and dopaminergic addiction were significantly decreased, apart from eating behaviour and hypersexuality. Neuropsychiatric fluctuations also significantly improved (ON euphoria: 38% of the patients before surgery and 1% after surgery, P<0.01; OFF dysphoria: 39% of the patients before surgery and 10% after surgery, P<0.01). However, apathy increased (25% of the patients after surgery and 3% before, P<0.01). With the retrospective analysis, several transient episodes of depression, apathy, anxiety and impulse control disorders occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation was overall very effective in improving impulse control disorders and neuropsychiatric fluctuations in parkinsonian patients in the long term despite a counteracting frequent apathy. Transient episodes of impulse control disorders still occurred within the follow-up. These findings recommend a close follow-up in parkinsonian patients presenting with neuropsychiatric symptoms before deep brain stimulation surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01705418;Post-results.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 88(11): 960-967, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pallidal deep brain stimulation (globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS) is the best therapeutic option for disabling isolated idiopathic (IID) and inherited (INH) dystonia. Acquired dystonia (AD) may also benefit from GPi DBS. Efficacy and safety in the long-term remained to be established. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively assess long-term clinical outcomes and safety in dystonic patients who underwent GPi DBS. METHODS: Patients were videotaped and assessed preoperatively and postoperatively (1-year and at last available follow-up) using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (motor score (BFMDRS-M); disability score (BFMDRS-D)). RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were included (follow-up 7.9±5.9 years; range 1-20.7). In IID and INH (n=37), the BFMDRS-M improved at first (20.4±24.5; p<0.00001) and last (22.2±18.2; p<0.001) follow-ups compared with preoperatively (50.5±28.0). In AD (n=19), the BFMDRS-M ameliorated at 1-year (40.8±26.5; p<0.02) and late follow-ups (44.3±24.3; p<0.04) compared with preoperatively (52.8±24.2). In INH dystonia with other neurological features (n=4) there was no motor benefit. In IID and INH, the BFMDRS-D improved at 1-year (9.5±7.5; p<0.0002) and late follow-ups (10.4±7.8; p<0.016) compared with preoperatively (13.3±6.9). In AD, the BFMDRS-D reduced at 1-year (12.0±8.1; p<0.01) and late follow-ups (12.7 ±6.1; p=0.2) compared with preoperatively (14.35±5.7). Most adverse events were hardware related. CONCLUSIONS: GPi DBS is an effective and safe treatment in most patients with dystonia.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Distúrbios Distônicos/terapia , Globo Pálido/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Distúrbios Distônicos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Neurology ; 89(13): 1416-1423, 2017 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report on the long-term outcomes of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) in Parkinson disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), and dystonic tremor. METHODS: One hundred fifty-nine patients with PD, ET, and dystonia underwent VIM DBS due to refractory tremor at the Grenoble University Hospital. The primary outcome was a change in the tremor scores at 1 year after surgery and at the latest follow-up (21 years). Secondary outcomes included the relationship between tremor score reduction over time and the active contact position. Tremor scores (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III, items 20 and 21; Fahn, Tolosa, Marin Tremor Rating Scale) and the coordinates of the active contacts were recorded. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients were included. Patients with PD and ET had sustained improvement in tremor with VIM stimulation (mean improvement, 70% and 66% at 1 year; 63% and 48% beyond 10 years, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no significant loss of stimulation benefit over time (p > 0.05). Patients with dystonia exhibited a moderate response at 1-year follow-up (41% tremor improvement, p = 0.027), which was not sustained after 5 years (30% improvement, p = 0.109). The more dorsal active contacts' coordinates in the right lead were related to a better outcome 1 year after surgery (p = 0.029). During the whole follow-up, forty-eight patients (49%) experienced minor side effects, whereas 2 (2.0%) had serious events (brain hemorrhage and infection). CONCLUSIONS: VIM DBS is an effective long-term (beyond 10 years) treatment for tremor in PD and ET. Effects on dystonic tremor were modest and transient. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This provides Class IV evidence. It is an observational study.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Distonia/terapia , Tremor Essencial/terapia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Núcleos Ventrais do Tálamo , Adulto , Idoso , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/efeitos adversos , Distonia/fisiopatologia , Tremor Essencial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Núcleos Ventrais do Tálamo/fisiopatologia
17.
