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2.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 63(2): 183-189, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Researchers are searching in vain for a coherent genetic explanation for serrated polyposis. We hypothesize that there is no consistent monogenetic inheritance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the serrated polyposis phenotype, assessing features of mendelian inheritance, and to compare these features with patients with a solitary sessile serrated lesion. DESIGN: This was a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database comparing patients with serrated polyposis versus solitary sessile serrated lesions. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a single-institution tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Patients with serrated polyposis meeting World Health Organization criteria type I (≥5 serrated polyps proximal to the sigmoid, ≥2 of which are ≥10 mm in diameter) and isolated sessile serrated lesions were included MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Disease phenotype was the main outcome measured. RESULTS: A total of 46 serrated polyposis patients were identified. Median age of first sessile serrated lesion was 66 years (interquartile range, 42-70 y). A total of 60.3% were current or past smokers (mean = 38.6 packs per year). Serrated polyposis patients had a higher number of all types of polyps (26.3 vs 4.4) and a higher rate of high-grade dysplasia (19.6% vs 3.7%) compared with patients with a solitary sessile serrated lesion. A total of 36.2% of patients had personal history of noncolorectal cancers, including skin, prostate, breast, thyroid, and renal cell cancers and leukemia. In addition, 32.6% had a family history of colorectal cancer in first- or second-degree relatives; these cancers were not young age of onset. Breast and prostate cancers were also common (family history of any cancer, 83.0%). Ten patients underwent genetic testing: 4 had negative panels, 1 had a pathogenic variant in MSH2, 1 an IVS7 deletion in PTEN, 2 negative APC sequencing (1 negative MYH), and 1 a pathogenic variant in Chek2. LIMITATIONS: RNF4 was not sequenced. Genetic analysis was performed on a subset of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of associated cancers suggests an underlying genetic predisposition to disordered growth, but serrated polyposis does not have typical features of dominant inheritance. The association with smoking suggests that familial/environmental factors play a role. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B84. POLIPOSIS SERRADA SÉSIL: ¿NO ES UN SÍNDROME HEREDITARIO?: Los investigadores están buscando en vano una explicación genética coherente para la póliposis serrados. Suponemos que no existe una herencia monogenética consistente.1) Describir el fenotipo de póliposis serrada, evaluando las características de la herencia mendeliana, 2) comparar estas características con pacientes con una lesión serrada sésil solitaria.Revisión retrospectiva de una base de datos mantenida prospectivamente que compara pacientes con póliposis serrada versus lesiones serradas sésiles solitarias.Institución única, centro de referencia terciario.Pacientes con póliposis serrada que cumplen con los Criterios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud Tipo I (≥ 5 pólipos serrados proximales al sigmoideo, ≥2 de los cuales tienen ≥10 mm de diámetro) y lesiones serradas sésiles aisladas.Fenotipo de la enfermedad.Se identificaron un total de 46 pacientes con póliposis serrada. La edad mediana de la primera lesión serrada sésil fue de 66 años (RIC: 42-70 años). El 60.3% eran fumadores actuales o pasados (medio 38.6 paquetes / año). Los pacientes con póliposis serrada tuvieron un mayor número de todos los tipos de pólipos (26.3 versus 4.4) y una mayor tasa de displasia de alto grado (19.6% versus 3.7%) en comparación con los pacientes con una lesión serrada sésil solitaria. El 36.2% de los pacientes tenían antecedentes personales de cánceres no colorectales, incluyendo los cánceres de piel, próstata, mama, tiroides, células renales y leucemia. El 32.6% tenía antecedentes familiares de cáncer colorectal en familiares de primer o segundo grado; estos cánceres no eran de inicio de edad temprana. El cáncer de mama y próstata también fue frecuente (antecedentes familiares de cualquier tipo de cáncer: 83.0%). 10 pacientes se sometieron a pruebas genéticas: 4 tenían paneles negativos, 1 tenía una variante patogénica en MSH2, 1 una eliminación IVS7 en PTEN, 2 secuenciación APC negativa (1 MYH negativa) y 1 variante patogénica en Chek2.RNF4 no fue secuenciado. El análisis genético se realizó en un subconjunto de pacientes.La tasa de cánceres asociados sugiere una predisposición genética subyacente al crecimiento desordenado, pero la póliposis serrada no tiene características típicas de herencia dominante. La asociación con el tabaquismo sugiere que los factores familiares / ambientales juegan un papel. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B84. (Traducción-Dr. Yesenia Rojas-Khalil).


