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1.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 54(9): 1466-1473, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends and geographic distribution of infant bronchiolitis hospitalizations in Chile, a country with large variation in solar radiation (SR) and high rates of urban air pollution. METHODS: We performed a nationwide ecological study of bronchiolitis hospitalizations from 2001 to 2014. We investigated the associations of regional SR (a proxy of vitamin D status) and regional fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution with bronchiolitis hospitalizations. We also evaluated the role of sociodemographic factors, including regional poverty, education, indigenous population, and rurality rates. RESULTS: During the study period, 119 479 infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis in Chile; 59% were boys. The mean bronchiolitis hospitalization rate increased from 29 to 41 per 1000 infants per year (P = .02). There was an inverse correlation between regional SR and incidence of hospital admissions for bronchiolitis (r = -0.52, P = .049), accounting for 27% of these hospitalizations. There was also a significant direct correlation between regional ambient PM2.5 and bronchiolitis hospitalizations (R = 0.68, P = .006), accounting for 42% of the variation in admission rate. High firewood and/or coal residential use for heating, high regional poverty, lower years of education, and high rurality rates were also significantly correlated with bronchiolitis hospitalization rates. None of the environmental or sociodemographic factors evaluated were correlated with regional case fatality rates or length of stay at the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: This ecological study revealed significant associations between regional SR, air pollution, and sociodemographic factors with infant bronchiolitis hospitalizations in Chile, suggesting that these factors play a major role in the incidence and severity of respiratory infections in early childhood.

2.
J Asthma ; : 1-10, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164017

RESUMO

Objective: Although the efficacy of systemic corticosteroids (SCs) in acute asthma exacerbations is well established, the fact that many children still require admission to hospital and that SCs have a slow onset of action are cause of concern. For this reason, the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) as a therapy added to SCs has been explored, with no clarity about its cost-effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ICS in addition to SCs (ICS + SCs) compared to standard therapy with SCs for treating pediatric asthma exacerbations. Methods: A decision-analysis model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of SCs compared to ICS + SCs for treating pediatric patients with acute asthma exacerbations. Effectiveness parameters were obtained from a systematic review of the literature. Cost data obtained from hospital bills and from the national manual of drug prices. The study was carried out from the perspective of the national healthcare system in Colombia. The main outcome of the model was avoidance of hospital admission. Results: For the base-case analysis, the model showed that compared to SCs, therapy with ICS + SCs was associated with lower total costs (US$88.76 vs.US$97.71 average cost per patient) and a lower probability of hospital admission (0.9060 vs. 0.9000), thus showing dominance. Conclusions: This study shows that compared with standard therapy with SCs, ICS + SCs for treating pediatric patients with acute asthma exacerbations is the preferred strategy because it was associated with a lower probability of hospital admission, at lower total treatment costs.

3.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 25(4): 682-688, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095842

RESUMO

RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of the utilization of "good practice" according to a bronchiolitis clinical practice guideline (CPG) in a population of infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis. METHOD: A decision-analysis model was developed in order to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the utilization of "good practice" compared with the lack of use of "good practice" according to a bronchiolitis evidence-based CPG. The effectiveness parameters and costs of the model were obtained from electronic medical records. The main outcome was the readmission of the patients within 10 days of post discharge. RESULTS: Compared with lack of "good practice," the utilization of "good practice" in the diagnosis and management of patients with bronchiolitis was associated with both fewer patients readmitted within 10 days of post discharge (0.88 vs 0.99 on average per patient) and lower costs (US$1529.3 versus $1709.1 average cost per patient), thus leading to dominance. Results were robust to deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with lack of "good practice," the utilization of "good practice" in the diagnosis and management of acute bronchiolitis according to a bronchiolitis CPG is a dominant strategy because it involves both fewer patients readmitted within 10 days of post discharge and lower costs.

