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1.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a well-established diagnostic algorithm for celiac disease, it remains unclear whether prescriptions for celiac serological tests comply with the current pediatric guidelines. AIM: To analyze the appropriateness of test prescription in children investigated for celiac disease in Italy, compared to the current European pediatric guidelines. METHODS: All children who had performed a first evaluation for celiac disease were prospectively enrolled. Prescribed tests and related indications for testing were recorded, and compared to the European pediatric guidelines. RESULTS: Overall, 202 children were enrolled (females 59%, mean age 7.1 years ±4.1) in two centers. The reasons for celiac disease testing were typical, atypical symptoms or celiac disease-associated conditions in 46.5%, 49%, and 4.5% of cases, respectively. First-line tests were IgA and IgG anti-transglutaminase antibodies in 88.1% and 29.7% of children, IgA and IgG anti-deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies in 43% and 47%, IgA and IgG anti native gliadin in 15.8%, IgA anti-endomysium antibodies in 44.5%, HLA predisposing genes in 10% of patients. Test redundancy was very common, and the current diagnostic guidelines were correctly followed only in 23/202 patients (11.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic European guidelines for celiac disease screening are often disregarded in Italy. Intervention to implement adherence to these guidelines is needed, with the aim of improving resource utilization, and quality of patient care.

2.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 142, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Celiac disease remains a challenging condition because of a steady increase in knowledge tackling its pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and possible therapeutic options. MAIN BODY: A major milestone in the history of celiac disease was the identification of tissue transglutaminase as the autoantigen, thereby confirming the autoimmune nature of this disorder. A genetic background (HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positivity and non-HLA genes) is a mandatory determinant of the development of the disease, which occurs with the contribution of environmental factors (e.g., viral infections and dysbiosis of gut microbiota). Its prevalence in the general population is of approximately 1%, with female predominance. The disease can occur at any age, with a variety of symptoms/manifestations. This multifaceted clinical presentation leads to several phenotypes, i.e., gastrointestinal, extraintestinal, subclinical, potential, seronegative, non-responsive, and refractory. Although small intestinal biopsy remains the diagnostic 'gold standard', highly sensitive and specific serological tests, such as tissue transglutaminase, endomysial and deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies, have become gradually more important in the diagnostic work-up of celiac disease. Currently, the only treatment for celiac disease is a life-long, strict gluten-free diet leading to improvement in quality of life, ameliorating symptoms, and preventing the occurrence of refractory celiac disease, ulcerative jejunoileitis, and small intestinal adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: The present review is timely and provides a thorough appraisal of various aspects characterizing celiac disease. Remaining challenges include obtaining a better understanding of still-unclear phenotypes such as slow-responsive, potential (minimal lesions) and seronegative celiac disease. The identification of alternative or complementary treatments to the gluten-free diet brings hope for patients unavoidably burdened by diet restrictions.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Celiac disease is one of the most common diseases worldwide, with an apparent trend of increasing prevalence. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease in children in Italy in 2015-2016 and compared that with data from 25 years ago. METHODS: We screened 4570 children (5-11 years old, 80.1% of the eligible population) from metropolitan areas of Ancona and Verona for HLA genes associated with increased risk of celiac disease, and for total serum levels of IgA, and IgA class anti-tissue transglutaminase in HLA positives. Diagnoses of celiac disease were confirmed by detection of anti-endomysial antibody and analysis of intestinal biopsies. The prevalence of celiac autoimmunity and celiac disease were calculated and compared with values from the same geographical area during the years 1993-1995, after adjustment for the different diagnostic algorithm. RESULTS: We identified 1960 children with celiac disease-associated haplotypes (43% of children screened; 95% CI, 40.8%-45.2%). The prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity in the HLA-positive subjects was 96/1706 (5.62%; 95% CI, 4.53%-6.71%) and 54 of these children satisfied the diagnostic criteria for celiac disease. In the eligible population there were other 23 known cases of celiac disease. The overall estimated prevalence of celiac disease was 1.58% (95% CI, 1.26%-1.90%); this value is significantly higher than the 1993-1995 adjusted prevalence (0.88%; 95% CI, 0.74%-1.02%). CONCLUSIONS: We found the prevalence of celiac disease in children in Italy to be greater than 1.5%; this value has increased significantly over the past 25 years. Studies are needed to determine the causes of this large increase.

