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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 606-615, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474318

RESUMO

Cerebellar malformations are diverse congenital anomalies frequently associated with developmental disability. Although genetic and prenatal non-genetic causes have been described, no systematic analysis has been performed. Here, we present a large-exome sequencing study of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH). We performed exome sequencing in 282 individuals from 100 families with DWM or CBLH, and we established a molecular diagnosis in 36 of 100 families, with a significantly higher yield for CBLH (51%) than for DWM (16%). The 41 variants impact 27 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes, thus demonstrating that CBLH and DWM are often features of monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders. Though only seven monogenic causes (19%) were identified in more than one individual, neuroimaging review of 131 additional individuals confirmed cerebellar abnormalities in 23 of 27 genetic disorders (85%). Prenatal risk factors were frequently found among individuals without a genetic diagnosis (30 of 64 individuals [47%]). Single-cell RNA sequencing of prenatal human cerebellar tissue revealed gene enrichment in neuronal and vascular cell types; this suggests that defective vasculogenesis may disrupt cerebellar development. Further, de novo gain-of-function variants in PDGFRB, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for vascular progenitor signaling, were associated with CBLH, and this discovery links genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Our results suggest that genetic defects impact specific cerebellar cell types and implicate abnormal vascular development as a mechanism for cerebellar malformations. We also confirmed a major contribution for non-genetic prenatal factors in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities, substantially influencing diagnostic evaluation and counseling regarding recurrence risk and prognosis.

2.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 64, 2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ADNP syndrome is a rare Mendelian disorder characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, and autism. It is caused by truncating mutations in ADNP, which is involved in chromatin regulation. We hypothesized that the disruption of chromatin regulation might result in specific DNA methylation patterns that could be used in the molecular diagnosis of ADNP syndrome. RESULTS: We identified two distinct and partially opposing genomic DNA methylation episignatures in the peripheral blood samples from 22 patients with ADNP syndrome. The "epi-ADNP-1" episignature included ~ 6000 mostly hypomethylated CpGs, and the "epi-ADNP-2" episignature included ~ 1000 predominantly hypermethylated CpGs. The two signatures correlated with the locations of the ADNP mutations. Epi-ADNP-1 mutations occupy the N- and C-terminus, and epi-ADNP-2 mutations are centered on the nuclear localization signal. The episignatures were enriched for genes involved in neuronal system development and function. A classifier trained on these profiles yielded full sensitivity and specificity in detecting patients with either of the two episignatures. Applying this model to seven patients with uncertain clinical diagnosis enabled reclassification of genetic variants of uncertain significance and assigned new diagnosis when the primary clinical suspicion was not correct. When applied to a large cohort of unresolved patients with developmental delay (N = 1150), the model predicted three additional previously undiagnosed patients to have ADNP syndrome. DNA sequencing of these subjects, wherever available, identified pathogenic mutations within the gene domains predicted by the model. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the first Mendelian condition with two distinct episignatures caused by mutations in a single gene. These highly sensitive and specific DNA methylation episignatures enable diagnosis, screening, and genetic variant classifications in ADNP syndrome.

3.
J Hum Genet ; 64(6): 561-572, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858506

RESUMO

Variants have been identified in the embryonic ectoderm development (EED) gene in seven patients with syndromic overgrowth similar to that observed in Weaver syndrome. Here, we present three additional patients with missense variants in the EED gene. All the missense variants reported to date (including the three presented here) have localized to one of seven WD40 domains of the EED protein, which are necessary for interaction with enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2). In addition, among the seven patients reported in the literature and the three new patients presented here, all of the reported pathogenic variants except one occurred at one of four amino acid residues in the EED protein. The recurrence of pathogenic variation at these loci suggests that these residues are functionally important (mutation hotspots). In silico modeling and calculations of the free energy changes resulting from these variants suggested that they not only destabilize the EED protein structure but also adversely affect interactions between EED, EZH2, and/or H3K27me3. These cases help demonstrate the mechanism(s) by which apparently deleterious variants in the EED gene might cause overgrowth and lend further support that amino acid residues in the WD40 domain region may be mutation hotspots.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/etiologia , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/etiologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/fisiopatologia , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/química , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/etiologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/fisiopatologia , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/química , Humanos , Masculino , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Taxa de Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/química , Conformação Proteica , Repetições WD40/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
4.
Hum Mutat ; 40(7): 842-864, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882951