4.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054799

RESUMO

Although recent guidelines recommend a minimalist approach to bronchiolitis, there are several issues with this posture. First, there are concerns about the definition of the disease, the quality of the guidelines, the method of administration of bronchodilators, and the availability of tools to evaluate the response to therapies. Second, for decades it has been assumed that all cases of viral bronchiolitis are the same, but recent evidence has shown that this is not the case. Distinct bronchiolitis phenotypes have been described, with heterogeneity in clinical presentation, molecular immune signatures and clinically relevant outcomes such as respiratory failure and recurrent wheezing. New research is critically needed to refine viral bronchiolitis phenotyping at the molecular and clinical levels as well as to define phenotype-specific responses to different therapeutic options.

5.
J Asthma ; : 1-9, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in school children with poorly-controlled asthma. However, this association has not been assessed in preschoolers with recurrent wheeze, nor in those at risk for asthma. We hypothesized that preschoolers with asthma risk (positive asthma predictive index [API]) have a higher prevalence of SDB and higher inflammatory biomarkers (blood-hsCRP and urinary-LTE4) levels than those with negative API. METHOD: Children 2 to 5 years of age with recurrent wheezing were classified as positive or negative API. SDB was determined by the pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ) and its subscale (PSQSub6). Demographic characteristics, spirometry, blood hsCRP and urinary LTE4 were assessed. RESULTS: We enrolled 101 preschoolers: 70 completed all measurements, 55.4% were males, mean age 4.07 ± 0.87 years, 45% overweight or obese, 70% had positive API, 87.5% had rhinitis. The prevalence of SDB measured by PSQ was 40.8% and by PSQSub6 was 29.6%. However, the proportion of SDB was similar between positive and negative API groups. The hsCRP (mean ± SD) was higher in the positive than in negative API (3.58 ± 0.58 and 1.32 ± 0.36 mg/L, p = 0.69, respectively); moreover, no differences in urinary LTE4 were found between groups. No correlation of PSQ (+) or PSQSub6 (+) with hsCRP and uLTE4 was found. However, preschoolers with positive API had significantly more post-bronchodilator percentage change in FEF25-75 than negative API (24.14 ± 28.1 vs. 4.13 ± 21.8, respectively, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In preschoolers with recurrent wheezing, we should be investigating for the coexistence of SDB, using early screening methods for detecting those conditions.

6.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 54(4): 372-377, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672140

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In moderate-severe asthma exacerbation, salbutamol by inhaler (MDI) is superior to salbutamol delivered by nebulizer (NEB); however, to our knowledge, no studies in children with exclusively severe exacerbations were performed. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide by MDI versus by NEB in severe asthma exacerbations. METHODS: We performed a clinical trial enrolling 103 children (2-14 years of age) with severe asthma exacerbations (defined by the Pulmonary Score ≥ 7) seen at the emergency room in Asuncion, Paraguay. One group received salbutamol and ipratropium (two puff every 10 min for 2 h and then every 30 min for 2 h more) by MDI with a valved-holding chamber and mask along with oxygen by a cannula separately (MDI-SIB); and the other received nebulization with oxygen (NEB-SIB) of salbutamol and ipratropium (1 every 20 min for 2 h and then every 30 min for 2 h more). Primary outcome was the rate of hospitalization (Pulmonary Score ≥ 7) after 4 h and secondary outcome was oxygen saturation. RESULTS: Fifty two children received MDI-SIB and 51 NEB-SIB. After the 4th hour, children on MDI-SIB had significantly (P = 0.003) lower rate of hospital admission than on NEB-SIB (5.8% vs 27.5%, RR: 0.21 [0.06-0.69], respectively). Similarly, a significant improved clinical score after 60 min and increase in oxygen saturation after 90 min of treatment was observed in MDI-SIB versus NEB-SIB group (4.46 ± 0.7 vs 5.76 ± 0.65, P < 0.00001; and 90.5 ± 1.7 vs 88.43 1 ± 1, P < 0.00001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Even in severe asthma exacerbations administration of salbutamol and ipratropium by MDI with valved-holding chamber and mask along with oxygen by a cannula separately was more effective than by a nebulizer.