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
3.
J Palliat Med ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718398

RESUMO

The addition of a do-not-operate (DNO) section to current medical orders for life-sustaining treatment (MOLST) and physician orders for life-sustaining treatment (POLST) medical order forms would more completely document patients' wishes for invasive interventions at the end of life. We propose a modification of the MOLST and POLST forms, in addition to hospital and electronic medical records, to include a DNO section, in addition to preexisting do-not-resuscitate (DNR) and do-not-intubate (DNI) orders, with the goal of reducing suffering from nonbeneficial surgical interventions in patients with severe illness at the end of life.

4.
Gastric Cancer ; 22(3): 446-455, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of gastric cancer patients is better in Asia than in the West. Genetic, environmental, and treatment factors have all been implicated. We sought to explore the extent to which the place of birth and the place of treatment influences survival outcomes in Korean and US patients with localized gastric cancer. METHODS: Patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma undergoing potentially curative gastrectomy from 1989 to 2010 were identified from the SEER registry and two single institution databases from the US and Korea. Patients were categorized into three groups: Koreans born/treated in Korea (KK), Koreans born in Korea/treated in the US (KUS), and White Americans born/treated in the US (W), and disease-specific survival rates compared. RESULTS: We identified 16,622 patients: 3,984 (24.0%) KK, 1,046 (6.3%) KUS, and 11,592 (69.7%) W patients. KK patients had longer unadjusted median (not reached) and 5-year disease-specific survival (81.6%) rates than KUS (87 months, 55.9%) and W (35 months, 39.2%; p < 0.001 for all comparisons) patients. This finding persisted on subset analyses of patients with stage IA tumors, without cardia/GEJ tumors, with > 15 examined lymph nodes, and treated at a US center of excellence. On multivariable analysis, KUS (HR 2.80, p < 0.001) and W (HR 5.79, p < 0.001) patients had an increased risk of mortality compared to KK patients. CONCLUSIONS: Both the place of birth and the place of treatment significantly contribute to the improved prognosis of patients with gastric cancer in Korea relative to those in the US, implicating both nature and nurture in this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastrectomia/mortalidade , Excisão de Linfonodo/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , República da Coreia , Programa de SEER , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
5.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(1): 63-70, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with fecal incontinence report coexisting constipation. This subset of patients has not been well characterized or understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the frequency of fecal incontinence with concurrent constipation and to compare quality-of-life outcomes of patients with fecal incontinence with and without constipation. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. Survey data, including Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, Constipation Severity Instrument, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life survey (categorized as lifestyle, coping, depression, and embarrassment), Pelvic Organ Prolapse Inventory and Urinary Distress Inventory surveys, and anorectal physiology testing were obtained. SETTINGS: The study was conducted as a single-institution study from January 2007 to January 2017. PATIENTS: Study patients had fecal incontinence presented to a tertiary pelvic floor center. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quality-of-life survey findings were measured. RESULTS: A total of 946 patients with fecal incontinence were identified, and 656 (69.3%) had coexisting constipation. Patients with fecal incontinence with constipation were less likely to report a history of pregnancy (89.2% vs 91.4%; p = 0.001) or complicated delivery, such as requiring instrumentation (9.1% vs 18.1%; p = 0.005), when compared with patients with isolated fecal incontinence. Patients with fecal incontinence with constipation had higher rates of coexisting pelvic organ prolapse (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Inventory: 18.4 vs 8.2; p < 0.01), higher rates of urinary incontinence (Urinary Distress Inventory: 30.2 vs 23.4; p = 0.01), and higher pressure findings on manometry; intussusception on defecography was common. Patients with fecal incontinence with concurrent constipation had less severe incontinence scores at presentation (21.0 vs 23.8; p < 0.001) and yet lower overall health satisfaction (28.9% vs 42.5%; p < 0.001). Quality-of-life scores declined as constipation severity increased for lifestyle, coping, depression, and embarrassment. LIMITATIONS: This was a single-institution study, and surgeon preference could bias population and anorectal physiology testing. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with fecal incontinence with concurrent constipation represent a different disease phenotype and have different clinical and anorectal physiology test findings and worse overall quality of life. Treatment of these patients requires careful consideration of prolapse pathology with coordinated treatment of coexisting disorders. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A783.