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1.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 243-255, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although researchers, policymakers, and practitioners recognize the importance of the public's perceptions of police, few studies have examined developmental trends in adolescents and young adults' views of police. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1: Perceptions of police legitimacy would exhibit a U-shaped curve, declining in adolescence before improving in young adulthood. Hypothesis 2: At all ages, Black youth would report more negative perceptions of police legitimacy than Latino youth, who would report more negative perceptions than White youth. Hypothesis 3: Perceptions of police bias would be consistently associated with worse perceptions of police legitimacy. METHOD: Utilizing longitudinal data from the Crossroads Study, this study examined within-person trends in males' perceptions of police legitimacy from ages 13 to 22, as well as whether perceptions of police bias were associated with perceptions of police legitimacy. RESULTS: Perceptions of police legitimacy followed a U-shaped curve that declined during adolescence, reached its lowest point around age 18, and improved during the transition to young adulthood. Compared with White youth, Latino and Black youth had shallower curves in perceptions of police legitimacy that exhibited less improvement during the transition to adulthood. Further, perceptions of police bias were consistently associated with more negative perceptions of police legitimacy across races and ages. CONCLUSIONS: While perceptions of police legitimacy may decline during adolescence before improving during the transition to adulthood, perceptions of police bias are consistently negatively related to youth and young adults' perceptions of police legitimacy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Percepção , Polícia , Racismo/etnologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; : 1-14, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424103

RESUMO

Objective: The recent addition of the callous-unemotional (CU) traits specifier, "with Limited Prosocial Emotions (LPE)," to major classification systems has prompted the need for assessment tools that aid in the identification of elevations on these traits for diagnostic purposes. The goal of the current study was to use and evaluate multiple methods for establishing cutoff scores for the multi-informant questionnaire, the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU).Method: The present study compared the clinical utility of various proposed cutoff methods and scores (i.e., empirically derived cutoffs using receiver operating characteristic (ROC), normative cutoffs, and rational scoring approximations of LPE criteria) in both a longitudinal sample of justice-involved male adolescents (N = 1,216; Mage = 15.29, SD = 1.29) and a cross-sectional sample of school children (N = 289; Mage = 11.47 years; SD = 2.26).Results: Methods resulted in a range of cutoff scores with substantial diagnostic overlap and validity. Specifically, they designated justice-involved adolescents at risk for later delinquency, aggression, and rearrests, and they designated school children more likely to be rated by parents and teacher as having conduct problems and rated by peers as being rejected and mean.Conclusions: The results lead to ranges of ICU scores that have support for their validity and can help to guide clinical decisions about children and adolescents who may be elevated on CU traits.

3.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(10): 1952-1969, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272654

RESUMO

Although prior studies have identified several risk factors for gun carrying, no prior longitudinal studies have examined a comprehensive set of explanatory factors together in within-individual change models or examined whether the predictors of gun carrying change across adolescence and early young adulthood. The present study fills these gaps by examining the predictive utility of several risk factors for gun carrying, and by examining whether any of the associations vary by age. The sample included 1216 young men who were arrested for the first time during adolescence (approximately 15 years old) and interviewed regularly for 5 years (until approximately 20 years old) after the first arrest. The outcome was youth-self-reported gun carrying and the risk factors included several variables consistent with various explanations for gun carrying (psychosocial maturity deficits; antisocial behavioral style; socialization; victimization). Research questions were addressed with fixed effects dynamic panel models (within-individual change models). Results showed that the most robust predictors of gun carrying were increased exposure to guns and gun-related violence and increased engagement in other antisocial and illegal behavior. The results emphasize the specific etiology of gun carrying and the potential social contagion effect of gun-related events. Overall, the study points to the need for prevention and intervention programs to specifically target the reduction of the real and perceived prevalence of gun-related events in young men's lives.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Armas de Fogo , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Dev Psychopathol ; 33(2): 700-713, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955345