7.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(supl.1): S10-S22, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002480

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: To assess the impact of asthma and its treatment (inhaled corticosteroids and other control medications) on growth. Data sources: The authors searched PubMed (up to August 24, 2018) and screened the reference lists of retrieved articles. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis were selected. If there was no such article, the authors selected either randomized clinical trials or observational studies. Data synthesis: A total of 37 articles were included in this review. The findings from 21 studies suggest that asthma per se, especially more severe and/or uncontrolled cases, can transitorily impair child's growth. Two Cochrane reviews of randomized clinical trials showed a small mean reduction in linear growth (-0.91 cm/year for beclomethasone, -0.59 cm/year for budesonide, and -0.39 cm/year for fluticasone) in the first year of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids in prepubertal children with persistent asthma. The effects were likely to be molecule- and dose-dependent. A recent review showed that most of "real-life" observational studies had not found significant effects of inhaled corticosteroids on growth in asthmatic children. Fifteen studies showed that the maintenance systemic corticosteroids could cause a dose-dependent growth suppression in children with severe asthma, but other controllers (cromones, montelukast, salmeterol, and theophylline) had no significant adverse effects no growth. Conclusions: Severe and/or uncontrolled asthma can transitorily impair child's growth. Regular use of inhaled corticosteroids may cause a small reduction in linear growth in children with asthma, but the well-established benefits of inhaled corticosteroids in controlling asthma outweigh the potential adverse effects on growth. Use of the minimally effective dose of inhaled corticosteroids and regular monitoring of child's height during inhaled corticosteroids therapy are recommended.


Resumo Objetivos: Avaliar o impacto da asma e seu tratamento (corticosteroides inalados e outros medicamentos de controle) no crescimento. Fontes de dados: Uma busca foi feita no PubMed (até 24 de agosto de 2018) e foram triadas as listas de referência dos artigos recuperados. Revisões sistemáticas e metanálises foram selecionadas. Se não houvesse tal artigo, ensaios clínicos randomizados ou estudos observacionais eram selecionados. Síntese dos dados: Trinta e sete artigos foram incluídos nesta revisão. Os achados de 21 estudos sugerem que a asma por si só, especialmente os casos mais graves e/ou descontrolados, podem prejudicar o crescimento da criança. Duas revisões Cochrane de ensaios clínicos randomizados mostraram uma pequena redução média no crescimento linear (−0,91 cm/ano para beclometasona, −0,59 cm/ano para budesonida e −0,39 cm/ano para fluticasona) no primeiro ano de tratamento com corticosteroides inalados em crianças pré-púberes com asma persistente. Os efeitos pareciam ter efeito dose- e molécula-dependente. Uma revisão recente mostrou que a maioria dos estudos observacionais da "vida real" não encontrou efeitos significativos dos corticosteroides inalados no crescimento de crianças asmáticas. Quinze estudos mostraram que a manutenção de corticosteroides sistêmicos poderia causar uma supressão do crescimento dose-dependente em crianças com asma grave, mas outros controladores (cromonas, montelucaste, salmeterol e teofilina) não tiveram efeitos adversos significativos no crescimento. Conclusões: A asma grave e/ou descontrolada pode prejudicar o crescimento da criança. O uso regular de corticosteroides inalados pode causar uma pequena redução no crescimento linear em crianças com asma, mas os benefícios bem estabelecidos dos corticosteroides inalados no controle da asma superam os potenciais efeitos adversos no crescimento. Recomenda-se o uso de doses minimamente eficazes de corticosteroides inalados e o monitoramento regular da altura da criança durante a terapia com corticosteroides inalados.