4.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am ; 48(1): 101-113, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711203

RESUMO

Celiac disease, once thought to be very uncommon in Asia, is now emerging in many Asian countries. Although the absolute number of patients with celiac disease at present is not very high, this number is expected to increase markedly over the next few years/decades owing to increasing awareness. It is now that the medical community across the Asia should define the extent of the problem and prepare to handle the impending epidemic of celiac disease in Asia.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Conscientização , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Doença Celíaca/etiologia , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Glutens/efeitos adversos , Antígenos HLA-DQ , Humanos , Nutricionistas/educação , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Prevalência , Grupos de Autoajuda , Testes Sorológicos
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(1)2019 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642036

RESUMO

The current prevalence of pediatric Celiac Disease (CD) is estimated to be around 1% in the general population, worldwide. However, according to the geographic area, a great variability of CD prevalence has been described. Whereas a number of studies are available from Europe, North and South America, Australia, South-West Asia, and North Africa, the knowledge and awareness of CD in large parts of the remaining world areas is definitively poor. In several countries of Central and East Asia, the consumption of wheat is consistent and/or has significantly increased in recent decades, and CD is supposed to be underdiagnosed in children. In this mini-review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the prevalence of pediatric CD in Central and East Asia, paying attention to the HLA-DQ immunogenetic background as well. Indeed, CD is likely not to be as uncommon as previously or currently thought in countries like Russia, Kazakhstan, and China, in addition to India, where pediatric CD has been clearly showed to be quite prevalent. Therefore, there is an urgent need for population-based studies on the prevalence of CD in those countries, especially in children, in order to increase the awareness of this disease and to improve the diagnostic strategy in these areas.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alelos , Ásia Central/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca/genética , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA-DQ , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
7.
Clin Chim Acta ; 486: 221-223, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In total, 930 urine samples obtained on 2nd and 3rd day from birth have been analyzed for the early diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidoses. METHODS: Dimethylmethylene blue (DMB) assay and one-dimensional electrophoresis were performed in all urine samples. Agarose gel electrophoresis, before and after treatment with chondroitinase ABC and heparinases, was used for a comprehensive characterization. RESULTS: Out of 930 urine samples 7 showed anomalous electrophoretic pattern; 5 of them had high GAG levels by DMB test. Atypical samples (n = 7) were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. After enzymatic digestion, some slow bands were still visible. A second urine sample of the above 7 newborns was analyzed at the age of 1 month, demonstrating both a normal pattern and normal GAG levels. Additional urine and vaginal mucus samples from 10 term neonates with vaginal bleeding showed the same electrophoretic pattern observed in the 7 false positive samples. CONCLUSIONS: The altered electrophoretic pattern may be due to the presence of glycoproteins and not to specific GAGs, due to high levels of maternal hormones exposure during pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first time maternal estrogen hormones are proposed as a likely cause of false-positive urinary glycosaminoglycan screen test in healthy newborns.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30119098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The only available treatment for celiac disease (CD) is the gluten-free diet. It is unclear whether the presence of gluten in oral hygiene products and cosmetics that are applied on the mouth is a reason of concern for CD patients. The aim of this study was to test the level of gluten contamination in oral hygiene and cosmetic products available in the Italian market. METHODS: A total of 66 products (toothpastes = 37; dental tablets = 2; mouthwashes = 5; lip-balms = 10; lipsticks = 12) labelled gluten-free or with unknown gluten content were randomly collected from different supermarkets and pharmacies. The gluten quantification was determined by the R5 ELISA method approved by EU regulations. RESULTS: Out of 66 oral hygiene and cosmetics, 62 products (94%) were found to be gluten-free (gluten level <20 ppm), while 4 (6%) (toothpastes = 3; lipsticks = 1) showed a gluten level >20 ppm (toothpastes: 20.7 ppm, 31.4 ppm, and 35 ppm; lipstick: 27.4 ppm). None of the selected products had ingredient derived from wheat, barley, or rye. CONCLUSIONS: Gluten contamination is currently not an issue in a wide array of cosmetic and oral hygiene products that are commonly on the market.