RESUMO

The current study advances past research by studying the impact of juvenile justice decision making with a geographically and ethnically diverse sample (N = 1,216) of adolescent boys (ages 13-17 years) for the 5 years following their first arrest. Importantly, all youth in the study were arrested for an eligible offense of moderate severity (e.g., assault, theft) to evaluate whether the initial decision to formally (i.e., sentenced before a judge) or informally (i.e., diverted to community service) process the youth led to differences in outcomes. The current study also advanced past research by using a statistical approach that controlled for a host of potential preexisting vulnerabilities that could influence both the processing decision and the youth's outcomes. Our findings indicated that youth who were formally processed during adolescence were more likely to be re-arrested, more likely to be incarcerated, engaged in more violence, reported a greater affiliation with delinquent peers, reported lower school enrollment, were less likely to graduate high school within 5 years, reported less ability to suppress aggression, and had lower perceptions of opportunities than informally processed youth. Importantly, these findings were not moderated by the age of the youth at his first arrest or his race and ethnicity. These results have important implications for juvenile justice policy by indicating that formally processing youth not only is costly, but it can reduce public safety and reduce the adolescent's later potential contributions to society.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Delinquência Juvenil , Adolescente , Agressão , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Violência
5.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 50(3): 353-366, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830838

RESUMO

Objective: To examine whether at-risk male youth experience increases in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and aggression during years when they are exposed to gun violence, adjusting for relevant covariates.Method: Participants were 1,216 male, justice-involved adolescents who were recently arrested for the first time for a moderate offense. They were interviewed 9 times over 5 years. Fixed effects (within-individual) regression models were used to estimate concurrent associations between exposure to gun violence and three outcomes: depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and aggression (both overall and separately for proactive and reactive aggression). The reverse direction (anxiety, depressive symptoms, and aggression predicting gun violence exposure) was also modeled.Results: After controlling for covariates, exposure to gun violence was significantly associated with increases in reactive aggression and, to a lesser extent, increases in proactive aggression. In addition, gun violence exposure was associated with increased anxiety but not depressive symptoms. We found no support for the reverse direction.Conclusions: At-risk males experienced significant increases in anxiety and aggression (particularly reactive aggression) during years when they are exposed to gun violence, even after accounting for several potential confounding factors. The greater impact on reactive aggression suggests that exposure to gun violence may affect self-regulation and/or social information processing. The analyses shed light on the less-visible damage wrought by gun violence and underscore the importance of mental health screening and treatment for youth who have been exposed to violence - especially gun violence - both to assist individual youths and to disrupt cycles of violence.

6.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(2): 212-222, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that callous-unemotional (CU) traits, a recent addition to psychiatric classification of serious conduct problems, may moderate the influence of a number of contextual factors (e.g., parenting, deviant peer influence) on an adolescent's adjustment. The current study sought to replicate past research showing that formal processing through the juvenile justice system increases recidivism and tested the novel hypothesis that CU traits would moderate the relationship between processing decision and future antisocial behavior. METHODS: A diverse sample of first-time male offenders (N = 1,216; M age = 15.12, SD = 1.29) in three regions of the United States was assessed within 6 weeks of their first arrest and then at 6-month intervals for 36 months. RESULTS: Compared to those who were informally processed (i.e., diverted), adolescents formally processed through the court were at a higher risk of self-reported offending and rearrests as measured by official records, after controlling for preexisting risk factors. However, baseline CU traits moderated this association such that those with high CU traits reported offending at high rates across the subsequent three years regardless of how the juvenile justice system processed their case. CONCLUSIONS: CU traits are important to psychiatric classification for designating a subgroup of antisocial youth who may respond differently to contextual influences, including being less susceptible to the negative effects of juvenile justice system involvement. The public health significance of this moderation is significant by suggesting that previous estimates of the harmful impact of formal processing by the juvenile justice system may underestimate its impact, given that the majority of arrested adolescents have normative levels of CU traits.