8.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 53(12): 1670-1677, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most international asthma guidelines recommend that children ≤5 years with asthma or recurrent wheezing be treated with daily low- moderate dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) as the preferred controller and leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) as alternative therapy. There is no systematic review comparing the efficacy of ICS versus LTRA monotherapy in this age group. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of daily ICS versus LTRA in preschoolers with asthma or recurrent wheezing. METHODS: Randomized, prospective, controlled trials published by December 2017, with a minimum of 3-month therapy with daily ICS versus LTRA were identified. The co-primary outcomes were the number of wheezing episodes and daily symptom score. Secondary outcomes included unscheduled emergency visits, need of rescue systemic corticosteroids (SC), hospitalization for exacerbations, lung function, and adverse effects. RESULTS: Of 29 trials identified, six studies (n = 3204 patients, 62% males, age range: 6-54 months) met the inclusion criteria; two were at low risk of bias. Five pertained to children with asthma; one to those with recurrent wheezing. No outcomes were similarly reported in the six studies, preventing meta-analysis. Based on trials at lowest risk of bias and the largest open-labelled studies, ICS was associated with better control of symptoms and less exacerbations than LTRA. And also less need for rescue SC. Insufficient data of high quality prevented firm conclusions on other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In preschoolers with asthma or recurrent wheezing, daily ICS appears more effective than daily LTRA for improving symptom control and decreasing exacerbations, particularly those requiring rescue SC, although the magnitude of benefit remains to be quantified.

9.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of asthma and its treatment (inhaled corticosteroids and other control medications) on growth. DATA SOURCES: The authors searched PubMed (up to August 24, 2018) and screened the reference lists of retrieved articles. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis were selected. If there was no such article, the authors selected either randomized clinical trials or observational studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 37 articles were included in this review. The findings from 21 studies suggest that asthma per se, especially more severe and/or uncontrolled cases, can transitorily impair child's growth. Two Cochrane reviews of randomized clinical trials showed a small mean reduction in linear growth (-0.91cm/year for beclomethasone, -0.59cm/year for budesonide, and -0.39cm/year for fluticasone) in the first year of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids in prepubertal children with persistent asthma. The effects were likely to be molecule- and dose-dependent. A recent review showed that most of "real-life" observational studies had not found significant effects of inhaled corticosteroids on growth in asthmatic children. Fifteen studies showed that the maintenance systemic corticosteroids could cause a dose-dependent growth suppression in children with severe asthma, but other controllers (cromones, montelukast, salmeterol, and theophylline) had no significant adverse effects no growth. CONCLUSIONS: Severe and/or uncontrolled asthma can transitorily impair child's growth. Regular use of inhaled corticosteroids may cause a small reduction in linear growth in children with asthma, but the well-established benefits of inhaled corticosteroids in controlling asthma outweigh the potential adverse effects on growth. Use of the minimally effective dose of inhaled corticosteroids and regular monitoring of child's height during inhaled corticosteroids therapy are recommended.

10.
Pediatrics ; 142(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093540

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal condition in live-born infants worldwide, and lower respiratory infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospital admissions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate RSV-associated morbidity among children with DS compared with a population without DS. DATA SOURCES: Four electronic databases were searched. STUDY SELECTION: All cohorts or case-control studies of DS with an assessment of RSV infection and the associated morbidity or mortality were included without language restriction. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently reviewed all studies. The primary outcomes were hospital admission and mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay, oxygen requirement, ICU admission, need for respiratory support, and additional medication use. RESULTS: Twelve studies (n = 1 149 171) from 10 different countries met the inclusion criteria; 10 studies were cohort studies, 1 study was retrospective, and 1 study had both designs. DS was associated with a higher risk of hospitalization (odds ratio [OR]: 8.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.33-10.30; I2 = 11%) and mortality (OR: 9.4; 95% CI: 2.26-39.15; I2 = 38%) compared with what was seen in controls. Children with DS had an increased length of hospital stay (mean difference: 4.73 days; 95% CI: 2.12-7.33; I2 = 0%), oxygen requirement (OR: 6.53; 95% CI: 2.22-19.19; I2 = 0%), ICU admission (OR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.17-5.59; I2 = 0%), need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.17-5.59; I2 = 0%), and additional medication use (OR: 2.65 [95% CI: 1.38-5.08; I2 = 0%] for systemic corticosteroids and OR: 5.82 [95% CI: 2.66-12.69; I2 = 0%] for antibiotics) than controls. LIMITATIONS: DS subgroups with and without other additional risk factors were not reported in all of the included studies. CONCLUSIONS: Children with DS had a significantly higher risk of severe RSV infection than children without DS.