10.
Nutrients ; 10(3)2018 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone) in celiac disease (CD) breastfeeding mothers and healthy control mothers, as well as in their offspring, by quantifying these contaminants in breast milk. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-five breastfeeding women with CD on a gluten-free diet and 30 healthy breastfeeding controls were recruited. Milk sampling was performed three times per day for three consecutive days. Mycotoxin content was investigated by an analytical method using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric detection. RESULTS: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was detected in 37% of CD group samples (mean ± SD = 0.012 ± 0.011 ng/mL; range = 0.003-0.340 ng/mL). The control group showed lower mean AFM1 concentration levels in 24% of the analyzed samples (0.009 ± 0.007 ng/mL; range = 0.003-0.067 ng/mL, ANOVA on ranks, p-value < 0.01). Ochratoxin A and zearalenone did not differ in both groups. CONCLUSION: Breast milk AFM1 contamination for both groups is lower than the European safety threshold. However, the estimated exposures of infants from CD mothers and control mothers was much higher (≃15 times and ≃11 times, respectively) than the threshold set by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Since incongruities exist between JECFA and the European Union standard, a novel regulatory review of the available data on this topic is desirable. Protecting babies from a neglected risk of high AFM1 exposure requires prompt regulatory and food-control policies.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dieta Livre de Glúten/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Leite Humano/química , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Métodos Analíticos de Preparação de Amostras , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos Ambientais/análise , Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos de Coortes , Registros de Dieta , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Grão Comestível/efeitos adversos , Grão Comestível/química , Feminino , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Limite de Detecção , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micotoxinas/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
11.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 16(6): 823-836.e2, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29551598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Celiac disease is a major public health problem worldwide. Although initially it was reported from countries with predominant Caucasian populations, it now has been reported from other parts of the world. The exact global prevalence of celiac disease is not known. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. METHODS: We searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords celiac disease, celiac, celiac disease, tissue transglutaminase antibody, anti-endomysium antibody, endomysial antibody, and prevalence for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. Each article was cross-referenced with the words Asia, Europe, Africa, South America, North America, and Australia. The diagnosis of celiac disease was based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. Of 3843 articles, 96 articles were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: The pooled global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.1%-1.7%) in 275,818 individuals, based on positive results from tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies (called seroprevalence). The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% (95% confidence interval, 0.5%-0.9%) in 138,792 individuals. The prevalence values for celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was higher in female vs male individuals (0.6% vs 0.4%; P < .001). The prevalence of celiac disease was significantly greater in children than adults (0.9% vs 0.5%; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found celiac disease to be reported worldwide. The prevalence of celiac disease based on serologic test results is 1.4% and based on biopsy results is 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. There is a need for population-based prevalence studies in many countries.

12.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-3, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well known that human milk oligosaccharides play an important role as prebiotics, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infective agents. In the last few years, several studies have been performed using specific oligosaccharides, such as 2'-fucosyllactose and 6'-sialylactose, to evaluate their biological functions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-adhesive effect of the above oligosaccharides on Escherichia coli and Salmonella fyris. METHODS: Adhesion experiments were performed in the presence of 2'-fucosyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose as potential inhibitors of Escherichia coli and Salmonella fyris adhesion to Caco-2 cells. The oligosaccharides were used at different concentrations and the adhesion experiments were performed in triplicate and repeated at least three times. RESULTS: A significant reduction of Escherichia coli adhesion was observed in the presence of 2'-fucosyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose at the human milk concentration. On the contrary, no positive effects were observed in both oligosaccharides on Salmonella firis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the supplementation in infant formulas of 2'-fucosyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose, actually commercially available and absent in cow milk, could play positive effects in artificially fed infants.

13.
J Pediatr ; 194: 116-122.e2, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term validity and safety of pure oats in the treatment of children with celiac disease. STUDY DESIGN: This noninferiority clinical trial used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design extended over 15 months. Three hundred six children with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of celiac disease on a gluten-free diet for ≥2 years were randomly assigned to eat specifically prepared gluten-free food containing an age-dependent amount (15-40 g) of either placebo or purified nonreactive varieties of oats for 2 consecutive 6-month periods separated by washout standard gluten-free diet for 3 months. Clinical (body mass index, Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale score), serologic (IgA antitransglutaminase antibodies, and IgA anti-avenin antibodies), and intestinal permeability data were measured at baseline, and after 6, 9, and 15 months. Direct treatment effect was evaluated by a nonparametric approach using medians (95% CI) as summary statistic. RESULTS: After the exclusion of 129 patients who dropped out, the cohort included 177 children (79 in the oats-placebo and 98 in the placebo-oats group; median, 0.004; 95% CI, -0.0002 to 0.0089). Direct treatment effect was not statistically significant for clinical, serologic, and intestinal permeability variables (body mass index: median, -0.5; 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.00; Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale score: median, 0; 95% CI, -2.5 to 0.00; IgA antitransglutaminase antibodies: median, -0.02; 95% CI, -0.25 to 0.23; IgA anti-avenin antibodies: median, -0.0002; 95% CI, -0.0007 to 0.0003; intestinal permeability test: median, 0.004; 95% CI, -0.0002 to 0.0089). CONCLUSIONS: Pure nonreactive oat products are a safe dietary choice in the treatment of children with celiac disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00808301.

