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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 25(4): 322-327, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013656

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Studies of association between obesity and genetic factors have demonstrated a significant contribution of polymorphisms related to body fat distribution and subclinical inflammatory process. Objective: To investigate the association between genotypes of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene and indicators of adiposity, inflammatory markers, metabolic parameters and parameters of physical fitness in overweight adolescents. Methods: A total of 44 male and female adolescents, aged between 13 and 17 years, with positive clinical diagnosis of overweight, were divided into two groups according to the Gln27Glu polymorphism genotypes of the ADRB2 gene: a) Group of carriers of the 27Glu allele (Gln27Glu/Glu27Glu) (n = 22); b) Group of non-carriers of the 27Glu allele (Gln27Gln) (n = 22). Both groups were evaluated for body composition, sexual maturation, cardiorespiratory fitness variables and indicators of muscle strength. Basal glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and inflammatory profile were measured. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposities were evaluated by ultrasonography. Genotyping of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene was performed by the Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Results: The genotype frequency found was: Gln/Gln (n = 22) (50.0%), Gln/Glu (n = 18) (41.0%) and Glu/Glu (n = 4) %). The frequency of the 27Glu allele was 29.5%. The group of adolescent carriers of the 27Glu allele of the ADRB2 gene presented higher mean adiposity indicators (abdominal circumference, trunk fat mass and visceral fat), as well as lower IL-10 concentrations when compared to non-carriers. Conclusions: The 27Glu allele was associated with adiposity indicators in overweight adolescents, while subcutaneous abdominal fat exhibited an inverse relationship with inflammatory variables and maximum oxygen uptake, which may result in more damage to health. Level of evidence III; Case-control study.


RESUMO Introdução: Estudos de associação entre a obesidade e fatores genéticos têm demonstrado a significativa contribuição de polimorfismos relacionados à distribuição de gordura corporal e processo inflamatório subclínico. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre os genótipos do polimorfismo Gln27Glu do gene ADRB2 e indicadores de adiposidade, marcadores inflamatórios, parâmetros metabólicos e de aptidão física em adolescentes com excesso de peso. Métodos: Participaram 44 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 13 e 17 anos, com diagnóstico clínico positivo de excesso de peso, divididos em dois grupos conforme os genótipos do polimorfismo Gln27Glu do gene ADRB2: a) Grupo de portadores do alelo 27Glu (Gln27Glu/Glu27Glu) (n=22); b) Grupo de não portadores do alelo 27Glu (Gln27Gln) (n=22). Ambos os grupos foram avaliados quanto à composição corporal, maturação sexual, variáveis de aptidão cardiorrespiratória e indicadores de força muscular. Foram dosados glicemia e insulina basais, perfil lipídico e perfil inflamatório. As adiposidades abdominais subcutânea e visceral foram avaliadas através de ultrassonografia. A genotipagem do polimorfismo Gln27Glu do gene ADRB2 foi realizada através do ensaio de discriminação alélica Taqman. Resultados: A frequência genotípica encontrada foi: Gln/Gln (n=22) (50,0%), Gln/Glu (n=18) (41,0%) e Glu/Glu (n=4) (9,0%). A frequência do alelo do 27Glu foi de 29,5%. O grupo de adolescentes portadores do alelo 27Glu do gene ADRB2 apresentou maiores médias de indicadores de adiposidade (circunferência abdominal, massa gorda troncular e gordura visceral), assim como menores concentrações de IL-10 quando comparados aos não portadores. Conclusões: O alelo 27Glu apresentou associação com os indicadores de adiposidade em adolescentes com excesso de peso, assim como a gordura abdominal subcutânea demonstrou relação inversa com as variáveis inflamatórias e o consumo máximo de oxigênio, podendo resultar em maiores prejuízos à saúde. Nível de evidência III; Estudo de caso-controle.


