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1.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(155)2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245768

RESUMO

Short courses of systemic corticosteroids (SCS), both oral and injectable, are very effective for the resolution of acute asthma symptoms, including exacerbations. However, the benefits of SCS, even short courses, must be balanced against the impact of their side-effects. While the adverse consequences of long-term use are widely recognised, there appears to be a perception in the medical community that short courses of SCS are safe. Limited but growing evidence in the literature suggests that even very brief dosing periods (3-7 days) of SCS are enough to cause significantly negative outcomes for patients. Short courses of SCS are associated with increased risk of adverse events including loss of bone density, hypertension and gastrointestinal ulcers/bleeds, in addition to serious impacts on mental health. Strategies to improve asthma control are recommended, including: 1) as-needed combination therapies in mild asthma; 2) risk factor reduction; 3) improving adherence/inhaler technique; 4) earlier initiation of add-on therapies; 5) use of biologics in appropriate patients; 6) development of new therapies to better control the disease; and 7) widespread education of the medical community. We propose that patients and primary care physicians should consider a cumulative SCS dose of 1 g per year as a highly relevant and easy-to-recall threshold.

2.
Chest ; 157(3): 503-505, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145809
3.
Int J Paleopathol ; 30: 10-16, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper reports a new case of treponemal disease in a pre-Columbian hunter-gatherer inhabiting the desert coast of South America. MATERIALS: A well-preserved adult male skeleton from the "Vertedero Municipal" archaeological cemetery, located near the city of Antofagasta (Northern Chile). METHODS: The skeleton was radiocarbon dated, and isotopic analyses were performed to assess diet and mobility. Lytic and proliferative lesions identified were evaluated macroscopically and radiologically. RESULTS: A radiocarbon date of 1830 ± 20 BP and isotopic values indicating a marine diet and coastal residence were obtained. The cranium shows reactive changes as focal superficial cavitation, radial scarring and nodular cavitation, while the ribs, sternum, clavicles, and scapulae exhibit multiple lytic and proliferative lesions. The right femur has a node while both tibiae show mild anterior cortical thickening with a narrowed medullary cavity. CONCLUSIONS: Cranial lesions are pathognomonic for treponemal disease while postcranial changes are typical, and highly consistent with this pathology. SIGNIFICANCE: The type, morphology, and pattern of lesions make this case a good candidate for venereal syphilis. The case is relevant to the origin of venereal syphilis due to the lifestyle, temporal and ecological context of the individual. LIMITATIONS: Diagnosis of venereal syphilis is based on skeletal lesions; thus, it must be confirmed by molecular analysis. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: A comprehensive review of cases of pre-Columbian treponemal disease in South America as well as molecular studies are needed to confirm the presence of venereal syphilis in the New World before European contact.