14.
Nutrients ; 9(11)2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160841

RESUMO

Gluten-related disorders have recently been reclassified with an emerging scientific literature supporting the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). New research has specifically addressed prevalence, immune mechanisms, the recognition of non-immunoglobulin E (non-IgE) wheat allergy and overlap of NCGS with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms. This review article will provide clinicians with an update that directly impacts on the management of a subgroup of their IBS patients whose symptoms are triggered by wheat ingestion.


Assuntos
Glutens/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Malabsorção/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Glutens/imunologia , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/imunologia , Síndromes de Malabsorção/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/imunologia
15.
Nutrients ; 9(11)2017 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29113094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure (IF) is the reduction in functioning gut mass below the minimal level necessary for adequate digestion and absorption of nutrients and fluids for weight maintenance in adults or for growth in children. There is a paucity of epidemiologic data on pediatric IF. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence, regional distribution and underlying diagnosis of pediatric chronic IF (CIF) requiring home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in Italy. METHODS: Local investigators were selected in 19 Italian centers either of reference for pediatric HPN or having pediatric gastroenterologists or surgeons on staff and already collaborating with the Italian Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition with regard to IF. Data requested in this survey for children at home on Parenteral Nutrition (PN) on 1 December 2016 included patient initials, year of birth, gender, family's place of residence and underlying diagnosis determining IF. RESULTS: We recorded 145 CIF patients on HPN aged ≤19 years. The overall prevalence was 14.12/million inhabitants (95% CI: 9.20-18.93); the overall incidence was 1.41/million inhabitant years (95% CI: 0.53-2.20). CONCLUSION: Our survey provides new epidemiological data on pediatric CIF in Italy; these data may be quantitatively useful in developing IF care strategy plans in all developed countries.


Assuntos
Enteropatias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Enteropatias/terapia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Nutrição Parenteral no Domicílio , Prevalência
16.
Gut ; 66(12): 2080-2086, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Counting intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) is central to the histological diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD), but no definitive 'normal' IEL range has ever been published. In this multicentre study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off between normal and CD (Marsh III lesion) duodenal mucosa, based on IEL counts on >400 mucosal biopsy specimens. DESIGN: The study was designed at the International Meeting on Digestive Pathology, Bucharest 2015. Investigators from 19 centres, eight countries of three continents, recruited 198 patients with Marsh III histology and 203 controls and used one agreed protocol to count IEL/100 enterocytes in well-oriented duodenal biopsies. Demographic and serological data were also collected. RESULTS: The mean ages of CD and control groups were 45.5 (neonate to 82) and 38.3 (2-88) years. Mean IEL count was 54±18/100 enterocytes in CD and 13±8 in normal controls (p=0.0001). ROC analysis indicated an optimal cut-off point of 25 IEL/100 enterocytes, with 99% sensitivity, 92% specificity and 99.5% area under the curve. Other cut-offs between 20 and 40 IEL were less discriminatory. Additionally, there was a sufficiently high number of biopsies to explore IEL counts across the subclassification of the Marsh III lesion. CONCLUSION: Our ROC curve analyses demonstrate that for Marsh III lesions, a cut-off of 25 IEL/100 enterocytes optimises discrimination between normal control and CD biopsies. No differences in IEL counts were found between Marsh III a, b and c lesions. There was an indication of a continuously graded dose-response by IEL to environmental (gluten) antigenic influence.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC
17.
Front Physiol ; 8: 621, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28928668