RESUMEN Introducción: Estudios de asociación entre la obesidad y factores genéticos han demostrado la significativa contribución de polimorfismos relacionados a la distribución de grasa corporal y proceso inflamatorio subclínico. Objetivo: Investigar la asociación entre los genotipos del polimorfismo Gln27Glu del gen ADRB2 e indicadores de adiposidad, marcadores inflamatorios, parámetros metabólicos y de aptitud física en adolescentes con exceso de peso. Métodos: Participaron 44 adolescentes, de ambos sexos, con edad entre 13 y 17 años, con diagnóstico clínico positivo de exceso de peso, divididos en dos grupos según los genotipos del polimorfismo Gln27Glu del gen ADRB2: a) Grupo de portadores del alelo 27Glu (Gln27Glu/Glu27Glu) (n = 22); b) Grupo de no portadores del alelo 27Glu (Gln27Gln) (n = 22). Ambos grupos fueron evaluados cuanto a la composición corporal, madurez sexual, variables de aptitud cardiorrespiratoria e indicadores de fuerza muscular. Fueron dosificadas glucemia e insulina basales, perfil lipídico y perfil inflamatorio. Las adiposidades abdominales subcutánea y visceral fueron evaluadas a través de ultrasonografía. El genotipado del polimorfismo Gln27Glu del gen ADRB2 fue realizado a través del ensayo de discriminación alélica Taqman. Resultados: La frecuencia genotípica encontrada fue: Gln/Gln (n = 22) (50,0%), Gln/Glu (n = 18) (41,0%) y Glu/Glu (n = 4) (9,0%). La frecuencia del alelo del 27Glu fue del 29,5%. El grupo de adolescentes portadores del alelo 27Glu del gen ADRB2 presentó mayores promedios de indicadores de adiposidad (circunferencia abdominal, masa grasa troncular y grasa visceral), así como menores concentraciones de IL-10, en comparación con los no portadores. Conclusiones: El alelo 27Glu presentó asociación con los indicadores de adiposidad en adolescentes con exceso de peso, así como la grasa abdominal subcutánea demostró relación inversa con las variables inflamatorias y el consumo máximo de oxígeno, lo que puede resultar en mayores perjuicios a la salud. Nivel de Evidencia III; Estudio de caso-control.

2.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(3): 239-246, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844760

RESUMO

Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and pubertal stages have been related to many health outcomes, including obesity and adipocytokines. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the moderator role of CRF and pubertal stage in the relationship between adiposity and adipocytokines in girls. Method This cross-sectional study was performed with 42 pre-pubertal girls aged from 7 to 11 years and 54 post-pubertal girls aged from 13 to 17 years. Blood samples were collected to determine the serum levels of leptin and adiponectin, and then the leptin/adiponectin ratio (L/A ratio) was calculated. CRF, anthropometric and body composition indicators were assessed. For statistical analysis, descriptive statistics and several linear regression models were used. The moderation analysis was tested using the PROCESS macro. Results An interaction between body mass index (BMI) and CRF (ß: -0.70; confidence interval [CI]: -1.29, -0.12), as well as between BMI and pubertal stage (ß: 0.79; CI: 0.28, 1.30) with leptin, was found. Regarding the L/A ratio, an interaction was found only in BMI × CRF (ß: -0.56; CI: -1.06, -0.06). Using a combined interaction (CRF and pubertal stage), the results showed a positive association between BMI with leptin and L/A ratio only in low CRF, pre-pubertal and post-pubertal stages. Conclusion This study suggests a protective role of high levels of CRF in the relationship between BMI and adipocytokines. Despite the effect of pubertal stage, the results suggest that youth should be engaged in physical activity in order to improve CRF levels and consequently improve cardiometabolic health.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Leptina/sangue , Puberdade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Puberdade/sangue
3.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have begun to identify the molecular determinants of inter-individual variability of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in response to exercise training programs. However, we still have an incomplete picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying trainability in response to exercise training. OBJECTIVE: We investigated baseline serum and skeletal muscle metabolomics profile and its associations with maximal power output (MPO) gains in response to 8-week of continuous endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs matched for total units of exercise performed (the TIMES study). METHODS: Eighty healthy sedentary young adult males were randomized to one of three groups and 70 were defined as completers (> 90% of sessions): ET (n = 30), HIIT (n = 30) and control (CO, n = 10). For the CO, participants were asked to not exercise for 8 weeks. Serum and skeletal muscle samples were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The targeted screens yielded 43 serum and 70 muscle reproducible metabolites (intraclass > 0.75; coefficient of variation < 25%). Associations of baseline metabolites with MPO trainability were explored within each training program via three analytical strategies: (1) correlations with gains in MPO; (2) differences between high and low responders to ET and HIIT; and (3) metabolites contributions to the most significant pathways related to gains in MPO. The significance level was set at P < 0.01 or false discovery rate of 0.1. RESULTS: The exercise programs generated similar gains in MPO (ET = 21.4 ± 8.0%; HIIT = 24.3 ± 8.5%). MPO associated baseline metabolites supported by all three levels of evidence were: serum glycerol, muscle alanine, proline, threonine, creatinine, AMP and pyruvate for ET, and serum lysine, phenylalanine, creatine, and muscle glycolate for HIIT. The most common pathways suggested by the metabolite profiles were aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. CONCLUSION: We suggest that MPO gains in both programs are potentially associated with metabolites indicative of baseline amino acid and translation processes with additional evidence for carbohydrate metabolism in ET.