Mov Disord ; 32(11): 1566-1573, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dopamine replacement therapy in PD has been associated with both behavioral addictions and dopamine addiction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate potential association between l-dopa induced neuropsychiatric fluctuations and addictions in PD. METHODS: A cohort of 102 patients with PD suffering from motor complications of l-dopa treatment was prospectively analyzed. We evaluated dopamine addiction, behavioral addictions, and neuropsychiatric fluctuations using the Ardouin scale of behavior in PD. RESULTS: Patients with (n = 51) or without (n = 51) neuropsychiatric fluctuations did not differ in age, disease duration, medication, or UPDRS III motor score during on and off drug condition. Patients with neuropsychiatric fluctuations had a higher H & Y stage in off-drug condition. A multivariate model showed that dopamine addiction (odds ratio: 8.9; P = 0.02) and behavioral addictions (odds ratio: 3.76; P = 0.033) were more frequent in the presence of neuropsychiatric fluctuations. Behavioral addictions and dopamine addiction were more frequent in the presence than in the absence of on-drug euphoria (46% vs. 13.9%; P < 0.001 and 27% vs 6.2 %; P = 0.003), while conversely, no association emerged between dopamine or behavioral addictions and presence of off-drug dysphoria. Patients with neuropsychiatric fluctuations had a poorer quality of life and a more frequent history of anxiety disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The psychostimulant effects of dopamine treatment during on-drug euphoria, rather than avoidance of off-drug dysphoria, appear to drive both behavioral addictions and abuse of medication. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Dopaminérgicos/efeitos adversos , Euforia/efeitos dos fármacos , Levodopa/efeitos adversos , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Comportamento Aditivo/induzido quimicamente , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Mov Disord ; 32(8): 1191-1200, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subthalamic stimulation improves the motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, the impact of this treatment on impulse control and personality is the subject of heavy debate. The objective of this study was to investigate personality changes after subthalamic stimulation. METHODS: Using Cloninger's biosocial model, we assessed personality in 73 Parkinson's disease patients before and 12 months after subthalamic stimulation accompanied by a drastic reduction in dopaminergic medication. Changes in psychobehavioral symptoms were measured using a battery of validated clinical scales (apathy, depression, anxiety, hyperemotionality, mania, psychosis, punding, and impulse control behaviors). RESULTS: One year after surgery, the harm avoidance personality domain total score increased compared with the baseline (+2.8; 34 patients; P < 0.001), as did 3 of its 4 subdomains: anticipatory worry (+0.7; 10 patients; P = 0.005), shyness (+0.6; 7 patients; P = 0.03), and fatigability (+1.1; 10 patients; P = 0.0014). Evolution of the shyness personality trait correlated with the decrease in dopaminergic medication. Total scores in the other personality domains remained unchanged, except for extravagance, a subdomain of novelty seeking, and persistence, a subdomain of reward dependence, which both decreased following surgery (-0.3; 7 patients; and -0.6; 9 patients; P = 0.03 and P = 0.0019, respectively). Although apathy increased, other psychobehavioral symptoms, including impulse control behaviors and neuropsychiatric nonmotor fluctuations, improved. Depression and anhedonia remained stable. Scores in hypodopaminergia and neuropsychiatric nonmotor OFF correlated with harm avoidance. Scores in hyperdopaminergia and neuropsychiatric nonmotor ON correlated with novelty seeking. CONCLUSIONS: When subthalamic stimulation is applied in Parkinson's disease, significant changes in personality traits are observed, which may be related to postoperative tapering of dopaminergic treatment. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Dopamina/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson , Personalidade , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Eur J Neurosci ; 44(11): 2909-2913, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27717186

RESUMO

Classical rate models of basal ganglia circuitry associate discharge rate of the globus pallidus external and internal segments (GPe, GPi respectively) solely with dopaminergic state and predict an inverse ratio between the discharge rates of the two pallidal segments. In contrast, the effects of other rate modulators such as general anesthesia (GA) on this ratio have been ignored. To respond to this need, we recorded the neuronal activity in the GPe and GPi in awake and anesthetized human patients with dystonia (57 and 53 trajectories respectively) and in awake patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, 16 trajectories) undergoing deep brain stimulation procedures. This triad enabled us to dissociate pallidal discharge ratio from general discharge modulation. An automatic offline spike detection and isolation quality system was used to select 1560 highly isolated units for analysis. The mean discharge rate in the GPi of awake PD patients was dramatically higher than in awake dystonia patients although the firing rate in the GPe was similar. Firing rates in dystonic patients under anesthesia were lower in both nuclei. Surprisingly, in all three groups, GPe firing rates were correlated with firing rates in the ipsilateral GPi. Thus, the firing rate ratio of ipsilateral GPi/GPe pairs was similar in awake and anesthetized patients with dystonia and significantly higher in PD. We suggest that pallidal activity is modulated by at least two independent processes: dopaminergic state which changes the GPi/GPe firing rate ratio, and anesthesia which modulates firing rates in both pallidal nuclei without changing the ratio between their firing rates.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Anestésicos Intravenosos/farmacologia , Globo Pálido/efeitos dos fármacos , Propofol/farmacologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Distonia/terapia , Feminino , Globo Pálido/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/terapia
20.