7.
Child Abuse Negl ; 116(Pt 1): 104147, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is over-represented among incarcerated girls and women. In order to inform effective methods of response, they represent a critical group for better understanding disclosure processes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to assess the CSA and CSA disclosure experiences of incarcerated female adolescents and young adults. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Participants were 94 serious female offenders, ages 15-24 (M = 18.72, SD = 1.94), incarcerated in a secure juvenile facility. METHOD: In one-on-one interviews, participants answered questions about abuse characteristics, whether they had previously disclosed, to whom they had disclosed and after how long, and reasons for prior disclosure or nondisclosure. RESULTS: Over half of the sample (51.8%,n = 44) reported experiencing CSA. Most individuals who reported a CSA history had previously disclosed (79.5%, n = 35), with approximately equal proportions claiming to disclose within one week (40%) and after a year or years (45.8%). However, 20.5% (n = 9) claimed that our study interview was their first disclosure. Several reasons for their disclosure patterns were endorsed: Most commonly feelings of shame or embarrassment prevented disclosure (56%) and no longer wanting to keep the abuse a secret motivated disclosure (44%). CONCLUSIONS: Although many incarcerated girls and women share a history of CSA, our results indicate that the abuse and disclosure experiences of incarcerated females are diverse. Understanding their disclosure patterns can inform mental health services, rehabilitation, and professional interviewing strategies that may facilitate disclosure (e.g., forensic interviews, facility intake interviews).

8.
J Res Adolesc ; 31(2): 317-334, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280192

RESUMO

Minority youth are disproportionately represented in the juvenile justice system. Examining how racial disparities relate to biased entry into and continued involvement with the system, while accounting for past and current offending, can provide context about the mechanisms behind overrepresentation. 1,216 adolescents were examined after first arrest to explore associations between race and history of self-reported offending, likelihood of formal processing, and likelihood of rearrest. Black youth committed fewer offenses prior to arrest than White youth, Black and Latino youth were more likely to be formally processed, and Black youth were most likely to be rearrested (even controlling for postbaseline offending), highlighting that minority youth are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system despite similar or lower levels of criminal behavior.

9.
J Res Adolesc ; 31(2): 282-298, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232554

RESUMO

Neighborhood disorder has been linked to perceptions of shorter life expectancies, and shorter life expectancies have been associated with greater risk-taking. Yet, no studies have combined these two pathways. Using data from the longitudinal Crossroads study, the present study assessed whether life expectancy mediates the association between neighborhood disorder and risk-taking-substance use, crime, and risky sex-among 1,093 justice-involved adolescents. Results indicate that neighborhood disorder was linked to lower estimated life expectancy which in turn related to higher rates of cigarette use, binge drinking, illicit drug use, offending, and casual sex. However, life expectancy did not explain the association between neighborhood disorder and marijuana use or inconsistent condom use.

10.
J Res Adolesc ; 31(2): 335-350, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314414

RESUMO

Extracurricular activities (ECAs) have been found to promote positive youth development and protect against misconduct and minor delinquency. However, little research has examined whether ECA participation predicts delinquency among at-risk young men or considered how delinquent behavior, in turn, impacts ECA participation. This study examined extracurricular participation over three years in a sample of 1,216 justice-involved young men (Mage  = 15.29). Approximately half of the sample participated in ECA each year. A cross-lagged panel model was used to examine the bidirectional association between ECA participation and two types of delinquency, school misconduct and criminal offending. The results suggest that ECA participation did not consistently predict subsequent delinquency. Rather, justice-involved young men who engaged in more delinquency were less likely to participate in ECAs.