5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reslizumab 3 mg/kg administered intravenously is approved for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. We assessed the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous reslizumab 110 mg in two trials in patients with uncontrolled severe asthma and increased blood eosinophils. The aim was to establish whether subcutaneous reslizumab 110 mg can reduce exacerbation rates in these patients (study 1) or reduce maintenance oral corticosteroid dose in patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma (study 2). METHODS: Both studies were randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies. Entry criteria for study 1 were uncontrolled severe asthma, two or more asthma exacerbations in the previous year, a blood eosinophil count of 300 cells per µL or more (including no more than 30% patients with an eosinophil count <400 cells/µL), and at least a medium dose of inhaled corticosteroids with one or more additional asthma controllers. Patients in study 2 had severe asthma, a blood eosinophil count of 300 cells per µL or more, daily maintenance oral corticosteroid (prednisone 5-40 mg, or equivalent), and high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus another controller. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to subcutaneous reslizumab (110 mg) or placebo once every 4 weeks for 52 weeks in study 1 and 24 weeks in study 2. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. Primary efficacy outcomes were frequency of exacerbations during 52 weeks in study 1 and categorised percentage reduction in daily oral corticosteroid dose from baseline to weeks 20-24 in study 2. Primary efficacy analyses were by intention to treat, and safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02452190 (study 1) and NCT02501629 (study 2). FINDINGS: Between Aug 12, 2015, and Jan 31, 2018, 468 patients in study 1 were randomly assigned to placebo (n=232) or subcutaneous reslizumab (n=236), and 177 in study 2 to placebo (n=89) or subcutaneous reslizumab (n=88). In study 1, we found no significant difference in the exacerbation rate between reslizumab and placebo in the intention-to-treat population (rate ratio 0·79, 95% CI 0·56-1·12; p=0·19). Subcutaneous reslizumab reduced exacerbation frequency compared with placebo in the subgroup of patients with blood eosinophil counts of 400 cells per µL or more (0·64, 95% CI 0·43-0·95). Greater reductions in annual exacerbation risk (p=0·0035) and longer time to first exacerbation were observed for patients with higher trough serum reslizumab concentrations. In study 2, we found no difference between placebo and fixed-dose subcutaneous reslizumab in categorised percentage reduction in daily oral corticosteroid dose (odds ratio for a lower category of oral corticosteroid use in the reslizumab group vs the placebo group, 1·23, 95% CI 0·70-2·16; p=0·47). The frequency of adverse events and serious adverse events with reslizumab were similar to those with placebo in both studies. INTERPRETATION: Fixed-dose (110 mg) subcutaneous reslizumab was not effective in reducing exacerbation frequency in patients with uncontrolled asthma and increased blood eosinophils (≥300 cells/µL), or in reducing the daily maintenance oral corticosteroid dose in patients with oral corticosteroid-dependent severe eosinophilic asthma. Higher exposures than those observed with 110 mg subcutaneous reslizumab are required to achieve maximal efficacy. FUNDING: Teva Branded Pharmaceutical Products R&D.

7.
Biometrics ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994171

RESUMO

Semi-competing risks data include the time to a nonterminating event and the time to a terminating event, while competing risks data include the time to more than one terminating event. Our work is motivated by a prostate cancer study, which has one nonterminating event and two terminating events with both semi-competing risks and competing risks present as well as two censoring times. In this paper, we propose a new multi-risks survival (MRS) model for this type of data. In addition, the proposed MRS model can accommodate noninformative right-censoring times for nonterminating and terminating events. Properties of the proposed MRS model are examined in detail. Theoretical and empirical results show that the estimates of the cumulative incidence function for a nonterminating event may be biased if the information on a terminating event is ignored. A Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm is also developed. Our methodology is further assessed using simulations and also an analysis of the real data from a prostate cancer study. As a result, a prostate-specific antigen velocity greater than 2.0 ng/mL per year and higher biopsy Gleason scores are positively associated with a shorter time to death due to prostate cancer.

8.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 8(1): 30-39, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis have an increased risk of recurrent wheezing and asthma. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between regulatory T cell (Treg) percentage and cytokine production of in vitro-stimulated CD4+ T cells during acute bronchiolitis and the development of recurrent wheezing in the first 3 years of life. METHODS: We obtained peripheral blood from 166 infants hospitalized with their first episode of RSV-confirmed bronchiolitis. Granzyme B (GZB) expression, and interleukin-10, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-4, and IL-5 production by in vitro anti-CD3/CD28- and anti-CD3/CD46-activated CD4+ T cells, and percentage of peripheral Treg (CD4+CD25hi Foxp3hi ) cells were measured by flow cytometry. Wheezing was assessed every 6 months. Recurrent wheezing was defined as three or more episodes following the initial RSV bronchiolitis. RESULTS: Sixty-seven percent (n = 111) of children had wheezing after their initial RSV infection, with 30% having recurrent wheezing. The percentage of peripheral Treg (CD4+CD25hi Foxp3hi ) cells was not significantly different between the wheezing groups. Decreased TNF-α production from anti-CD3/CD28- and anti-CD3/CD46- activated CD4+ T cells was observed in the recurrent wheezers, compared with nonwheezers (p = .048 and .03, respectively). There were no significant differences in the GZB+ CD4+ T cells and production of other inflammatory cytokines between these groups. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated lower TNF-α production by in vitro stimulated CD4+ T cells during severe RSV bronchiolitis in children that subsequently developed recurrent wheezing, compared with children with no subsequent wheeze. These findings support the role of CD4+ T cell immunity in the development of subsequent wheezing in these children.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 2187-2193, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932420