RESUMO

Mutations in the GNPTAB and GNPTG genes cause mucolipidosis (ML) type II, type III alpha/beta, and type III gamma, which are autosomal recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorders. GNPTAB and GNPTG encode the α/ß-precursor and the γ-subunit of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-1-phosphotransferase, respectively, the key enzyme for the generation of mannose 6-phosphate targeting signals on lysosomal enzymes. Defective GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase results in missorting of lysosomal enzymes and accumulation of non-degradable macromolecules in lysosomes, strongly impairing cellular function. MLII-affected patients have coarse facial features, cessation of statural growth and neuromotor development, severe skeletal abnormalities, organomegaly, and cardiorespiratory insufficiency leading to death in early childhood. MLIII alpha/beta and MLIII gamma are attenuated forms of the disease. Since the identification of the GNPTAB and GNPTG genes, 564 individuals affected by MLII or MLIII have been described in the literature. In this report, we provide an overview on 258 and 50 mutations in GNPTAB and GNPTG, respectively, including 58 novel GNPTAB and seven novel GNPTG variants. Comprehensive functional studies of GNPTAB missense mutations did not only gain insights into the composition and function of the GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase, but also helped to define genotype-phenotype correlations to predict the clinical outcome in patients.

5.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2036-2042, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the clinical characteristics of patients with variants in TCF20, we describe 27 patients, 26 of whom were identified via exome sequencing. We compare detailed clinical data with 17 previously reported patients. METHODS: Patients were ascertained through molecular testing laboratories performing exome sequencing (and other testing) with orthogonal confirmation; collaborating referring clinicians provided detailed clinical information. RESULTS: The cohort of 27 patients all had novel variants, and ranged in age from 2 to 68 years. All had developmental delay/intellectual disability. Autism spectrum disorders/autistic features were reported in 69%, attention disorders or hyperactivity in 67%, craniofacial features (no recognizable facial gestalt) in 67%, structural brain anomalies in 24%, and seizures in 12%. Additional features affecting various organ systems were described in 93%. In a majority of patients, we did not observe previously reported findings of postnatal overgrowth or craniosynostosis, in comparison with earlier reports. CONCLUSION: We provide valuable data regarding the prognosis and clinical manifestations of patients with variants in TCF20.

6.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 28(1): 7-16, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507725

RESUMO

Mucolipidosis-IIIγ (ML-IIIγ) is a recessively inherited slowly progressive skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in GNPTG. We report the genetic and clinical findings in the largest cohort with ML-IIIγ so far: 18 affected individuals from 12 families including 12 patients from India, five from Turkey, and one from the USA. With consanguinity confirmed in eight of 12 families, molecular characterization showed that all affected patients had homozygous pathogenic GNPTG genotypes, underscoring the rarity of the disorder. Unlike ML-IIIαß, which present with a broader spectrum of severity, the ML-III γ phenotype is milder, with onset in early school age, but nonetheless thus far considered phenotypically not differentiable from ML-IIIαß. Evaluation of this cohort has yielded phenotypic findings including hypertrophy of the forearms and restricted supination as clues for ML-IIIγ, facilitating an earlier correct choice of genotype screening. Early identification of this disorder may help in offering a timely intervention for the relief of carpal tunnel syndrome, monitoring and surgery for cardiac valve involvement, and evaluation of the need for joint replacement. As this condition may be confused with rheumatoid arthritis, confirmation of diagnosis will prevent inappropriate use of immunosuppressants and disease-modifying agents.


