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2.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; : 108197, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389742

RESUMO

AIM: To provide information on the balance between the cardiovascular (CV) benefit and the diabetogenic harm of statin therapy in the current clinical practice. METHODS: All the 115,939 residents (older than 50 years) in the Italian Lombardy Region newly treated with statins between 2003 and 2005, were followed from the first statin prescription until 2012 to identify those experiencing a macrovascular complication and those with at least one sign suggestive of new onset diabetes. The proportion of days of follow-up covered by statin prescriptions measured adherence with statins. Hazard ratio, and relative 95% confidence interval (CI), for the two considered outcomes associated with statin adherence, were separately estimated (proportional hazard models). Number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH), i.e., number of individuals who must be treated with statins in order to prevent a macrovascular complication, or to generate a new onset diabetes, respectively, were calculated to evaluate the balance between CV benefit and diabetogenic harm of statin therapy. RESULTS: Compared to those at very low adherence with statins, patients at high adherence showed a significant reduction of macrovascular risk (28%, 95% CI: 23%-33%) and a greater risk of developing diabetic condition (67%, 50%-86%). In the whole cohort, the NNT was 26, whereas the NNH 65. NNT was lower than NNH also in all considered strata of age, gender, clinical profile. CONCLUSIONS: This large cohort investigation provides real-world evidence that the balance between CV benefit and diabetogenic harm of statin therapy is largely favourable to treatment benefits.

3.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350699

RESUMO

The causal relation between elevated levels of LDL-C and cardiovascular disease has been largely established by experimental and clinical studies. Thus, the reduction of LDL-C levels is a major target for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In the last decades, statins have been used as the main therapeutic approach to lower plasma cholesterol levels; however, the presence of residual lipid-related cardiovascular risk despite maximal statin therapy raised the need to develop additional lipid-lowering drugs to be used in combination with or in alternative to statins in patients intolerant to the treatment. Several new drugs have been approved which have mechanisms of action different from statins or impact on different lipoprotein classes.

5.
Atherosclerosis ; 301: 1-7, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although bisphosphonates have been suggested to protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) events, evidence is still conflicting. We aimed at investigating the effect of bisphosphonates on hospitalizations for atherosclerotic CV events. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective cohort study selecting subjects aged>40 years, incident users of bisphosphonates. Exposure to bisphosphonates was characterized based on cumulative doses (proportion of days covered, PDC). Treatment's adherence was classified as low (PDC≤40%), intermediate (PDC 41%-80%), or high (PDC>80%). A multivariate Cox model was fitted to estimate the association between cumulative time-dependent exposure to bisphosphonates and hospitalization for atherosclerotic CV events (hazard ratio [HR] and 95% confidence interval). RESULTS: Among 82,704 new bisphosphonates users (females 87.0%, mean age 70.7 ± 10.6 years), 16.1% had a CV hospitalization during a mean follow-up of 6.5 + 2.6 years. Compared with individuals with PDC ≤40%, those exposed for 41-80% or more than 80% showed HRs of CV hospitalization of 0.95 [0.91-0.99] and 0.75 [0.71-0.81], respectively. In the sub-analysis by type of event, a PDC >80% was associated with a reduced incidence for both coronary and cerebrovascular events (HRs 0.75 [0.68-0.83] and 0.76 [0.70-0.83], respectively). The protective effect was confirmed in stratified analyses by sex and age classes, and in those performed at 1 and 3 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Strict adherence to bisphosphonate treatment was associated with a better CV outcome. Although further studies to investigate possible mechanisms are warranted, bisphosphonates could be considered as having a potential CV benefit beyond the effect on bones.

6.
Atherosclerosis ; 297: 8-15, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) due to LIPA gene mutations is characterized by hepatic steatosis, hypercholesterolemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia, exposing affected patients to an increased cardiovascular risk. Further insights into the impact of LIPA gene mutations on lipid/lipoprotein metabolism are limited. Aim of the study was to investigate the effect of carrying one or two mutant LIPA alleles on lipoprotein composition and function. METHODS: Lipoproteins were isolated from 6 adult CESD patients, 5 relatives carrying one mutant LIPA allele (carriers) and 12 sex/age matched controls. Lipid profile, lipoprotein mass composition and the fatty acid distribution of cholesteryl esters (CEs) were assessed. HDL function was evaluated as the ability to promote nitric oxide release by endothelial cells. RESULTS: Despite the lipid-lowering therapy, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in CESD patients compared to controls, while HDL-cholesterol was reduced. Carriers also displayed elevated total and LDL-cholesterol. Very low and intermediate density lipoproteins from CESD patients and carriers were enriched in CEs compared to the control ones, with a concomitant reduction of triglycerides. Fatty acid composition of CEs in serum and lipoproteins showed a depletion of linoleate content in CESD patients, due to the reduced LCAT activity. In CESD HDL, fatty acid distribution of CEs was shifted towards saturated ones, if compared to control HDL. The changes in HDL composition did not affect HDL ability to promote nitric oxide release by endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: LIPA gene mutations significantly affected plasma levels and lipid composition of lipoproteins, likely contributing to the increased cardiovascular risk of affected patients.