RESUMO

Asthma resistance to glucocorticoid treatment is a major health problem with unclear etiology. Glucocorticoids inhibit adrenal androgen production. However, androgens have potential benefits in asthma. HSD3B1 encodes for 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (3ß-HSD1), which catalyzes peripheral conversion from adrenal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to potent androgens and has a germline missense-encoding polymorphism. The adrenal restrictive HSD3B1(1245A) allele limits conversion, whereas the adrenal permissive HSD3B1(1245C) allele increases DHEA metabolism to potent androgens. In the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) III cohort, we determined the association between DHEA-sulfate and percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1PP). HSD3B1(1245) genotypes were assessed, and association between adrenal restrictive and adrenal permissive alleles and FEV1PP in patients with (GC) and without (noGC) daily oral glucocorticoid treatment was determined (n = 318). Validation was performed in a second cohort (SARP I&II; n = 184). DHEA-sulfate is associated with FEV1PP and is suppressed with GC treatment. GC patients homozygous for the adrenal restrictive genotype have lower FEV1PP compared with noGC patients (54.3% vs. 75.1%; P < 0.001). In patients with the homozygous adrenal permissive genotype, there was no FEV1PP difference in GC vs. noGC patients (73.4% vs. 78.9%; P = 0.39). Results were independently confirmed: FEV1PP for homozygous adrenal restrictive genotype in GC vs. noGC is 49.8 vs. 63.4 (P < 0.001), and for homozygous adrenal permissive genotype, it is 66.7 vs. 67.7 (P = 0.92). The adrenal restrictive HSD3B1(1245) genotype is associated with GC resistance. This effect appears to be driven by GC suppression of 3ß-HSD1 substrate. Our results suggest opportunities for prediction of GC resistance and pharmacologic intervention.

12.
Chest ; 157(2): 258-267, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative enlargement of the pulmonary artery (PA) on chest CT imaging is associated with respiratory exacerbations in patients with COPD or cystic fibrosis. We sought to determine whether similar findings were present in patients with asthma and whether these findings were explained by differences in ventricular size. METHODS: We measured the PA and aorta diameters in 233 individuals from the Severe Asthma Research Program III cohort. We also estimated right, left, and total epicardial cardiac ventricular volume indices (eERVVI, eELVVI, and eETVVI, respectively). Associations between the cardiac and PA measures (PA-to-aorta [PA/A] ratio, eERVVI-to-eELVVI [eRV/eLV] ratio, eERVVI, eELVVI, eETVVI) and clinical measures of asthma severity were assessed by Pearson correlation, and associations with asthma severity and exacerbation rate were evaluated by multivariable linear and zero-inflated negative binomial regression. RESULTS: Asthma severity was associated with smaller ventricular volumes. For example, those with severe asthma had 36.1 mL/m2 smaller eETVVI than healthy control subjects (P = .003) and 14.1 mL/m2 smaller eETVVI than those with mild/moderate disease (P = .011). Smaller ventricular volumes were also associated with a higher rate of asthma exacerbations, both retrospectively and prospectively. For example, those with an eETVVI less than the median had a 57% higher rate of exacerbations during follow-up than those with eETVVI greater than the median (P = .020). Neither PA/A nor eRV/eLV was associated with asthma severity or exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with asthma, smaller cardiac ventricular size may be associated with more severe disease and a higher rate of asthma exacerbations. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01761630; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(2): 516-526, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dupilumab blocks the shared receptor component for IL-4 and IL-13, key drivers of type 2 inflammation, including IgE-mediated allergic inflammation in asthma. In the LIBERTY ASTHMA QUEST (NCT02414854) study, dupilumab reduced severe asthma exacerbations and improved forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in patients with uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma with greater efficacy observed in patients with elevated type 2 inflammatory biomarkers (blood eosinophils and fractional exhaled nitric oxide) at baseline. OBJECTIVE: We assessed dupilumab's effect on key asthma outcomes in QUEST patients with/without evidence of allergic asthma (total serum IgE ≥30 IU/mL and ≥1 perennial aeroallergen-specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L at baseline). METHODS: Severe exacerbation rates and change from baseline in FEV1, asthma control, and markers of type 2 inflammation during the 52-week treatment period were assessed. RESULTS: In the allergic asthma subgroup (n = 1083), dupilumab 200/300 mg every 2 weeks versus placebo reduced severe asthma exacerbation rates (-36.9%/-45.5%; both P < .01), improved FEV1 at week 12 (0.13 L/0.16 L; both P < .001; improvements were evident by the first evaluation at week 2) with greater efficacy observed in patients with elevated type 2 inflammatory biomarkers at baseline, and improved asthma control. Dupilumab treatment also resulted in rapid and sustained reductions in type 2 inflammatory biomarkers. Comparable results were observed in patients without evidence of allergic asthma (n = 819). CONCLUSION: Dupilumab reduced severe exacerbation rates, improved FEV1 and asthma control, and suppressed type 2 inflammatory biomarkers in patients with uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma with or without evidence of allergic asthma, highlighting the key role of IL-4 and IL-13 in airway inflammation.