11.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 36(10): 1165-1200, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to summarize the findings of all the available studies on alternative pharmacological treatments for asthma and assess their methodological quality, as well as to identify the main drivers of the cost effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for the disease. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature in seven electronic databases was conducted in order to identify all the available health economic evidence on alternative pharmacological treatments for asthma published up to April 2017. The reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. RESULTS: A total of 72 studies were included in the review, classified as follows: medications for acute asthma treatment (n = 5, 6.9%); inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) administered alone or in conjunction with long-acting ß-agonists (LABA) or tiotropium for chronic asthma treatment (n = 38, 52.8%); direct comparisons between different combinations of ICS, ICS/LABA, leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA), and sodium cromoglycate for chronic asthma treatment (n = 14, 19.4%); and omalizumab for chronic asthma treatment (n = 15, 20.8%). ICS were reported to be cost effective when compared with LTRA for the management of persistent asthma. In patients with inadequately controlled asthma taking ICS, the addition of long-acting ß-agonist (LABA) preparations has been demonstrated to be cost effective, especially when combinations of ICS/LABA containing formoterol are used for both maintenance and reliever therapy. In patients with uncontrolled severe persistent allergic asthma, omalizumab therapy could be cost effective in a carefully selected subgroup of patients with the more severe forms of the disease. The quality of reporting in the studies, according to the CHEERS checklist, was very uneven. The main cost-effectiveness drivers identified were the cost or rate of asthma exacerbations, the cost or rate of the use of asthma medications, the asthma mortality risk, and the rate of utilization of health services for asthma. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings are in line with the pharmacological recommendations for stepwise management of asthma given in the most recent evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the disease. The identified reporting quality of the available health economic evidence is useful for identifying aspects where there is room for improvement in future asthma cost-effectiveness studies.

12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 18(1): 34, 2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thus far, no algorithms have been developed to automatically extract patients who meet Asthma Predictive Index (API) criteria from the Electronic health records (EHR) yet. Our objective is to develop and validate a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to identify patients that meet API criteria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort study in Olmsted County, MN. Asthma status ascertained by manual chart review based on API criteria served as gold standard. NLP-API was developed on a training cohort (n = 87) and validated on a test cohort (n = 427). Criterion validity was measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the NLP algorithm against manual chart review for asthma status. Construct validity was determined by associations of asthma status defined by NLP-API with known risk factors for asthma. RESULTS: Among the eligible 427 subjects of the test cohort, 48% were males and 74% were White. Median age was 5.3 years (interquartile range 3.6-6.8). 35 (8%) had a history of asthma by NLP-API vs. 36 (8%) by abstractor with 31 by both approaches. NLP-API predicted asthma status with sensitivity 86%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 88%, negative predictive value 98%. Asthma status by both NLP and manual chart review were significantly associated with the known asthma risk factors, such as history of allergic rhinitis, eczema, family history of asthma, and maternal history of smoking during pregnancy (p value < 0.05). Maternal smoking [odds ratio: 4.4, 95% confidence interval 1.8-10.7] was associated with asthma status determined by NLP-API and abstractor, and the effect sizes were similar between the reviews with 4.4 vs 4.2 respectively. CONCLUSION: NLP-API was able to ascertain asthma status in children mining from EHR and has a potential to enhance asthma care and research through population management and large-scale studies when identifying children who meet API criteria.