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Incontinência Fecal/complicações , Incontinência Fecal/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Incontinência Fecal/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(1): 71-78, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines accept partial colectomy and primary anastomosis with proximal diversion for select patients with perforated diverticulitis based on low-quality evidence. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effect of operative approach and surgeon training on outcomes following urgent/emergent colectomy for diverticulitis. DESIGN: This is a statewide retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Data were obtained from the New York State all-payer sample from 2000 to 2014. PATIENTS: All patients who underwent an urgent/emergent sigmoid colectomy for diverticulitis with creation of an end colostomy or primary anastomosis with proximal diversion were included. We excluded all patients age <18 years, with IBD, colorectal cancer, ischemic colitis, or elective operations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcomes measured were postoperative in-hospital mortality and complications, RESULTS:: A total of 10,780 patients underwent urgent/emergent colectomy for diverticulitis: 10,600 (98.3%) received a Hartmann procedure and 180 (1.7%) received primary anastomosis with proximal diversion. Colorectal surgeons performed 6.0% of all operations. Utilization of primary anastomosis with proximal diversion was greater among colorectal surgeons but remained low overall (4.2% vs 1.5%; p < 0.001). Postoperative mortality was 2-fold greater when noncolorectal surgeons performed primary anastomosis vs Hartmann procedure (15% vs 7.4%; p < 0.001) and 1.4 times greater among noncolorectal surgeons than among colorectal surgeons (7.5% vs 5.3%; p = 0.04). On multivariable logistic regression (adjusting for patient demographics/characteristics, year, hospital academic status, and surgeon training) primary anastomosis with proximal diversion remained associated with increased mortality (OR, 2.7; 95% CI,1.7-4.4; p < 0.001), complications (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.5; p < 0.001), and reoperation (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8-6.3; p < 0.001), whereas colorectal board certification was associated with decreased mortality (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.95; p = 0.03). LIMITATIONS: Selection bias secondary to retrospective nature and absence of disease severity were limitations of this study. CONCLUSIONS: Despite current recommendations for primary anastomosis with proximal diversion for perforated diverticulitis, this operation in New York State was associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality when performed by general surgeons. Given that the majority of urgent/emergent colectomies for diverticulitis are not performed by colorectal surgeons, guidelines for operative management of perforated diverticulitis should be reevaluated. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A772.


Assuntos
Colectomia/métodos , Cirurgia Colorretal/educação , Doença Diverticular do Colo/cirurgia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colectomia/educação , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ann Surg ; 270(6): 1124-1130, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Create and validate diverticulitis surgical site infection prediction scale. BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections cause significant morbidity after colorectal surgery. An infection prediction scale could target infection prevention bundles to high-risk patients. METHODS: Prospectively collected National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and electronic medical record data obtained on diverticulitis colectomy patients across a Healthcare Network-wide Colorectal Surgery Collaborative (5 hospitals). Patients with and without surgical site infections were compared. Predictive variables were identified using logistic regression model; model estimates obtained through 1000 bootstrap replications for scale validation. RESULTS: A total of 1737 colectomies were performed (2010-2016): mean age 59.9 years (SD 12.7), 56.4% female; 93.4% Caucasian; smokers 16.3%, diabetics 7.7%, steroid use 6.0%. Two hundred thirty-one (13.3%) were presented to operating room emergently and 138 (7.9%) with abscess at time of disease admission. Two hundred ninety-six patients underwent Hartman procedures, and 113 (6.5%) received diverted primary anastomosis. Average length of stay was 6.9 days (standard deviation 7.01), 30-day mortality was 1.5%, anastomotic leak rate was 3.1%. Twenty-one percent of patients (n = 366) developed a surgical site infection. Several predictors for infection were identified: obesity (body mass index >30), advanced age (>70 years), diabetes mellitus, preoperative abscess, open surgery, emergent operations, and prolonged operations (>3 h). Creation of protected anastomosis in emergent settings was associated with increased infection rates. Presence of more than 5 risk factors was associated with infection rates of 45.8% (c = 0.69). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diverticulitis have high surgical site infection rates due to nonmodifiable risk factors. Our Prediction and Enaction of Prevention Treatments Trigger scale can risk stratify patients for targeting surgical site infection prevention bundles and outcomes risk adjustments.