4.
Motriz (Online) ; 25(1): e101919, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012683

RESUMO

Abstract Aim: To investigate the perception of memory decline in elderly physically active, practicing and non-practicing systematized physical exercises. Methods: Participants were 159 elderly practitioners of systematized and non-systematized physical exercises of Maringá-PR. The instruments used were the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted through Chi-Square test and Binary Logistic Regression (p<0.05). Results: Non-retired elderly and who reported that memory troubles made difficult to perform the activities of daily living presented more chances to practice systematized exercises. Further, very active elderly and who do not realize that the memory is below the expected for the age have 56% and 75% more chance of being systematized exercises practitioners, respectively. Furthermore, men and elderly who practice non- systematized exercise have 60% and 63% more chance of perceive the memory lower than expected for the age, respectively. Conclusion: Men and the elderly who do not practice systematized exercises are more likely to perceive memory lower than expected for age. Moreover, retirement and the satisfactory memory perception are associated with the practice of systematized exercises.

5.
Exp Gerontol ; 111: 188-196, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low-grade inflammation is associated with several deleterious health outcomes and may aggravate sarcopenia and dynapenia during aging. A strategy to alleviate these conditions is resistance training (RT). Thus, the aim was to critically examine the effects of regular RT on inflammatory markers of older adults from previous studies. METHODS: The search was conducted on MEDLINE, July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing RT effects on C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and/or interleukin-6 (IL-6) of adults over 50 years-of-age were selected by two independent reviewers. RESULTS: The main meta-analyses showed RT reduced CRP in older adults (standard mean difference [SMD] = -0.61, 95%CI = -0.83; -0.31, p < 0.001), tended to reduce IL-6 (SMD = -0.19, 95%CI = -0.42; 0.02, p = 0.07) and did not change TNF-α. Further exploratory sub-group analyses showed a potential association of muscle mass for both CRP and TNF-α changes. Reductions in CRP and TNF-α only occurred in RCTs performing a higher number of exercises (>8), higher weekly frequency (3 times/week) and longer durations than 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-inflammatory effects of RT were significant only for CRP with a tendency for a decrease in IL-6 as well. The exploratory analyses suggested the reduction in inflammatory markers could be dependent on increases in muscle mass and higher volume of RT protocols. These potential mediators of RT anti-inflammatory effects should be addressed in future meta-analyses to clarify the effects of RT on inflammatory markers of older adults with very specific conditions and larger numbers of studies.