13.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 53(6): 824-835, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to perform a systematic review of all studies with direct measurements of both airway inflammation and remodeling in the subgroup of children with repeated wheezing and/or persistent asthma severe enough to warrant bronchoscopy, to address whether airway inflammation precedes remodeling or is a parallel process, and also to assess the impact of remodeling on lung function. METHODS: Four databases were searched up to June 2017. Two independent reviewers screened the literature and extracted relevant data. RESULTS: We found 526 references, and 39 studies (2390 children under 18 years old) were included. Airway inflammation (eosinophilic/neutrophilic) and remodeling were not present in wheezers at a mean age of 12 months, but in older pre-school children (mean 2.5 years), remodeling (mainly increased reticular basement membrane [RBM] thickness and increased area of airway smooth muscle) and also airway eosinophilia was reported. This was worse in school-age children. RBM thickness was similar in atopic and non-atopic preschool wheezers. Airway remodeling was correlated with lung function in seven studies, with FeNO in three, and with HRCT-scan in one. Eosinophilic inflammation was not seen in patients without remodeling. There were no invasive longitudinal or intervention studies. CONCLUSION: The relationship between inflammation and remodeling in children cannot be determined. Failure to demonstrate eosinophilic inflammation in the absence of remodeling is contrary to the hypothesis that inflammation causes these changes. We need reliable, non-invasive markers of remodeling in particular if this is to be addressed.

16.
J Asthma ; 55(5): 561-570, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28759278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asthma educational interventions have been shown to improve several clinically and economically important outcomes. However, these interventions are costly in themselves and could lead to even higher disease costs. A cost-effectiveness threshold analysis would be helpful in determining the threshold value of the cost of educational interventions, leading to these interventions being cost-effective. The aim of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness threshold analysis to determine the level at which the cost of a pediatric asthma educational intervention would be cost-effective and cost-saving. METHODS: A Markov-type model was developed in order to estimate costs and health outcomes of a simulated cohort of pediatric patients with persistent asthma treated over a 12-month period. Effectiveness parameters were obtained from a single uncontrolled before-and-after study performed with Colombian asthmatic children. Cost data were obtained from official databases provided by the Colombian Ministry of Health. The main outcome was the variable "quality-adjusted life-years" (QALYs). RESULTS: A deterministic threshold sensitivity analysis showed that the asthma educational intervention will be cost-saving to the health system if its cost is under US$513.20. Additionally, the analysis showed that the cost of the intervention would have to be below US$967.40 in order to be cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the level at which the cost of a pediatric asthma educational intervention will be cost-effective and cost-saving for the health system in Colombia. Our findings could be a useful aid for decision makers in efficiently allocating limited resources when planning asthma educational interventions for pediatric patients.

17.
J Asthma ; 55(5): 470-476, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have provided conflicting results about how living in a rural or urban environment influences schoolchildren with asthma and allergic diseases in different ways. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if recurrent wheezing preschoolers from rural or urban areas differ in asthma, allergic diseases, and atopy. METHODS: A cross-sectional-study in Rafaela, Argentina, on 143 preschoolers with recurrent wheezing from rural and urban settings was performed (2010-2012). Diagnosis of asthma (by positive asthma predictive index [API]), allergic diseases (rhinitis, dermatitis), and atopy (by skin prick test [SPT], peripheral blood eosinophils, and serum total IgE) were assessed. RESULTS: Preschoolers from rural settings had significantly higher prevalence of vaginal delivery, longer breastfeeding, earlier onset of wheezing, more parental smoking, siblings, shared a bedroom, and more exposure to chemicals used in plant fumigation or farm animals, and unpasteurized milk consumption, in comparison to preschoolers living in urban setting. In contrast, preschoolers from urban areas had significantly higher prevalence of parental history of allergy, positive skin prick test, and positive API. After multivariate analysis adjusting for covariates, maternal smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 3.44] and positive SPT (OR = 5.57) significantly increase the risk of asthma diagnosis (positive API); in contrast, living in rural setting (OR = 0.04), and having more siblings (OR = 0.51) decrease their risk. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent wheezing preschoolers from rural areas had a significant inverse odds of being diagnosed with asthma (type-2 inflammation) when compared to those from urban areas. Exposure to farm animals and consumption of unpasteurized milk might have a role.