9.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 61(5): 586-592, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that urgent colectomy and primary anastomosis with diversion is safe for perforated diverticulitis. Current guidelines support this approach. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the use of urgent or emergent primary anastomosis with diversion in diverticulitis before the 2014 American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons guidelines and compare national outcomes of primary anastomosis with diversion to the Hartmann procedure. DESIGN: This was a national retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted with a national all-payer US sample from 1998 to 2011. PATIENTS: Patients included those admitted and treated with urgent or emergent colectomy for diverticulitis. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, concurrent diagnosis of colorectal cancer or IBD, no fecal diversion performed, and operations >24 hours after admission. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-hospital mortality was measured. RESULTS: A total of 124,198 patients underwent emergent or urgent colectomy for acute diverticulitis; 67,721 underwent concurrent fecal diversion, including 65,084 (96.1%) who underwent end colostomy and 2637 (3.9%) who underwent anastomosis with ileostomy. The rate of primary anastomosis with diverting ileostomy increased from 30 to 60 diverting ileostomy cases per 1000 operative diverticulitis cases in 1998 versus 2011 (incidence rate ratio = 2.04 (95% CI, 1.70-2.50). However, overall use remained low, with >90% of patients undergoing end colostomy. Complication rates were higher (32.1% vs 23.3%; p < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality rates were higher (16.0% vs 6.4%; p < 0.001) for primary anastomosis with diversion patients compared with end colostomy. These findings were consistent on multivariable logistic regression. Other factors that contributed to in-hospital mortality included increasing age, increasing comorbid disease burden, and socioeconomic status. LIMITATIONS: Billing data can be inaccurate or biased because of nonmedically trained professional data entry. Selection bias could have affected the results of this retrospective study. CONCLUSIONS: The use of primary anastomosis with proximal diversion for urgent colectomy in diverticulitis increased over our study period; however, overall use remained low. Poor national outcomes after primary anastomosis with proximal diversion might affect compliance with new guidelines. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A600.


Assuntos
Colectomia/métodos , Colo/cirurgia , Diverticulite/cirurgia , Emergências , Doenças do Íleo/cirurgia , Ileostomia/métodos , Íleo/cirurgia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colostomia/métodos , Diverticulite/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Doenças do Íleo/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Surg ; 267(4): 692-699, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare survival, readmissions, and end-of-life care after palliative procedures compared with medical management for malignancy-associated bowel obstruction (MBO). BACKGROUND: MBO is a late complication of intra-abdominal malignancy for which surgeons are frequently consulted. Decisions about palliative treatments, which include medical management, surgery, or venting gastrostomy tube (VGT), are hampered by the paucity of outcomes data relevant to patients approaching the end of life. METHODS: Retrospective study using 2001 to 2012 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data of patients 65 years or older with stage IV ovarian or pancreatic cancer who were hospitalized for MBO. Multivariate competing-risks regression models were used to compare the following outcomes: survival, readmission for MBO, hospice enrollment, intensive care unit (ICU) care in the last days of life, and location of death in an acute care hospital. RESULTS: Median survival after MBO admission was 76 days (interquartile range 26-319 days). Survival was shorter after VGT [38 days (interquartile range 23-69)] than medical management [72 days (23-312)] or surgery [128 days (42-483)]. As compared to medical management, patients treated with VGT had fewer readmissions [subdistribution hazard ratio 0.41 (0.29-0.58)], increased hospice enrollment [1.65 (1.42-1.91)], and less ICU care [0.69 (0.52-0.93)] and in-hospital death [0.47 (0.36-0.63)]. Surgery was associated with fewer readmissions [0.69 (0.59-0.80)], decreased hospice enrollment [0.84 (0.76-0.92)], and higher likelihood of ICU care [1.38 (1.17-1.64)]. CONCLUSIONS: VGT is associated with fewer readmissions and lower intensity healthcare utilization at the end of life than do medical management or surgery. Given the limited survival, regardless of management, hospitalization with MBO carries prognostic significance and presents a critical opportunity to identify patients' priorities for end-of-life care.