Brain ; 139(Pt 9): 2486-502, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27538418

RESUMO

SEE SCHRAG AND POLITIS DOI101093/AWW190 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Apathy, which can occur separately or in combination with depression and anxiety, is one of the most frequently encountered neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Pathophysiological evidence suggests that parkinsonian apathy is primarily due to a mesolimbic dopaminergic denervation, but the role of the serotonergic alteration has never been examined, despite its well-known involvement in the pathogenesis of depression and anxiety. To fill this gap, we address here the pure model of de novo Parkinson's disease, without the confounding effects of antiparkinsonian treatment. Fifteen apathetic (Lille Apathy Rating Scale scores ≥ -21) and 15 non-apathetic (-36 ≤ Lille Apathy Rating Scale scores ≤ -22) drug-naïve de novo parkinsonian patients were enrolled in the present study and underwent detailed clinical assessment and positron emission tomography imaging, using both dopaminergic [(11)C-N-(3-iodoprop-2E-enyl)-2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-methylphenyl)-nortropane (PE2I)] (n = 29) and serotonergic [(11)C-N,N-dimethyl-2-(-2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB)] (n = 27) presynaptic transporter radioligands. Apathetic parkinsonian patients presented higher depression (P = 0.0004) and anxiety (P = 0.004) scores - as assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory and the part B of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively - compared to the non-apathetic ones - who were not different from the age-matched healthy subjects (n = 15). Relative to the controls, the non-apathetic parkinsonian patients mainly showed dopaminergic denervation (n = 14) within the right caudate nucleus, bilateral putamen, thalamus and pallidum, while serotonergic innervation (n = 15) was fairly preserved. Apathetic parkinsonian patients exhibited, compared to controls, combined and widespread dopaminergic (n = 15) and serotonergic (n = 12) degeneration within the bilateral caudate nuclei, putamen, ventral striatum, pallidum and thalamus, but also a specific bilateral dopaminergic disruption within the substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area complex, as well as a specific serotonergic alteration within the insula, the orbitofrontal and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortices. When comparing the two parkinsonian groups, the apathetic patients mainly displayed greater serotonergic alteration in the ventral striatum, the dorsal and the subgenual parts of the anterior cingulate cortices, bilaterally, as well as in the right-sided caudate nucleus and the right-sided orbitofrontal cortex. Regression analyses also revealed that the severity of apathy was moreover mainly related to specific serotonergic lesions within the right-sided anterior caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex, while the degree of both depression and anxiety was primarily linked to serotonergic disruption within the bilateral subgenual parts and/or the right dorsal part of the anterior cingulate cortex, without prominent role of the dopaminergic degeneration in the pathogenesis of these three non-motor signs. Altogether, these findings highlight a prominent role of the serotonergic degeneration in the expression of the neuropsychiatric symptoms occurring at the onset of Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Apatia/fisiologia , Depressão , Doença de Parkinson , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Serotonina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia
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