RESUMO

Background: Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a clinical entity characterized by intestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten in individuals that are not affected by either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). Since we do not have specific biomarkers for NCGS, the diagnosis is based on the evidence of a clear relationship between the ingestion of gluten (re-challenge) and clinical symptoms, after a remission during the gluten-free diet (GFD). Several re-challenge studies have been published so far to evaluate the real prevalence of NCGS, reporting conflicting results. In the present article, we provide a systematic review with meta-analysis of the existing literature on re-challenge studies to evaluate prevalence figures of NCGS after re-challenge procedures. Methods: All clinical trials performing a gluten re-challenge with or without a placebo control in patients with a suspected diagnosis of NCGS were included. Search results were limited to studies published in English language. No publication date or publication status restrictions were imposed. Results: Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis. There was a considerable heterogeneity related to different sample size, type, and amount of gluten administered, duration of challenge and different type of placebo. The overall pooled percentage of patients with a diagnosis of NCGS relapsing after a gluten challenge was 30%, ranging between 7 and 77%. The meta-analysis showed a not significant relative risk (RR) of relapse after gluten challenge as compared to placebo (RR = 0.4; 95% CI = -0.15-0.9; p = 0.16). The overall pooled percentage of patients with a diagnosis of NCGS relapsing after a gluten challenge performed according to the recent Salerno criteria was significantly higher as compared to the percentage of patients relapsing after placebo (40 vs. 24%; p = 0.003), with a significant RR of relapse after gluten challenge as compared to placebo (RR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.5-5.5; p = 0.002). Conclusions: The prevalence of NCGS after gluten re-challenge is low, and the percentage of relapse after a gluten or a placebo challenge is similar. However, a higher number of patients will be correctly classified with NCGS if applying the recent Salerno criteria.

18.
JAMA ; 318(7): 647-656, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28810029

RESUMO

Importance: The prevalence of gluten-related disorders is rising, and increasing numbers of individuals are empirically trying a gluten-free diet for a variety of signs and symptoms. This review aims to present current evidence regarding screening, diagnosis, and treatment for celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity. Observations: Celiac disease is a gluten-induced immune-mediated enteropathy characterized by a specific genetic genotype (HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 genes) and autoantibodies (antitissue transglutaminase and antiendomysial). Although the inflammatory process specifically targets the intestinal mucosa, patients may present with gastrointestinal signs or symptoms, extraintestinal signs or symptoms, or both, suggesting that celiac disease is a systemic disease. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is diagnosed in individuals who do not have celiac disease or wheat allergy but who have intestinal symptoms, extraintestinal symptoms, or both, related to ingestion of gluten-containing grains, with symptomatic improvement on their withdrawal. The clinical variability and the lack of validated biomarkers for nonceliac gluten sensitivity make establishing the prevalence, reaching a diagnosis, and further study of this condition difficult. Nevertheless, it is possible to differentiate specific gluten-related disorders from other conditions, based on currently available investigations and algorithms. Clinicians cannot distinguish between celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity by symptoms, as they are similar in both. Therefore, screening for celiac disease must occur before a gluten-free diet is implemented, since once a patient initiates a gluten-free diet, testing for celiac disease is no longer accurate. Conclusions and Relevance: Celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity are common. Although both conditions are treated with a gluten-free diet, distinguishing between celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity is important for long-term therapy. Patients with celiac disease should be followed up closely for dietary adherence, nutritional deficiencies, and the development of possible comorbidities.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Glutens/efeitos adversos , Doença Celíaca/complicações , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/dietoterapia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Glutens/imunologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia
19.
Nutrients ; 9(8)2017 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777338

RESUMO

The mechanisms behind the efficacy of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in Crohn's disease (CD) remain poorly understood, despite the high rate of treatment response. Evidence accumulated in the last 20 years suggests that a positive shift of the disrupted microbiota is one of the treatment effects. The purpose of this study was to critically review and summarize data reporting the microbiological effects of EEN in patients with CD. Fourteen studies were considered in the review, overall involving 216 CD patients on EEN. The studies were heterogeneous in methods of microbiota analysis and exclusion criteria. The most frequently reported effect of EEN was a reduction in microbiota diversity, reversible when patients returned to a normal diet. The effect of EEN on specific bacteria was very variable in the different studies, partially due to methodological limitations of the mentioned studies. The EEN seem to induce some metabolomic changes, which are different in long-term responder patients compared to patients that relapse earlier. Bacterial changes can be relevant to explaining the efficacy of EEN; however, microbiological data obtained from rigorously performed studies and derived from last generation techniques are largely inconsistent.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Nutrição Enteral , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ribotipagem , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 65(6): 601-602, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753190
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