9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895433

RESUMO

Importance: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an underdiagnosed and undertreated genetic disorder that leads to premature morbidity and mortality due to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Familial hypercholesterolemia affects 1 in 200 to 250 people around the world of every race and ethnicity. The lack of general awareness of FH among the public and medical community has resulted in only 10% of the FH population being diagnosed and adequately treated. The World Health Organization recognized FH as a public health priority in 1998 during a consultation meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. The World Health Organization report highlighted 11 recommendations to address FH worldwide, from diagnosis and treatment to family screening and education. Research since the 1998 report has increased understanding and awareness of FH, particularly in specialty areas, such as cardiology and lipidology. However, in the past 20 years, there has been little progress in implementing the 11 recommendations to prevent premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in an entire generation of families with FH. Observations: In 2018, the Familial Hypercholesterolemia Foundation and the World Heart Federation convened the international FH community to update the 11 recommendations. Two meetings were held: one at the 2018 FH Foundation Global Summit and the other during the 2018 World Congress of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Health. Each meeting served as a platform for the FH community to examine the original recommendations, assess the gaps, and provide commentary on the revised recommendations. The Global Call to Action on Familial Hypercholesterolemia thus represents individuals with FH, advocacy leaders, scientific experts, policy makers, and the original authors of the 1998 World Health Organization report. Attendees from 40 countries brought perspectives on FH from low-, middle-, and high-income regions. Tables listing country-specific government support for FH care, existing country-specific and international FH scientific statements and guidelines, country-specific and international FH registries, and known FH advocacy organizations around the world were created. Conclusions and Relevance: By adopting the 9 updated public policy recommendations created for this document, covering awareness; advocacy; screening, testing, and diagnosis; treatment; family-based care; registries; research; and cost and value, individual countries have the opportunity to prevent atherosclerotic heart disease in their citizens carrying a gene associated with FH and, likely, all those with severe hypercholesterolemia as well.

10.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(1): 50-67, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582260

RESUMO

Genome sequencing and gene-based therapies appear poised to advance the management of rare lipoprotein disorders and associated dyslipidaemias. However, in practice, underdiagnosis and undertreatment of these disorders are common, in large part due to interindividual variability in the genetic causes and phenotypic presentation of these conditions. To address these challenges, the European Atherosclerosis Society formed a task force to provide practical clinical guidance focusing on patients with extreme concentrations (either low or high) of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The task force also recognises the scarcity of quality information regarding the prevalence and outcomes of these conditions. Collaborative registries are needed to improve health policy for the care of patients with rare dyslipidaemias.

12.
Atherosclerosis ; 292: 90-98, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785494

RESUMO

This narrative review aims to discuss the more relevant evidence on the role of linoleic acid (LA), a n-6 essential fatty acid that constitutes the predominant proportion of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in cardiovascular health. Although LA can be metabolized into Arachidonic Acid (AA), a 20 carbon PUFA which is the precursor of eicosanoids, including some with proinflammatory or prothrombotic-vasoconstrictor action, the large majority of experimental and clinical studies have assessed the potential benefit of increasing dietary intake of LA. Overall, data from clinical studies and meta-analyses suggest an association between high dietary intakes or tissue levels of n-6 PUFA, and specifically LA, and the improvement of cardiovascular risk (mainly of the plasma lipid profile), as well as long-term glycaemic control and insulin resistance. Most observational data show that elevated/increased dietary intake or tissue levels of LA is associated with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases (mainly coronary artery diseases) and of new onset metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. The effects of LA (or n-6 PUFA) in other physio-pathological areas are less clear. High quality clinical trials are needed to assess both the actual amplitude and the underlying mechanisms of the health effects related to dietary intake of this essential fatty acid.