11.
Am J Public Health ; 110(9): 1386-1392, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673115

RESUMO

Objectives. To determine the impact of California's recreational marijuana legalization on marijuana use among justice system-involved (JSI) adolescents and young adults, and to distinguish whether any changes resulted from legalization (passing the law) or from implementation of the law.Methods. We compared changes in JSI youths' marijuana use in 2 states: California (n = 504), where recreational marijuana use was recently legalized, and Pennsylvania (n = 478), where recreational use is still prohibited. Furthermore, we examined changes in marijuana use across 3 key time periods (October 2015-June 2018): before legalization, after legalization but before implementation, and after implementation.Results. California JSI youths did not demonstrate a significant increase in marijuana use after legalization (b = -0.010; P = .950) or implementation (b = -0.046; P = .846). However, in Pennsylvania, rates of marijuana use increased significantly after legalization (b = 0.602; P = .001) but not after implementation (b = 0.174; P = .533).Conclusions. Although recreational marijuana legalization was not associated with changes in marijuana use among youths in California, we observed increased rates of use in Pennsylvania after legalization in California. Recreational marijuana laws may be indirectly related to youths' marijuana use by supporting more permissive national attitudes toward marijuana.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , California/epidemiologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 827-833, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the addition of the "with limited prosocial emotions" specifier within the diagnosis of conduct disorder (DSM-5) and of conduct-dissocial disorder (ICD-11) to designate those with elevated callous-unemotional traits, the authors examined the role that callous-unemotional traits play in the risk for gun carrying and gun use during a crime in a sample at high risk for gun violence. METHODS: Male juvenile offenders (N=1,215) from three regions of the United States were assessed after their first arrest and then reassessed every 6 months for 36 months and again at 48 months. Callous-unemotional traits and peer gun carrying and ownership were measured via self-report after the first arrest (i.e., baseline). Gun carrying and use of a gun during a crime were self-reported at all follow-up points. RESULTS: Callous-unemotional traits at baseline increased the frequency of gun carrying and the likelihood of using a gun during a crime across the subsequent 4 years after accounting for other risk factors. Furthermore, callous-unemotional traits moderated the relationship between peer gun carrying and ownership and participant gun carrying, such that only participants low on callous-unemotional traits demonstrated increased gun carrying as a function of their peers' gun carrying and ownership. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the importance of considering callous-unemotional traits in gun violence research both because callous-unemotional traits increase gun carrying and use in adolescents and because the traits may moderate other key risk factors. Notably, the influence of peer gun carrying and ownership may have been underestimated in past research for the majority of adolescents by not considering the moderating influence of callous-unemotional traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtorno da Conduta , Emoções , Armas de Fogo , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Infuência dos Pares , Adolescente , Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Violência com Arma de Fogo/etnologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , Inventário de Personalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
13.
Law Hum Behav ; 44(2): 157-166, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study examined how mothers' personal characteristics, experience with, and attitudes toward the juvenile justice system are associated with their knowledge of the juvenile justice system over time. HYPOTHESES: We hypothesized that additional exposure to the system (via sons' rearrests) would be associated with greater legal knowledge. We predicted that White women, women with higher educational attainment, and women who had been arrested would experience greater gains in legal knowledge over time, relative to non-White women, women with lower educational attainment, and women who had not been arrested. Finally, we predicted that mothers' attitudes toward the legitimacy of the justice system would not be associated with their change in legal knowledge. METHOD: Mothers (N = 234) of male youth (majority non-White) completed a questionnaire of their knowledge about the juvenile justice system after their sons' 1st arrest (T1) and again 2.5 years later (T2). RESULTS: Knowledge did not improve over time, regardless of whether the youth was rearrested. Black mothers displayed less knowledge of the juvenile justice system when their sons were rearrested multiple times. Attitudes toward the justice system were not associated with legal knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: These results illustrate the importance of a family educational component to juvenile probation, especially as a vehicle to reduce disproportionate minority contact with the juvenile justice system. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Direito Penal/legislação & jurisprudência , Delinquência Juvenil/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães/psicologia , Reincidência/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Atitude , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estados Unidos
14.
Child Dev ; 91(1): e120-e133, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368784