14.
Eur Respir J ; 55(1)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558662

RESUMO

This document provides clinical recommendations for the management of severe asthma. Comprehensive evidence syntheses, including meta-analyses, were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society Task Force's questions. The evidence was appraised using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach and the results were summarised in evidence profiles. The evidence syntheses were discussed and recommendations formulated by a multidisciplinary Task Force of asthma experts, who made specific recommendations on six specific questions. After considering the balance of desirable and undesirable consequences, quality of evidence, feasibility, and acceptability of various interventions, the Task Force made the following recommendations: 1) suggest using anti-interleukin (IL)-5 and anti-IL-5 receptor α for severe uncontrolled adult eosinophilic asthma phenotypes; 2) suggest using a blood eosinophil cut-point ≥150 µL-1 to guide anti-IL-5 initiation in adult patients with severe asthma; 3) suggest considering specific eosinophil (≥260 µL-1) and exhaled nitric oxide fraction (≥19.5 ppb) cut-offs to identify adolescents or adults with the greatest likelihood of response to anti-IgE therapy; 4) suggest using inhaled tiotropium for adolescents and adults with severe uncontrolled asthma despite Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) step 4-5 or National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) step 5 therapies; 5) suggest a trial of chronic macrolide therapy to reduce asthma exacerbations in persistently symptomatic or uncontrolled patients on GINA step 5 or NAEPP step 5 therapies, irrespective of asthma phenotype; and 6) suggest using anti-IL-4/13 for adult patients with severe eosinophilic asthma and for those with severe corticosteroid-dependent asthma regardless of blood eosinophil levels. These recommendations should be reconsidered as new evidence becomes available.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(1): 140-146.e9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality associated with childhood asthma are driven disproportionately by children with severe asthma. However, it is not known from longitudinal studies whether children outgrow severe asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study prospectively whether well-characterized children with severe asthma outgrow their asthma during adolescence. METHODS: Children with asthma were assessed at baseline with detailed questionnaires, allergy tests, and lung function tests and were reassessed annually for 3 years. The population was enriched for children with severe asthma, as assessed by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines, and subject classification was reassessed annually. RESULTS: At baseline, 111 (59%) children had severe asthma. Year to year, there was a decrease in the proportion meeting the criteria for severe asthma. After 3 years, only 30% of subjects met the criteria for severe asthma (P < .001 compared with enrollment). Subjects experienced improvements in most indices of severity, including symptom scores, exacerbations, and controller medication requirements, but not lung function. Surprisingly, boys and girls were equally likely to has resolved asthma (33% vs 29%). The odds ratio in favor of resolution of severe asthma was 2.75 (95% CI, 1.02-7.43) for those with a peripheral eosinophil count of greater than 436 cells/µL. CONCLUSIONS: In longitudinal analysis of this well-characterized cohort, half of the children with severe asthma no longer had severe asthma after 3 years; there was a stepwise decrease in the proportion meeting severe asthma criteria. Surprisingly, asthma severity decreased equally in male and female subjects. Peripheral eosinophilia predicted resolution. These data will be important for planning clinical trials in this population.