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/complicações , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Gastrostomia , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/mortalidade , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Masculino , Medicare , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Surg Educ ; 75(3): 702-721, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite caring for patients near the end-of-life (EOL), surgeons and anesthesiologists report low confidence in their ability to facilitate EOL conversations. This discrepancy exists despite competency requirements and professional medical society recommendations. The objective of this systematic review is to identify articles describing EOL communication training available to surgeons and anesthesiologists, and to assess their methodological rigor to inform future curricular design and evaluation. METHODS: This PRISMA-concordant systematic review identified English-language articles from PubMed, EMBASE, and manual review. Eligible articles included viewpoint pieces, and observational, qualitative, or case studies that featured an educational intervention for surgeons or anesthesiologists on EOL communication skills. Data on the study objective, setting, design, participants, intervention, and results were extracted and analyzed. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess methodological quality. RESULTS: Database and manual search returned 2710 articles. A total of 2268 studies were screened by title and abstract, 46 reviewed in full-text, and 16 included in the final analysis. Fifteen studies were conducted exclusively in academic hospitals. Two studies included attending surgeons as participants; all others featured residents, fellows, or a mix thereof. Fifteen studies used simulated role-playing to teach and assess EOL communication skills. Measured outcomes included knowledge, attitudes, confidence, self-rated or observer-rated communication skills, and curriculum feedback; significance of results varied widely. Most studies lacked adequate methodological quality and appropriate control groups to be confident about the significance and applicability of their results. CONCLUSIONS: There are few quality studies evaluating EOL communication training for surgeons and anesthesiologists. These programs frequently use role-playing to teach and assess EOL communication skills. More studies are needed to evaluate the effect of these interventions on patient outcomes. However, evaluating the effectiveness of these initiatives poses methodological challenges.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/educação , Comunicação , Relações Médico-Paciente , Cirurgiões/educação , Assistência Terminal/organização & administração , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Educacionais
12.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 125(5): 332-340, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating epithelioid cells (CECs), also known as circulating tumor, circulating cancer, circulating epithelial, or circulating nonhematologic cells, are a prognostic factor in various malignancies that can be isolated via various protocols. In the current study, the authors analyzed the cytomorphologic characteristics of CECs isolated by size in a cohort of patients with benign and malignant pancreatic diseases to determine whether cytomorphological features could predict CEC origin. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 9 healthy controls and 171 patients with pancreatic disease who were presenting for surgical evaluation before treatment. Blood was processed with the ScreenCell size-based filtration device. Evaluable CECs were analyzed in a blinded fashion for cytomorphologic characteristics, including cellularity; nucleoli; nuclear size, irregularity, variability, and hyperchromasia; and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. Statistical differences between variables were analyzed via the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: No CECs were identified among the 9 normal healthy controls. Of the 115 patients with CECs (positive or suspicious for), 25 had nonmalignant disease and 90 had malignancy. There were no significant differences in any of the cytologic criteria noted between groups divided by benign versus malignant, neoplastic versus nonneoplastic, or pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma versus neuroendocrine tumor. CONCLUSIONS: CECs were observed in patients with malignant and nonmalignant pancreatic disease, but not in healthy controls. There were no morphologic differences observed between cells from different pancreatic diseases, suggesting that numerous conditions may be associated with CECs in the circulation and that care must be taken not to overinterpret cells identified by cytomorphology as indicative of circulating tumor cells of pancreatic cancer. Additional studies are required to determine the origin and clinical significance of these cells. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:332-340. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenoma/patologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/patologia , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenoma/sangue , Ampola Hepatopancreática/patologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colangiocarcinoma/sangue , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/sangue , Cistadenoma Seroso/sangue , Cistadenoma Seroso/patologia , Cisto Epidérmico , Humanos , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/sangue , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/sangue , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Pancreatopatias/sangue , Pancreatopatias/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Pancreatite Crônica/sangue , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Prognóstico , Esplenopatias
13.