RESUMO

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are a risk factor for severe and persistent patterns of juvenile delinquency. Given the influence of CU trait assessments in justice-system settings, it is important to determine whether the predictive utility of CU traits is conditional on the absence of protective psychosocial factors. Employing a sample of justice-involved male youth (N = 1,216, Mage  = 15.29), this study examined whether psychosocial maturity (PSM) outweighs or attenuates the effect of CU traits on delinquency. Results indicated that youth with high CU traits or low PSM offended more during the year following their first arrest. Additionally, PSM moderated the relation between CU traits and offending, such that higher PSM was associated with less offending but only among low CU youth.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criminosos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Adolescente , Regulação Emocional , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Res Adolesc ; 30 Suppl 2: 562-579, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983069

RESUMO

The current study evaluates two predictors of adolescent sexual risk-taking, specifically whether impulse control or future expectations predict condom use and casual sex. We examine whether risky sex occurs among youth who tend to act without thinking about the future, or instead, youth who report low future expectations. We consider these relations longitudinally among a sample of sexually active justice-involved adolescent males (N = 752, M age = 15.58) a group at heightened risk for sexual risk-taking. We found that optimistic expectations for the future predict a higher likelihood of engaging in consistent condom use, whereas high impulse control is related to a lower likelihood of casual sex. Implications for intervention and research on positive sexual health are discussed.


Assuntos
Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia
16.
Psychol Assess ; 32(3): 265-276, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697111

RESUMO

The current study tested whether a self-report measure of aggression (i.e., the Peer Conflict Scale; PCS) would predict later delinquency, after controlling for other risk factors, and tested whether the different forms and functions of aggression contributed independently to this prediction. Self-report of aggression was assessed at the time of first arrest, and both self-report of delinquency and official arrests were assessed at 5 different time points over a 30-month follow-up period in a sample of male adolescent offenders (N = 1,216; Mage = 15.12, SD = 1.29 years) arrested in 3 regions (i.e., western, southern, northeast) of the United States. Aggression predicted both later total and later violent self-reported delinquency (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.01, 1.02]), even after controlling for youths' self-reported lifetime history of delinquent acts and callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits) collected at initial arrest. Further, only self-reported aggression (but not lifetime delinquency and CU traits) contributed independently (OR = 1.02, 95% CI [1.00, 1.03]) to the prediction of arrests for violent offenses. Finally, the predictive utility of aggression was largely accounted for by physical and reactive aggression, with limited incremental prediction provided by relational and proactive aggression. These findings support the potential utility of self-reports of aggression, such as the PCS, when assessing risk for future violence. Findings also suggest that the utility of these self-reports of aggression cannot be solely accounted for by other risk factors often included in typical risk assessment tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Reincidência/psicologia , Autorrelato , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Reincidência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Law Hum Behav ; 44(6): 461-473, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Based on guiding principles such as parens patriae, juvenile probation officers (JPOs) not only supervise youth, but in certain jurisdictions they also decide how control-oriented their conditions will be. JPOs' perceptions of parenting could be related to their decision making. This study examined: (a) whether JPOs' perceptions of the home were associated with the conditions they placed on youth; (b) if JPOs' perceptions of the home aligned with the youths' perceptions; and (c) if JPOs' control-oriented conditions were associated with changes in parenting practices. HYPOTHESES: (H1) JPOs' perceptions of the home should be positively related to youths' perceptions of parenting practices. (H2) JPOs' perceptions of the home should be positively associated with the conditions imposed. (H3) JPOs' control-oriented conditions may be positively associated with increased parental supervision, yet they may also be associated with lessened parental supervision. METHOD: The sample consisted of 265 male youth (mean age = 15.41; 76.6% Latino, 19.25% White, 0.75% Black) who were arrested for the first time and placed on supervised diversion. RESULTS: Latent class analyses indicated that there were three supervision conditions classes: standard, moderate, and high control. JPOs' perceptions of the home did not align with youths' perceptions of parenting practices (e.g., rule setting, curfew setting, and monitoring) yet they were the strongest predictor of receiving the most control-oriented conditions. Surprisingly, parental rule setting, curfew setting, and monitoring declined once youth were placed under supervision, and declines did not differ based on how control-oriented their official conditions were. CONCLUSIONS: Parents are thought to be vital in justice-involved youths' success. Yet within this sample, officers' perceptions of the family did not align with youths' perceptions. Further, parental supervision declined equally regardless of how control-oriented youths' supervision conditions were. Parents must be better integrated into the process to enhance the success of youth on community supervision. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Delinquência Juvenil/prevenção & controle , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Polícia/psicologia , Adolescente , California , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Papel (figurativo) , Autorrelato
18.
Psychol Public Policy Law ; 25(1): 38-45, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749600