Assuntos
Mucolipidoses/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mucolipidoses/diagnóstico , Mucolipidoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucolipidoses/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Clin Chem ; 64(12): 1772-1779, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The glycoproteinoses are a subgroup of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) resulting from impaired degradation of N-linked oligosaccharide side chains of glycoproteins, which are commonly screened by detecting the accumulated free oligosaccharides (FOSs) in urine via thin layer chromatography (TLC). The traditional TLC method suffers from limited analytical sensitivity and specificity and lacks quantification capability. Therefore, we developed an analytically sensitive and relatively specific assay using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for urinary FOS analysis and validated its use for urine screening of glycoproteinoses and other LSDs. METHODS: Urine volumes equivalent to 30 µg of creatinine were derivatized with butyl-4-aminobenzoate and then purified through a solid-phase extraction cartridge. A 7-min UPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using an amide column for separation of derivatized FOS. Urine samples from >100 unaffected controls and 37 patients with various LSDs were studied. RESULTS: Relative quantification was conducted on 7 selected FOSs using a single internal standard, which allowed the identification of patients with 1 of 8 different LSDs: aspartylglucosaminuria, α-fucosidosis, α-mannosidosis, ß-mannosidosis, ß-galactosidase deficiency, Sandhoff disease, sialidosis, and galactosialidosis. Patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant show decreased FOS responses compared with untreated patients. CONCLUSIONS: This UPLC-MS/MS assay offers a valuable tool for screening of glycoproteinoses and other LSDs, with potential use for future treatment monitoring.

8.
Brain ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985992

RESUMO

The transcription factor BCL11B is essential for development of the nervous and the immune system, and Bcl11b deficiency results in structural brain defects, reduced learning capacity, and impaired immune cell development in mice. However, the precise role of BCL11B in humans is largely unexplored, except for a single patient with a BCL11B missense mutation, affected by multisystem anomalies and profound immune deficiency. Using massively parallel sequencing we identified 13 patients bearing heterozygous germline alterations in BCL11B. Notably, all of them are affected by global developmental delay with speech impairment and intellectual disability; however, none displayed overt clinical signs of immune deficiency. Six frameshift mutations, two nonsense mutations, one missense mutation, and two chromosomal rearrangements resulting in diminished BCL11B expression, arose de novo. A further frameshift mutation was transmitted from a similarly affected mother. Interestingly, the most severely affected patient harbours a missense mutation within a zinc-finger domain of BCL11B, probably affecting the DNA-binding structural interface, similar to the recently published patient. Furthermore, the most C-terminally located premature termination codon mutation fails to rescue the progenitor cell proliferation defect in hippocampal slice cultures from Bcl11b-deficient mice. Concerning the role of BCL11B in the immune system, extensive immune phenotyping of our patients revealed alterations in the T cell compartment and lack of peripheral type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), consistent with the findings described in Bcl11b-deficient mice. Unsupervised analysis of 102 T lymphocyte subpopulations showed that the patients clearly cluster apart from healthy children, further supporting the common aetiology of the disorder. Taken together, we show here that mutations leading either to BCL11B haploinsufficiency or to a truncated BCL11B protein clinically cause a non-syndromic neurodevelopmental delay. In addition, we suggest that missense mutations affecting specific sites within zinc-finger domains might result in distinct and more severe clinical outcomes.

9.
JCI Insight ; 3(14)2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046013

RESUMO

Site-1 protease (S1P), encoded by MBTPS1, is a serine protease in the Golgi. S1P regulates lipogenesis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, and lysosome biogenesis in mice and in cultured cells. However, how S1P differentially regulates these diverse functions in humans has been unclear. In addition, no human disease with S1P deficiency has been identified. Here, we report a pediatric patient with an amorphic and a severely hypomorphic mutation in MBTPS1. The unique combination of these mutations results in a frequency of functional MBTPS1 transcripts of approximately 1%, a finding that is associated with skeletal dysplasia and elevated blood lysosomal enzymes. We found that the residually expressed S1P is sufficient for lipid homeostasis but not for ER and lysosomal functions, especially in chondrocytes. The defective S1P function specifically impairs activation of the ER stress transducer BBF2H7, leading to ER retention of collagen in chondrocytes. S1P deficiency also causes abnormal secretion of lysosomal enzymes due to partial impairment of mannose-6-phosphate-dependent delivery to lysosomes. Collectively, these abnormalities lead to apoptosis of chondrocytes and lysosomal enzyme-mediated degradation of the bone matrix. Correction of an MBTPS1 variant or reduction of ER stress mitigated collagen-trafficking defects. These results define a new congenital human skeletal disorder and, more importantly, reveal that S1P is particularly required for skeletal development in humans. Our findings may also lead to new therapies for other genetic skeletal diseases, as ER dysfunction is common in these disorders.