Ann Surg ; 265(4): 702-708, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28267693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe national trends and outcomes of in-hospital postoperative opioid overdose (OD) and identify predictors of postoperative OD. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In 2000, the Joint Commission recommended making pain the 5th vital sign, increasing the focus on postoperative pain control. However, the benefits of pain management must be weighed against the potentially lethal risk of opioid OD. METHODS: This is a retrospective multi-institutional cohort study of patients undergoing 1 of 6 major elective inpatient operation from 2002 to 2011 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, an approximately 20% representative sample of all United States hospital admissions. Patients with postoperative OD were identified using ICD-9 codes for poisoning from opioids or adverse effects from opioids. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors. RESULTS: Among 11,317,958 patients, 9458 (0.1%) had a postoperative OD; this frequency doubled over the study period from 0.6 to 1.1 overdoses per 1000 cases. Patients with postoperative OD died more frequently during their hospitalization (1.7% vs 0.4%, P < 0.001). Substance abuse history was the strongest predictor of OD (odds ratio = 14.8; 95% confidence interval: 12.7-17.2). Gender, age, income, geographic location, operation type, and certain comorbid diseases also predicted OD (P < 0.05). Hospital variables, including teaching status, size, and urban/rural location, did not predict postoperative OD. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative OD is a rare, but potentially lethal complication, with increasing incidence. Postoperative monitoring and treatment safety interventions should be thoughtfully employed to target high-risk patients and avoid this potentially fatal complication.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 60(1): 96-106, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27926563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two systems measure surgical site infection rates following colorectal surgeries: the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services pay-for-performance initiatives use National Healthcare Safety Network data for hospital comparisons. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare database concordance. DESIGN: This is a multi-institution cohort study of systemwide Colorectal Surgery Collaborative. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program requires rigorous, standardized data capture techniques; National Healthcare Safety Network allows 5 data capture techniques. Standardized surgical site infection rates were compared between databases. The Cohen κ-coefficient was calculated. SETTING: This study was conducted at Boston-area hospitals. PATIENTS: National Healthcare Safety Network or National Surgical Quality Improvement Program patients undergoing colorectal surgery were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardized surgical site infection rates were the primary outcomes of interest. RESULTS: Thirty-day surgical site infection rates of 3547 (National Surgical Quality Improvement Program) vs 5179 (National Healthcare Safety Network) colorectal procedures (2012-2014). Discrepancies appeared: National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database of hospital 1 (N = 1480 patients) routinely found surgical site infection rates of approximately 10%, routinely deemed rate "exemplary" or "as expected" (100%). National Healthcare Safety Network data from the same hospital and time period (N = 1881) revealed a similar overall surgical site infection rate (10%), but standardized rates were deemed "worse than national average" 80% of the time. Overall, hospitals using less rigorous capture methods had improved surgical site infection rates for National Healthcare Safety Network compared with standardized National Surgical Quality Improvement Program reports. The correlation coefficient between standardized infection rates was 0.03 (p = 0.88). During 25 site-time period observations, National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and National Healthcare Safety Network data matched for 52% of observations (13/25). κ = 0.10 (95% CI, -0.1366 to 0.3402; p = 0.403), indicating poor agreement. LIMITATIONS: This study investigated hospitals located in the Northeastern United States only. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services-mandated National Healthcare Safety Network infection surveillance methodology leads to unreliable results, which is apparent when these results are compared with standardized data. High-quality data would improve care quality and compare outcomes among institutions.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Colectomia , Colostomia , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Ileostomia , Laparoscopia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reembolso de Incentivo , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
16.
J Palliat Med ; 19(5): 529-37, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27105058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical decisions for seriously ill older patients with surgical emergencies are highly complex. Measuring the benefits of burdensome treatments in this context is fraught with uncertainty. Little is known about how surgeons formulate treatment decisions to avoid nonbeneficial surgery, or engage in preoperative conversations about end-of-life (EOL) care. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe how surgeons approach such discussions, and to identify modifiable factors to reduce nonbeneficial surgery near the EOL. DESIGN: Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit a national sample of emergency general surgeons. Semistructured interviews were conducted between February and May 2014. MEASUREMENTS: Three independent coders performed qualitative coding using NVivo software (NVivo version 10.0, QSR International). Content analysis was used to identify factors important to surgical decision making and EOL communication. RESULTS: Twenty-four surgeons were interviewed. Participants felt responsible for conducting EOL conversations with seriously ill older patients and their families before surgery to prevent nonbeneficial treatments. However, wide differences in prognostic estimates among surgeons, inadequate data about postoperative quality of life (QOL), patients and surrogates who were unprepared for EOL conversations, variation in perceptions about the role of palliative care, and time constraints are contributors to surgeons providing nonbeneficial operations. Surgeons reported performing operations they knew would not benefit the patient to give the family time to come to terms with the patient's demise. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency general surgeons feel responsible for having preoperative discussions about EOL care with seriously ill older patients to avoid nonbenefical surgery. However, surgeons identified multiple factors that undermine adequate communication and lead to nonbeneficial surgery.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Emergências , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Cirurgiões , Assistência Terminal
17.