16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(1): 127-139, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tools for quantification of asthma severity are limited. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a continuous measure of asthma severity, the Asthma Severity Scoring System (ASSESS), for adolescents and adults, incorporating domains of asthma control, lung function, medications, and exacerbations. METHODS: Baseline and 36-month longitudinal data from participants in phase 3 of the Severe Asthma Research Program (NCT01606826) were used. Scale properties, responsiveness, and a minimally important difference were determined. External replication was performed in participants enrolled in the Severe Asthma Research Program phase 1/2. The utility of ASSESS for detecting treatment response was explored in participants undergoing corticosteroid responsiveness testing with intramuscular triamcinolone and participants receiving biologics. RESULTS: ASSESS scores ranged from 0 to 20 (8.78 ± 3.9; greater scores reflect worse severity) and differed among 5 phenotypic groups. Measurement properties were acceptable. ASSESS was responsive to changes in quality of life with a minimally important difference of 2, with good specificity for outcomes of asthma improvement and worsening but poor sensitivity. Replication analyses yielded similar results, with a 2-point decrease (improvement) associated with improvements in quality of life. Participants with a 2-point or greater decrease (improvement) in ASSESS scores also had greater improvement in lung function and asthma control after triamcinolone, but these differences were limited to phenotypic clusters 3, 4, and 5. Participants treated with biologics also had a 2-point or greater decrease (improvement) in ASSESS scores overall. CONCLUSIONS: The ASSESS tool is an objective measure that might be useful in epidemiologic and clinical research studies for quantification of treatment response in individual patients and phenotypic groups. However, validation studies are warranted.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(1): 176-185.e2, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptom-based adjustment (SBA) of inhaled corticosteroids may be an alternative patient-centered approach in which day-to-day inhaled corticosteroid use is adjusted by symptoms and short-acting ß-agonist need. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of SBA in the primary care setting. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, open-label, pragmatic equivalence trial in African-American children (6-17 years old) with mild asthma managed by 12 primary care providers (PCPs). A total of 206 participants were randomized to SBA (as-needed beclomethasone 80 µg with rescue short-acting ß-agonist) or provider-based guideline-directed adjustment (PBA): maintenance beclomethasone 80 µg/d (6-11 years old), 160 µg/d (12-17 years old), with subsequent guideline-based dose adjustment by PCPs. PCPs implemented both treatment assignments, with outcomes measured by blinded staff. All participants received symptom recognition and albuterol use education from peer educators. Primary outcome was change in asthma control (measured by Asthma Control Test [ACT]/childhood ACT [cACT]) over 12 months. RESULTS: Participants had adequately controlled asthma (mean ACT or cACT score = 21.6 ± 2.8) at baseline. After 1 year, there was no significant between-group difference in change in ACT scores (SBA - PBA): ACT: -0.88 (95% CI, -2.19 to 0.42), cACT: -0.73 (-2.09 to 0.62), or combined ACT and cACT (P = .10), and was within the predefined statistical clinical equivalence. The proportion with an exacerbation and measures of lung function were similar between groups. Compared with PBA, SBA led to less beclomethasone use (SBA: 526 µg/mo [95% CI, 412-639 µg] vs PBA: 1961 µg/mo [95% CI, 1681-2241]; P < .0001). More parents in the SBA arm felt they were managing their child's asthma. CONCLUSIONS: SBA in African-American children with mild asthma was similar to PBA in asthma control and events when implemented by PCPs with lower inhaled corticosteroid exposure.