10.
Ecology ; 99(1): 57-67, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28990166

RESUMO

Although the influence of regional processes on local patches is well studied, the influence of local patches and their spatial arrangement on regional processes is likely to be complex. One interesting idea is the keystone community concept (KCC); this posits that there may be some patches that have a disproportionately large effect on the metacommunity compared to other patches. We experimentally test the KCC by using replicate protist microcosm metacommunities with single-patch removals. Removing single patches had no effect on average community richness, evenness and biomass of our metacommunities, but did cause metacommunities to be assembled significantly less by local environmental conditions and more by spatial effects related to stochastic factors. Overall our results show that local patch removal can have large regional effects on structural processes, but indicate that more experiments are needed to find evidence of keystone communities.

11.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 34(3): 352-355, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28523882

RESUMO

Phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica (PPK) is a rare epidermal nevus syndrome characterized by the co-occurrence of a nevus sebaceous arranged along the lines of Blaschko with a speckled lentiginous nevus (SLN). We report a novel KRAS mutation in a patient with a large nevus sebaceous and an SLN who subsequently developed a vaginal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma, an association not previously reported in the literature. This case expands our knowledge of the genetic basis for phacomatosis, in which mutations in HRAS have been previously described, although this report provides evidence that activating mutations in KRAS or HRAS may cause PPK. This report confirms that PPK is a mosaic RASopathy with malignant potential and raises the question of whether screening for other RAS-associated malignancies should be performed for all children with PPK.


Assuntos
Nevo Pigmentado/diagnóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Nevo Pigmentado/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética
12.
JIMD Rep ; 34: 11-18, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27469132

RESUMO

Keratan sulfate (KS) is commonly elevated in urine samples from patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) and is considered pathognomonic for the condition. Recently, a new method has been described by Martell et al. to detect and measure urinary KS utilizing LC-MS/MS. As a part of the validation of this method in our laboratory, we studied the sensitivity and specificity of elevated urine KS levels using 25 samples from 15 MPS IVA patients, and 138 samples from 102 patients with other lysosomal storage disorders, including MPS I (n = 9), MPS II (n = 13), MPS III (n = 23), MPS VI (n = 7), beta-galactosidase deficiency (n = 7), mucolipidosis (ML) type II, II/III and III (n = 51), alpha-mannosidosis (n = 11), fucosidosis (n = 4), sialidosis (n = 5), Pompe disease (n = 3), aspartylglucosaminuria (n = 4), and galactosialidosis (n = 1). As expected, urine KS values were significantly higher (fivefold average increase) than age-matched controls in all MPS IVA patients. Urine KS levels were also significantly elevated (threefold to fourfold increase) in patients with GM-1 gangliosidosis, MPS IVB, ML II and ML II/III, and fucosidosis. Urine KS was also elevated to a smaller degree (1.1-fold to 1.7-fold average increase) in patients with MPS I, MPS II, and ML III. These findings suggest that while the UPLC-MS/MS urine KS method is 100% sensitive for the detection of patients with MPS IVA, elevated urine KS is not specific for this condition. Therefore, caution is advised when interpreting urinary keratan sulfate results.