13.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(3): 234-243, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619084

RESUMO

AIMS: Averaged measurements, but not the progression based on multiple assessments of carotid intima-media thickness, (cIMT) are predictive of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in individuals. Whether this is true for conventional risk factors is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: An individual participant meta-analysis was used to associate the annualised progression of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with future cardiovascular disease risk in 13 prospective cohort studies of the PROG-IMT collaboration (n = 34,072). Follow-up data included information on a combined cardiovascular disease endpoint of myocardial infarction, stroke, or vascular death. In secondary analyses, annualised progression was replaced with average. Log hazard ratios per standard deviation difference were pooled across studies by a random effects meta-analysis. In primary analysis, the annualised progression of total cholesterol was marginally related to a higher cardiovascular disease risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00 to 1.07). The annualised progression of systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was not associated with future cardiovascular disease risk. In secondary analysis, average systolic blood pressure (HR 1.20 95% CI 1.11 to 1.29) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.16) were related to a greater, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97) was related to a lower risk of future cardiovascular disease events. CONCLUSION: Averaged measurements of systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol displayed significant linear relationships with the risk of future cardiovascular disease events. However, there was no clear association between the annualised progression of these conventional risk factors in individuals with the risk of future clinical endpoints.

14.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(2): 181-205, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826679

RESUMO

European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention in clinical practice were first published in 1994 and have been regularly updated, most recently in 2016, by the Sixth European Joint Task Force. Given the amount of new information that has become available since then, components from the task force and experts from the European Association of Preventive Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology were invited to provide a summary and critical review of the most important new studies and evidence since the latest guidelines were published. The structure of the document follows that of the previous document and has six parts: Introduction (epidemiology and cost effectiveness); Cardiovascular risk; How to intervene at the population level; How to intervene at the individual level; Disease-specific interventions; and Settings: where to intervene? In fact, in keeping with the guidelines, greater emphasis has been put on a population-based approach and on disease-specific interventions, avoiding re-interpretation of information already and previously considered. Finally, the presence of several gaps in the knowledge is highlighted.

15.
Pharmacol Res ; 155: 104514, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678211

RESUMO

Despite the invaluable efficacy of statins, adherence to therapy is extremely poor in clinical practice. Improvement interventions should be as personalized as possible, but it is necessary to know factors that most influence adherence, and sex seems to be a key determinant. Thus, we aimed at exploring potential areas of sex-differences in statin adherence in a real-world population. For this purpose, we assessed adherence (as proportion of days covered) on a wide cohort of new statin users aged >40 years, and we evaluated its association with several covariates through sex-stratified log-binomial regression models. In addition, to compare also the benefits of optimal statin adherence in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease between men and women, we implemented sex-stratified Cox proportional hazard models. Our study showed that women are more likely to stop or be less adherent to statin treatment than men. Moreover, we observed significant sex-differences on effect size of several factors associated with adherence that should be taken into consideration for the management of patients. Finally, we observed no significant difference between men and women regarding statin efficacy in terms of reduction of incident hospitalization for ischemic heart disease and/or non-haemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease. These results invoke the responsibility of physicians to a prompt and personalized intervention. Physicians should consider routine screening for non-adherence in their clinical practice, target patients at higher risk of non-adherence, and improved motivation and communication.

16.
Curr Opin Lipidol ; 30(6): 462-469, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577612

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cellular cholesterol content influences the structure and function of lipid rafts, plasma membrane microdomains essential for cell signaling and activation. HDL modulate cellular cholesterol efflux, thus limiting cholesterol accumulation and controlling immune cell activation. Aim of this review is to discuss the link between HDL and cellular cholesterol metabolism in immune cells and the therapeutic potential of targeting cholesterol removal from cell membranes. RECENT FINDINGS: The inverse relationship between HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the risk of cardiovascular disease has been recently challenged by observations linking elevated levels of HDL-C with increased risk of all-cause mortality, infections and autoimmune diseases, paralleled by the failure of clinical trials with HDL-C-raising therapies. These findings suggest that improving HDL function might be more important than merely raising HDL-C levels. New approaches aimed at increasing the ability of HDL to remove cellular cholesterol have been assessed for their effect on immune cells, and the results have suggested that this could be a new effective approach. SUMMARY: Cholesterol removal from plasma membrane by different means affects the activity of immune cells, suggesting that approaches aimed at increasing the ability of HDL to mobilize cholesterol from cells would represent the next step in HDL biology.