6.
Rev. bras. geriatr. gerontol. (Online) ; 21(4): 472-479, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-958934

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: the present study aimed to analyze the association between current sedentary behavior and the practice of physical activity among elderly persons in the city of Maringá in the state of Paraná. Method: a cross-sectional study of 970 elderly subjects was carried out, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: the modeling of structural equations revealed that the sedentary behavior has a significant effect (p <0.05) on the activities moderate and vigorous activities, explaining 3% and 4% of the variability of these variables. Specifically, it has been found that increased sedentary behavior has a (β = 0.13) and negative on vigorous activities (β = -0.21). Conclusion: the current state of sedentary behavior has a significant effect on moderate and vigorous activities. AU


Resumo Objetivo: este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a associação do comportamento sedentário atual na prática de atividade física de idosos da cidade de Maringá-PR. Método: estudo transversal, realizado com 970 idosos. Foi utilizado o International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Resultados: a modelagem de equações estruturais revelou que o comportamento sedentário tem um efeito significativo (p < 0,05) sobre as atividades moderadas e atividades vigorosas, explicando 3% e 4% da variabilidade destas variáveis. Especificamente, verificou-se que o aumento do comportamento sedentário tem efeito positivo sobre as atividades moderadas (β = 0,13) e negativos sobre as atividades vigorosas (β = -0,21). Conclusão: o estado de comportamento sedentário atual tem efeito significativo sobre as atividades moderadas e atividades vigorosas. AU


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Saúde do Idoso , Comportamento Sedentário , Atividade Motora
7.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 24(2): 125-129, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-959037

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Resistance exercise (RE) training is widely recommended for increasing muscle strength and mass in older adults. RE is also a potential stimulus to improve cognitive functions (CF), but the best protocol for this purpose is unknown. Objective: To compare the effects of different RE protocols on CF in the same group of individuals. Methods: Twenty-four older adults were randomized (cross over) to control (CON) and lower limb RE protocols with high load (HL - 80% of 1RM), low load (LL - 30% of 1RM) and LL with blood flow restriction (LL-BFR - 30% of 1RM and 50% BFR). For CF assessment, participants underwent the Stroop test before and after each RE protocol. Results: Reduction in response time for Stroop neutral stimuli was greater after LL (effect size (ES) = -0.92) compared to CON (ES = -0.18) and HL (ES = -0.03), but was not different from LL-BFR (ES = -0.24). The reduced response time was associated with reduced parasympathetic modulation and increased cardiac output across protocols. Conclusion: LL was the most effective RE protocol to improve CF of older adults and a potential beneficial effect of LL-BFR on CF (non-significant) was identified. Therefore, LL resistance exercise appears to stimulate acute cognitive improvements in healthy older adults, probably through exercise-induced optimal autonomic modulation changes. Level of Evidence I; Therapeutic studies-Investigating the results of treatment.