14.
Hum Mutat ; 36(11): 1048-51, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26264460

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of mostly autosomal recessive disorders primarily characterized by neurological abnormalities. Recently, we described a single CDG patient with a de novo mutation in the X-linked gene, Signal Sequence Receptor 4 (SSR4). We performed whole-exome sequencing to identify causal variants in several affected individuals who had either an undifferentiated neurological disorder or unsolved CDG of unknown etiology based on abnormal transferrin glycosylation. We now report eight affected males with either de novo (4) or inherited (4) loss of function mutations in SSR4. Western blot analysis revealed that the mutations caused a complete loss of SSR4 protein. In nearly all cases, the abnormal glycosylation of serum transferrin was only slightly above the accepted normal cutoff range.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/diagnóstico , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Exoma , Ordem dos Genes , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(11): 2887-91, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25123844

RESUMO

Microduplication of chromosome 17p13.1 is a rarely reported chromosome abnormality associated with neurodevelopmental delays. We describe two unrelated patients with overlapping microduplications of chromosome 17p13.1. The first patient is a 2-year-old male who presented with neurodevelopmental delays and macrocephaly. He was found to have a de novo 788 kb copy gain of 17p13.2p13.1 and a de novo 134 kb copy gain of 17p13.1. These duplications include multiple candidate genes, including EFNB3, NLGN2, DLG4, GABARAP, and DULLARD, which may be responsible for neurodevelopmental delays in affected individuals. The second patient is a 29-year-old female with mild intellectual disability and relative macrocephaly. She was found to have a 62.5 kb copy gain of chromosome 17p13.1 that includes the DLG4, GABARAP, and DULLARD genes. The DLG4, GABARAP, and DULLARD genes included in the microduplications of both our patients appear to be candidate genes for neurodevelopmental delays and macrocephaly in individuals with 17p13.1 microduplication syndrome.


Assuntos
Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Megalencefalia/genética , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Megalencefalia/diagnóstico , Fenótipo
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(9): 2317-23, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25044831

RESUMO

We report on a series of 514 consecutive diagnoses of skeletal dysplasia made over an 8-year period at a tertiary hospital in Kerala, India. The most common diagnostic groups were dysostosis multiplex group (n = 73) followed by FGFR3 (n = 49) and osteogenesis imperfecta and decreased bone density group (n = 41). Molecular confirmation was obtained in 109 cases. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was obtained in close diagnostic collaboration with expert groups abroad through Internet communication for difficult cases. This has allowed for targeted biochemical and molecular studies leading to the correct identification of rare or novel conditions, which has not only helped affected families by allowing for improved genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis but also resulted in several scientific contributions. We conclude that (1) the spectrum of genetic bone disease in Kerala, India, is similar to that of other parts of the world, but recessive entities may be more frequent because of widespread consanguinity; (2) prenatal detection of skeletal dysplasias remains relatively rare because of limited access to expert prenatal ultrasound facilities; (3) because of the low accessibility to molecular tests, precise clinical-radiographic phenotyping remains the mainstay of diagnosis and counseling and of gatekeeping to efficient laboratory testing; (4) good phenotyping allows, a significant contribution to the recognition and characterization of novel entities. We suggest that the tight collaboration between a local reference center with dedicated personnel and expert diagnostic networks may be a proficient model to bring current diagnostics to developing countries.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/terapia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 20(11): 1847-51, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25016194

RESUMO

Mucolipidosis type II (MLII), or I-cell disease, is a rare but severe disorder affecting localization of enzymes to the lysosome, generally resulting in death before the 10th birthday. Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used to successfully treat some lysosomal storage diseases, only 2 cases have been reported on the use of HSCT to treat MLII. For the first time, we describe the combined international experience in the use of HSCT for MLII in 22 patients. Although 95% of the patients engrafted, overall survival was low, with only 6 patients (27%) alive at last follow-up. The most common cause of death post-transplant was cardiovascular complications, most likely due to disease progression. Survivors were globally delayed in development and often required complex medical support, such as gastrostomy tubes for nutrition and tracheostomy with mechanical ventilation. Although HSCT has demonstrated efficacy in treating some lysosomal storage disorders, the neurologic outcome and survival for patents with MLII were poor. Therefore, new medical and cellular therapies should be sought for these patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Mucolipidoses/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Lactente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 22(5): 594-601, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24045841