17.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(6): 997-1007.e8, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) levels increase cardiovascular disease risk. However, RLP-C measurement methods are not standardized, leading to variations across studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ezetimibe (Eze) + statins vs statin monotherapy on RLP-C using immunoseparation (IM), vertical auto profile (VAP) ultracentrifugation, and calculated RLP-C measurement methods. METHODS: This post hoc analysis evaluated data pooled from 3 first-line (all-statin [simvastatin 10/20/40/80 mg] vs Eze + statin [Eze 10 mg + simvastatin]) and 2 second-line (statin [atorvastatin uptitrated to 40/80 mg] vs statin + Eze [atorvastatin 20/40 mg + Eze 10 mg]) studies. Similarity of RLP-C methods was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. RLP-C changes and percent changes from baseline were measured by all 3 methods in first-line and VAP and calculated methods in second-line studies. RESULTS: Correlations between methods were generally moderate to strong for RLP-C levels, changes, and percent changes across treatment groups (r = 0.29-0.79) but with little evidence of agreement by Bland-Altman plots. Baseline RLP-C levels for Eze + statin vs all-statin groups were lower by IM (14.0 vs 14.0) compared with VAP (36.9 vs 35.9) and calculated (32.8 vs 33.3) methods. RLP-C changes (mg/dL) and percent changes from baseline were significantly greater (P < .01) with Eze + statins vs statins by VAP, calculated, and IM methods (between-treatment differences: -5.0 and -12.0, -2.0 and -5.4, and -1.5 and -12.1, respectively) in first-line, and VAP and calculated methods (between-treatment differences: -5.0 and -19.9 and -2.0 and -7.3) in second-line studies. CONCLUSION: Although the 3 methods showed little agreement, each supported Eze + statins for achieving greater RLP-C reductions vs statin monotherapy; variability of results reinforces urgent need to standardize RLP-C measurements.

18.
JAMA ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475726

RESUMO

Importance: The relationship between exposure to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) with the risk of cardiovascular disease has not been reliably quantified. Objective: To assess the association of lifetime exposure to the combination of both lower LDL-C and lower SBP with the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: Among 438 952 participants enrolled in the UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010 and followed up through 2018, genetic LDL-C and SBP scores were used as instruments to divide participants into groups with lifetime exposure to lower LDL-C, lower SBP, or both. Differences in plasma LDL-C, SBP, and cardiovascular event rates between the groups were compared to estimate associations with lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. Exposures: Differences in plasma LDL-C and SBP compared with participants with both genetic scores below the median. Genetic risk scores higher than the median were associated with lower LDL-C and lower SBP. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratio (OR) for major coronary events, defined as coronary death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization. Results: The mean age of the 438 952 participants was 65.2 years (range, 40.4-80.0 years), 54.1% were women, and 24 980 experienced a first major coronary event. Compared with the reference group, participants with LDL-C genetic scores higher than the median had 14.7-mg/dL lower LDL-C levels and an OR of 0.73 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.70-0.75; P < .001). Participants with SBP genetic scores higher than the median had 2.9-mm Hg lower SBP and an OR of 0.82 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.79-0.85, P < .001). Participants in the group with both genetic scores higher than the median had 13.9-mg/dL lower LDL-C, 3.1-mm Hg lower SBP, and an OR of 0.61 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.59-0.64; P < .001). In a 4 × 4 factorial analysis, exposure to increasing genetic risk scores and lower LDL-C levels and SBP was associated with dose-dependent lower risks of major coronary events. In a meta-regression analysis, combined exposure to 38.67-mg/dL lower LDL-C and 10-mm Hg lower SBP was associated with an OR of 0.22 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.17-0.26; P < .001), and 0.32 for cardiovascular death (95% CI, 0.25-0.40; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Lifelong genetic exposure to lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower systolic blood pressure was associated with lower cardiovascular risk. However, these findings cannot be assumed to represent the magnitude of benefit achievable from treatment of these risk factors.

19.
Adv Ther ; 36(10): 2723-2743, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482507

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Statin intolerance (SI) occurs in patients with dyslipidemia treated with statins. Statin-associated symptoms have been reported, but the overall patient experience is poorly understood. No instruments are available to collect this patient experience. Our aim is to develop a patient survey to define SI from the patient's perspective, inform clinical practice, and identify potential patient characteristics and barriers associated with discontinuing treatment when statin-related difficulties are encountered. METHODS: We conducted qualitative concept elicitation interviews with 65 patients across 12 European study sites. A semi-structured qualitative interview guide was developed based on literature review and clinician interviews. Concept elicitation interviews with patients were used to describe the patient experience and develop the conceptual framework for the survey. RESULTS: Symptoms experienced by patients included muscle and non-muscle-related pain and discomfort; other muscle-related symptoms; gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, cold-like, fatigue-related, and sensory and systems symptoms; mood changes; and cognitive and memory problems. Impacts included limitations on general physical functioning; physical activities; social functioning; emotional impacts; sleep disturbances; decreased productivity; and increased healthcare use. Conceptual framework elements to support survey goals include demographic and clinical characteristics, health information and beliefs, statin side-effect history, symptom severity, and impact severity. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms and impacts described by patients showed a wider range of symptoms and impacts than usually discussed clinically. The patient survey is designed to capture information from patients who experience difficulties with statin therapy and may be useful in identifying patients who are at higher risk for giving up or discontinuing their treatment. FUNDING: Amgen Inc.

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