RESUMO

Juvenile justice facilities can be dangerous places for adolescents and may promote violent behavior among incarcerated youth. With high rates of violence among detained juveniles, youth who do not feel safe may resort to violent behavior to protect themselves. However, this "cycle of violence" may be interrupted if youth can turn to correctional staff for support. Using a 3-wave, longitudinal sample of 373 male incarcerated adolescents, the results indicated that as compared to violence exposure prior to incarceration, exposure to institutional violence more strongly predicts violent behavior. Further, the findings indicated that perceptions of staff serve as a buffer to violence exposure and may interrupt the cycle of violence. Policy implications are discussed.

19.
Law Hum Behav ; 43(4): 342-357, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282708

RESUMO

This study examined the extent to which being arrested during adolescence was associated with subsequent self-reported offending and court-recorded arrests. We also examined whether the way in which the justice system processed adolescents was related to the nature of these associations. The sample included 532 boys who had been arrested ("justice-system-involved") and 99 boys who had never been arrested despite engaging in similar illegal behaviors ("no-justice-system-contact"). Data included official arrest records and youths' self-reported illegal behavior at a baseline interview and a follow-up 6 months later. To reduce group differences at baseline, we calculated matching weights with 2 dozen variables and used these weights in all analyses. Results demonstrated that the groups differed in their rate of change in self-reported offending between the 2 interviews and in their likelihood of being arrested during the study period. The no-justice-system-contact group self-reported the same amount of offending at baseline and the follow up, whereas the justice-system-involved youth who received the most lenient disposition (i.e., sanction and dismiss) decreased their self-reported violent, theft or property, and total offending, and the justice-system-involved youth who received the most punitive disposition (i.e., adjudication) increased their self-reported violent offending. All justice-system-involved youth were more likely to be arrested during the study period than the no-justice-system-contact youth, even after accounting for self-reported offending. Thus, even though some justice system interventions were associated with less subsequent offending, involvement with the juvenile justice system during adolescence, in and of itself, is a significant risk factor for repeated contact with the system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Aplicação da Lei , Reincidência/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , California , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Dev Psychol ; 55(8): 1758-1767, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219268

RESUMO

It is widely believed that there is a crisis of confidence in law enforcement in the United States. What remains to be seen, however, is whether adolescents actually differentiate between legal authorities and other types of authorities. Leveraging cross-sectional, nationally representative data of 12th graders from every year from 2006 to 2017 from Monitoring the Future (N = 10,941), the results indicate that adolescents distinguish between legal authorities (e.g., law enforcement, justice system) and social authorities (e.g., schools, religious institutions). Youth report more confidence in social authorities than in legal authorities. Furthermore, whereas confidence in social authorities remained largely stable between the cohorts over the last decade, confidence in legal authorities, and in law enforcement in particular, has declined markedly. Although there may be an era of mistrust in legal authorities, it cannot be attributed to a ubiquitous anti-authority attitude among modern adolescents in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atitude , Direito Penal/legislação & jurisprudência , Aplicação da Lei , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
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