18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(2): 527-539.e9, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dupilumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody, blocks the shared receptor component for IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, key drivers of type 2 inflammation. In the phase 3 study (NCT02414854), add-on dupilumab 200 mg/300 mg every 2 weeks, versus placebo, significantly reduced severe asthma exacerbations and improved pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and quality-of-life measures in patients with uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma, with greater efficacy observed in those with a high baseline type 2 phenotype. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of dupilumab in patients with uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma with or without self-reported comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS or non-CRS). METHODS: Comorbid CRS was self-reported by patients using an e-diary. Annualized severe exacerbation rates, changes from baseline in pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1, patient-reported outcomes, type 2 biomarkers, and safety were assessed. RESULTS: CRS was self-reported by 382 of 1902 (20.1%) patients. Dupilumab 200 mg/300 mg reduced annualized severe exacerbation rates by 63%/61%, respectively, in patients with CRS, and by 42%/40% in patients without CRS (all P < .001 vs placebo). Dupilumab also improved lung function and patient-reported asthma control and quality of life, and suppressed type 2 biomarkers versus placebo in both subgroups. Clinical responses were rapid, with near-maximal responses observed at the earliest measured time points and sustained at week 52. Improvements observed in the CRS subgroup were similar to or numerically greater than those in the non-CRS subgroup. CONCLUSION: Dupilumab showed efficacy and was generally well tolerated in patients with uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma with or without CRS.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(2): 540-548.e1, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous reslizumab, a monoclonal IL-5 antibody, is approved for treating severe asthma with eosinophilia. Limited structured information is available on the safety of reslizumab in larger populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety profile of intravenous reslizumab 3.0 mg/kg by analyzing data from 6 asthma clinical trials: 5 placebo-controlled (duration ≤52 weeks) and 1 open-label extension (up to 2 years of treatment). METHODS: Patients were aged 12 to 75 years with inadequately controlled asthma with eosinophilia. In the placebo-controlled trials, 730 patients received placebo and 1028 received reslizumab 3.0 mg/kg. RESULTS: Adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs occurred in higher percentages of patients in the placebo group (81% and 9%) than in the reslizumab group (67% and 6%). Asthma, nasopharyngitis, and upper respiratory tract infection were the most common AEs with placebo and reslizumab. Three cases of anaphylaxis, related to reslizumab, were successfully managed with standard therapies. No significant difference in the incidence of malignancies was seen when compared with placebo or the general population. Among 756 patients with more than 12 months of reslizumab exposure, the AE rate was lower than in the placebo-controlled trials (367.3 vs 433.9 events/100 patient-years). The incidence of AEs in patients on treatment for more than 12 months was no higher than in patients with shorter treatment durations. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis confirms that treatment with intravenous reslizumab for more than 12 months is well tolerated in patients with asthma, with no evidence of rare safety events that were not detected in individual trials.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5714, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844063

RESUMO

The airway microbiome has an important role in asthma pathophysiology. However, little is known on the relationships between the airway microbiome of asthmatic children, loss of asthma control, and severe exacerbations. Here we report that the microbiota's dynamic patterns and compositions are related to asthma exacerbations. We collected nasal blow samples (n = 319) longitudinally during a clinical trial at 2 time-points within one year: randomization when asthma is under control, and at time of early loss of asthma control (yellow zone (YZ)). We report that participants whose microbiota was dominated by the commensal Corynebacterium + Dolosigranulum cluster at RD experience the lowest rates of YZs (p = 0.005) and have longer time to develop at least 2 episodes of YZ (p = 0.03). The airway microbiota have changed from randomization to YZ. A switch from the Corynebacterium + Dolosigranulum cluster at randomization to the Moraxella- cluster at YZ poses the highest risk of severe asthma exacerbation (p = 0.04). Corynebacterium's relative abundance at YZ is inversely associated with severe exacerbation (p = 0.002).


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Fluticasona/uso terapêutico , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Simbiose/imunologia , Administração por Inalação , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/imunologia , Asma/microbiologia , Carnobacteriaceae/imunologia , Carnobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Moraxella/imunologia , Moraxella/isolamento & purificação , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Mucosa Nasal/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Staphylococcus/imunologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/imunologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Resultado do Tratamento
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