18.
Front Pediatr ; 5: 72, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28484688

RESUMO

This review updates the relationship between the adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) assessed by questionnaire and asthma, allergic rhinitis, or atopic eczema in childhood. It deals with the effect of MedDiet in children on asthma/wheeze, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis/eczema, and also with the effect of MedDiet consumption by the mother during pregnancy on the inception of asthma/wheeze and allergic diseases in the offspring. Adherence to MedDiet by children themselves seems to have a protective effect on asthma/wheezing symptoms after adjustment for confounders, although the effect is doubtful on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. By contrast, the vast majority of the studies showed no significant effect of MedDiet on preventing atopic eczema, rhinitis, or atopy. Finally, studies on adherence to MedDiet by the mother during pregnancy showed some protective effect on asthma/wheeze symptoms in the offspring only during the first year of life, but not afterward. Very few studies have shown a protective effect on wheezing, current sneeze, and atopy, and none on eczema. Randomized control trials on the effect of the adherence to MedDiet to prevent (by maternal consumption during pregnancy) or improve (by child consumption) the clinical control of asthma/wheezing, allergic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis are needed.

19.
J Asthma Allergy ; 10: 83-98, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the early identification of persistent asthma symptoms among young children with recurrent wheezing, it would be helpful to identify all available studies that have identified at least one factor for predicting the persistence of early wheezing. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of all studies that have identified factors that predict the persistence of symptoms among young patients with recurring wheezing. METHODS: A systematic review of relevant studies was conducted through searching in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and SCOPUS databases up to June 2016. Studies that identified predictors of persistence of wheezing illness among young children with recurrent wheezing were retrieved. Two independent reviewers screened the literature and extracted relevant data. RESULTS: The literature search returned 649 references, 619 of which were excluded due to their irrelevance. Five additional studies were identified from reference lists, and 35 studies were finally included in the review. Among all the identified predictors, the most frequently identified ones were the following: family asthma or atopy; personal history of atopic diseases; allergic sensitization early in life; and frequency, clinical pattern, or severity of wheezing/symptoms. CONCLUSION: Parental asthma (especially maternal), parental allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, persistent wheezing, wheeze without colds, exercise-induced wheeze, severe wheezing episodes, allergic sensitization (especially polysensitization), eosinophils (blood or eosinophil cationic protein in nasal sample), and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide were risk factors predicting persistence of early wheezing through school age. All of them are included in conventional algorithms, for example, Asthma Predictive Index and its modifications, for predicting future asthma.

20.
J Asthma ; 54(10): 1059-1064, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28306401

RESUMO

Caregiver's or maternal depression has been associated with increased asthma morbidity in children from prosperous nations, but little is known about this link in low and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To examine if caregiver's depressive symptoms are associated with poor asthma control and abnormal immune responses in school-aged children. METHODS: Case-control study of 87 asthmatic children (aged 4-11 years) attending a primary care clinic in an underserved area of Santiago (Chile). Cases were children with poor asthma control (Child Asthma Control Test [cACT] <20 points) and controls were children with adequate asthma control (cACT ≥20 points). The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI) and a locally validated family health vulnerability test (SALUFAM) were used to assess caregivers' depression and family health vulnerability. Serum from participating children was assayed for IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13, TGF-ß, cortisol, and total IgE. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of study participants was 8.23 (2.15 years), and 55.2% were females. Use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), family health vulnerability, and caregiver's depressive symptoms were significantly more common in cases than in controls (65.4% vs. 34.6%, p = 0.003; 41.3% vs. 24.8%, p = 0.07; and 39.1% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.04, respectively). There was no significant difference in the level of any serum biomarkers between groups. In a multivariate analysis, only ICS use was significantly associated with better asthma control (OR = 3.56 [1.34-9.48], p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Presence of caregiver's depressive symptoms is associated with poor asthma control among children from an underserved community, but this association was no longer significant after accounting for ICS use.


Assuntos
Asma/sangue , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidadores/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antiasmáticos , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile/epidemiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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