Ann Surg ; 263(1): 1-6, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26649587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address the need for improved communication practices to facilitate goal-concordant care in seriously ill, older patients with surgical emergencies. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Improved communication is increasingly recognized as a central element in providing goal-concordant care and reducing health care utilization and costs among seriously ill older patients. Given high rates of surgery in the last weeks of life, high risk of poor outcomes after emergency operations in these patients, and barriers to quality communication in the acute setting, we sought to create a framework to support surgeons in communicating with seriously ill, older patients with surgical emergencies. METHODS: An interdisciplinary panel of 23 national leaders was convened for a 1-day conference at Harvard Medical School to provide input on concept, content, format, and usability of a communication framework. A prototype framework was created. RESULTS: Participants supported the concept of a structured approach to communication in these scenarios, and delineated 9 key elements of a framework: (1) formulating prognosis, (2) creating a personal connection, (3) disclosing information regarding the acute problem in the context of the underlying illness, (4) establishing a shared understanding of the patient's condition, (5) allowing silence and dealing with emotion, (6) describing surgical and palliative treatment options, (7) eliciting patient's goals and priorities, (8) making a treatment recommendation, and (9) affirming ongoing support for the patient and family. CONCLUSIONS: Communication with seriously ill patients in the acute setting is difficult. The proposed communication framework may assist surgeons in delivering goal-concordant care for high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Tratamento de Emergência/normas , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 79(3): 399-406, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing emphasis on the appropriateness and quality of acute surgical care for patients with serious illness and at the end of life. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding outcomes after emergent major abdominal surgery among patients with advanced cancer to guide treatment decisions. This analysis sought to characterize adverse outcomes (mortality, complications, institutional discharge) and to identify factors independently associated with 30-day mortality among patients with disseminated cancer who undergo emergent abdominal surgery for intestinal obstruction or perforation. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 875 disseminated cancer patients undergoing emergency surgery for perforation (n = 499) or obstruction (n = 376) at hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 2005 to 2012. Predictors of 30-day mortality were identified using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Among patients who underwent surgery for perforation, 30-day mortality was 34%, 67% had complications, and 52% were discharged to an institution. Renal failure, septic shock, ascites, dyspnea at rest, and dependent functional status were independent preoperative predictors of death at 30 days. When complications were considered, postoperative respiratory complications and age (75-84 years) were also predictors of mortality.Patients who had surgery for obstruction had a 30-day mortality rate of 18% (n = 68), 41% had complications, and 60% were discharged to an institution. Dependent functional status and ascites were independent predictors of death at 30 days. In addition to these predictors, postoperative predictors of mortality included respiratory and cardiac complications. Few patients (4%) had do-not-resuscitate orders before surgery. CONCLUSION: Emergency abdominal operations in patients with disseminated cancer are highly morbid, and many patients die soon after surgery. High rates of complications and low rates of preexisting do-not-resuscitate orders highlight the need for targeted interventions to reduce complications and integrate palliative approaches into the care of these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III; therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Emergências , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Neoplasias/complicações , Cuidados Paliativos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/mortalidade , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Perfuração Intestinal/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Am Coll Surg ; 221(3): 699-707, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26209458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating epithelial cell (CEC) isolation has provided diagnostic and prognostic information for a variety of cancers, previously supporting their identity as circulating tumor cells in the literature. However, we report CEC findings in patients with benign, premalignant, and malignant pancreatic lesions using a size-selective filtration device. STUDY DESIGN: Peripheral blood samples were drawn from patients found to have pancreatic lesions on preoperative imaging at a surgical clinic. Blood was filtered using ScreenCell devices, which were evaluated microscopically by a pancreatic cytopathologist. Pathologic data and clinical outcomes of these patients were obtained from medical records during a 1-year follow-up period. RESULTS: Nine healthy volunteers formed the control group and were found to be negative for CECs. There were 179 patients with pancreatic lesions that formed the study cohort. Circulating epithelial cells were morphologically similar in patients with a variety of pancreatic lesions. Specifically, CECs were identified in 51 of 105 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (49%), 7 of 11 neuroendocrine tumors (64%), 13 of 21 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (62%), and 6 of 13 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Rates of CEC identification were similar in patients with benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions (p = 0.41). In addition, CEC findings in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients were not associated with poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although CECs were not identified in healthy volunteers, they were identified in patients with benign, premalignant, and malignant pancreatic lesions. The presence of CECs in patients presenting with pancreatic lesions is neither diagnostic of malignancy nor prognostic for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatopatias/sangue , Pancreatopatias/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
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