RESUMO Introdução: O treinamento com exercício resistido (ER) é amplamente recomendado para aumento de força e massa muscular em idosos. O ER também é um possível estímulo para melhorar funções cognitivas (FC), mas o melhor protocolo para esse fim não é conhecido. Objetivo: Comparar os efeitos de diferentes protocolos de ER sobre a FC de um mesmo grupo de indivíduos. Métodos: Vinte e quarto idosos foram randomizados (cross-over) em grupo controle (CON) e grupos protocolos de ER para membros inferiores com carga alta (CA - 80% 1RM), carga baixa (CB - 30% 1RM) e carga baixa com restrição de fluxo sanguíneo (CB-RFS - 30% 1RM e 50% RFS). Para a avaliação de FC, os participantes realizaram o teste de Stroop antes e depois de cada protocolo de ER. Resultados: A redução do tempo de resposta para o estímulo neutro de Stroop foi maior após o CB (tamanho de efeito [TE] = -0,92) comparado ao CON (TE = -0,18) e CA (TE = -0,03), mas não foi diferente de CB-RFS (TE = -0,24). A redução do tempo de resposta foi associada à redução da modulação parassimpática e ao aumento de débito cardíaco em todos os protocolos. Conclusões: CB foi o protocolo de ER mais eficiente para aumentar a FC em idosos e identificou-se um efeito benéfico em potencial do CB-RFS sobre a FC (não significante). Desta forma, o exercício resistido de CB parece estimular a melhora aguda da função cognitiva em idosos saudáveis, provavelmente devido à alteração ideal da modulação autonômica induzida pelo exercício. Nível de Evidência I; Estudos Terapêuticos - Investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: El entrenamiento con ejercicio resistido (ER) es ampliamente recomendado para aumento de fuerza y masa muscular en ancianos. El ER también es un posible estímulo para mejorar las funciones cognitivas (FC), pero el mejor protocolo para este fin no es conocido. Objetivo: Comparar los efectos de diferentes protocolos de ER sobre la FC de un mismo grupo de individuos. Métodos: Veinte y cuatro ancianos fueron aleatorizados (cross-over) en grupo control (CON) y grupos protocolos de ER para extremidades inferiores con carga alta (CA - 80% 1RM), carga baja (CB - 30% 1RM) y carga baja con restricción de flujo sanguíneo (CB-RFS - 30% 1RM y 50% RFS). Para la evaluación de FC, los participantes realizaron el test de Stroop antes y después de cada protocolo de ER. Resultados: La reducción del tiempo de respuesta para el estímulo neutro de Stroop fue mayor después del CB (tamaño de efecto [TE] = -0,92) comparado al CON (TE = -0,18) y CA (TE = -0,03), pero no fue diferente de CB-RFS (TE = -0,24). La reducción del tiempo de respuesta fue asociada a la reducción de la modulación parasimpática y al aumento del gasto cardiaco en todos los protocolos. Conclusiones: CB fue el protocolo de ER más eficiente para aumentar la FC en ancianos y se identificó un efecto beneficioso potencial del CB-RFS sobre la FC (no significativo). De esta forma, el ejercicio resistido de CB parece estimular la mejora aguda de la función cognitiva en ancianos sanos, probablemente debido a la alteración ideal de la modulación autonómica inducida por el ejercicio. Nivel de Evidencia I; Estudios Terapéuticos - Investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

8.
Int J Sports Med ; 39(1): 29-36, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121681

RESUMO

The aging process is associated with several changes in the elderly such as the decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness, strength and muscle mass, in addition to chronic low-grade inflammation. Concurrent training with blood flow restriction can be an interesting alternative to improve functional capacity with low mechanical stress in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to compare the inflammatory effects in older individuals submitted to two different protocols of concurrent training. Twenty-two healthy older adults (63.7±3.8 years; 69.8±8.9 kg; 1.6±0.1 m) performed 12 weeks of concurrent training (CT) or concurrent training with blood flow restriction (CTBFR) and the effects on inflammatory markers were analyzed. We found inflammatory behavior for the CTBFR group with a significant difference in serum concentration of C-reactive protein between pre- and post-moment (0.96±0.37 to 1.71±1.45, p=0.049), with no difference between groups, and a time effect in interleukin-6 (pre=0.86±0.43; post=1.02±0.46, p=0.016). We conclude that the CTBFR showed a pro-inflammatory profile after the period of intervention whereas the CT showed the opposite.