RESUMO

Mucolipidosis (ML) II and ML IIIα/ß are allelic autosomal recessive metabolic disorders due to mutations in GNPTAB. The gene encodes the enzyme UDP-GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase (GNPT), which is critical to proper trafficking of lysosomal acid hydrolases. The ML phenotypic spectrum is dichotomous. Criteria set for defining ML II and ML IIIα/ß are inclusive for all but the few patients with phenotypes that span the archetypes. Clinical and biochemical findings of the 'intermediate' ML in eight patients with the c.10A>C missense mutation in GNPTAB are presented to define this intermediate ML and provide a broader insight into ML pathogenesis. Extensive clinical information, including radiographic examinations at various ages, was obtained from a detailed study of all patients. GNPTAB was sequenced in probands and parents. GNPT activity was measured and cathepsin D sorting assays were performed in fibroblasts. Intermediate ML patients who share the c.10A>C/p.K4Q mutation in GNPTAB demonstrate a distinct, consistent phenotype similar to ML II in physical and radiographic features and to ML IIIα/ß in psychomotor development and life expectancy. GNPT activity is reduced to 7-12% but the majority of newly synthesized cathepsin D remains intracellular. The GNPTAB c.10A>C/p.K4Q missense allele results in an intermediate ML II/III with distinct clinical and biochemical characteristics. This delineation strengthens the utility of the discontinuous genotype-phenotype correlation in ML II and ML IIIα/ß and prompts additional studies on the tissue-specific pathogenesis in GNPT-deficient ML.


Assuntos
Mucolipidoses/genética , Mutação , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética , Transferases (Outros Grupos de Fosfato Substituídos)/genética , Alelos , Catepsina D/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Ativação Enzimática , Éxons , Facies , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mucolipidoses/diagnóstico , Mucolipidoses/mortalidade , Fenótipo , Irmãos , Transferases (Outros Grupos de Fosfato Substituídos)/química
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(1): 120-30, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23208842

RESUMO

Previous studies have limited the use of specific X-chromosome array designed platforms to the evaluation of patients with intellectual disability. In this retrospective analysis, we reviewed the clinical utility of an X-chromosome array in a variety of scenarios. We divided patients according to the indication for the test into four defined categories: (1) autism spectrum disorders and/or developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (ASDs/DD/ID) with known family history of neurocognitive disorders; (2) ASDs/DD/ID without known family history of neurocognitive disorders; (3) breakpoint definition of an abnormality detected by a different cytogenetic test; and (4) evaluation of suspected or known X-linked conditions. A total of 59 studies were ordered with 27 copy number variants detected in 25 patients (25/59 = 42%). The findings were deemed pathogenic/likely pathogenic (16/59 = 27%), benign (4/59 = 7%) or uncertain (7/59 = 12%). We place particular emphasis on the utility of this test for the diagnostic evaluation of families affected with X-linked conditions and how it compares to whole genome arrays in this setting. In conclusion, the X-chromosome array frequently detects genomic alterations of the X chromosome and it has advantages when evaluating some specific X-linked conditions. However, careful interpretation and correlation with clinical findings is needed to determine the significance of such changes. When the X-chromosome array was used to confirm a suspected X-linked condition, it had a yield of 63% (12/19) and was useful in the evaluation and risk assessment of patients and families.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 135(4): 503-10, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21466370

RESUMO

We report findings from an autopsy of a 45-year-old woman with the rare lysosomal storage disease mucolipidosis type III α/ß. Her disease manifested most notably as multiple bone and cartilage problems with tracheal and bronchial malacia. Principal autopsy findings included gross abnormalities in bone and cartilage with corresponding microscopic cytoplasmic lysosomal granules. These cytoplasmic granules were also seen in histologic preparations of the brain, myocardium, heart valves, and fibroblasts of the liver and skin by light and electron microscopy. By electron microscopy there were scattered, diffuse vesicular cytoplasmic granules in neurons and glia and an increase in lysosomal structures with fine electron lucent granularity in the above tissue types. Our findings help elaborate current understanding of this disease and differentiate it from the mucopolysaccharidoses and related disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document pathologic findings in a patient with mucolipidosis type III α/ß by autopsy.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas , Mucolipidoses/patologia , Autopsia , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/ultraestrutura , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Lisossomos/ultraestrutura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucolipidoses/metabolismo , Neurônios/ultraestrutura
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