Assuntos
Inflamação/sangue , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Músculo Quadríceps/irrigação sanguínea , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/anatomia & histologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
9.
Exp Gerontol ; 102: 12-18, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the relation between phase angle (PhA) and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in older women. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-five physically independent older women participated in this study (67.7±5.7years, 27.0±4.4kg/m2). Inflammatory markers included interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and acute phase reactive protein (CRP). Oxidative stress biomarkers comprised superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP). A spectral bioelectrical impedance device was used to estimate resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) at frequency 50kHz, and subsequently PhA was calculated as arc-tangent (Xc/R)×180°/π. The covariates appendicular lean soft-tissue (ALST), trunk fat mass, and total body fat were determined by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression analysis was conducted to further test if PhA is related with the dependent variables, after adjusting for potential covariates. RESULTS: After controlling for the potential covariates (age, trunk fat mass, ALST, and number of diseases) PhA exhibited a significant inverse relation with IL-6 (ß=-0.97; P<0.01), TNF-α (ß=-0.84; P<0.01), and CRP (ß=-0.58; P<0.01). Conversely, PhA was significantly related to CAT (ß=7.27; P<0.01), SOD (ß=10.55; P<0.01) and TRAP (ß=73.08; P<0.01). The AOPP did not demonstrate a significant correlation with PhA (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that PhA is a simple and relevant explanatory variable which is related inflammatory and stress oxidative markers in physically independent older women, regardless of age, number of diseases, and body composition.

10.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 31: e003113, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-953566

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: The body image is a multidimensional construct of the internal and external representations of the corporal structures added to the physical appearance, which can be influenced by aging. The weight training can be an important exercise to help elderly to face all the changes arising from aging, being one of them the dissatisfaction with body image. Objective: This study aims at identifying the factors associated with body image dissatisfaction of the elderly who practice weight training. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study. The sample, chosen by convenience and intentionally, embraced 174 male and female elderly subjects who practice weight training at one of the 15 fitness centers drawn for the research that offered this modality of physical exercise in Maringá city, state of Paraná, Brazil. A questionnaire with sociodemographic and health profile questions was used, as well as the BSQ to assess body dissatisfaction. Data analysis was carried out by using a descriptive inferential statistical approach with the Chi-squared test, Fischer's exact test, and binary logistic regression, adopting a significance when p < 0.05. Results: The majority of the elderly showed no body dissatisfaction (82.2%). There was a significant association among the absence of body dissatisfaction and the following items: retirement (p = 0.031), current study (p = 0.035), self perception of health (p = 0.016), body self perception (p = 0.001), and practice time (p = 0.027). Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the sociodemographic factors are intervenient when considering body dissatisfaction of the elderly people who practice weight training.


Resumo Introdução: A imagem corporal é um construto multidimensional das representações internas e externas das estruturas corporais adicionadas à aparência física, que podem ser influenciadas pelo envelhecimento. O treinamento com pesos pode ser um importante exercício para ajudar os idosos a enfrentar todas as mudanças decorrentes do envelhecimento, sendo um delas a insatisfação com a imagem corporal. Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi identificar os fatores associados à insatisfação com a imagem corporal de idosos praticantes de musculação. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa observacional, de delineamento transversal. A amostra, escolhida por conveniência e de forma intencional, foi composta por 174 idosos, de ambos os sexos, praticantes de musculação em uma das 15 academias sorteadas para a pesquisa, que ofereciam esta modalidade de exercício físico no municípío de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. Foi utilizado questionário com questões de perfil sociodemográfico e de saúde, e o BSQ para avaliação da insatisfação corporal. A análise dos dados foi realizada mediante uma abordagem de estatística descritiva e inferencial, por meio dos testes Qui-quadrado, exato de Fischer, regressão logística binária, adotando significância quando p < 0,05. Resultados: Observou-se ausência de insatisfação corporal na maioria dos idosos (82,2%). Foi encontrada associação significativa de ausência de insatisfação corporal com a aposentadoria (p = 0,031), estudar atualmente (p = 0,035), com a auto percepção de saúde (p = 0,016), auto percepção corporal (p = 0,001) e tempo de prática (p = 0,027). Conclusão: Por meio dos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que os fatores sociodemográficos podem ser considerados intervenientes na insatisfação corporal em idosos praticantes de musculação.

11.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(2): e101852, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-955137

RESUMO

Abstract AIMS This study aimed at investigating the socio-demographic and health-related variables associated with body image dissatisfaction. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study. 894 (34.04±13.62 years old) weight training practitioners from a medium-large city in the south of Brazil participated in this study. A socio-demographic questionnaire was used along with the Body Shape Questionnaire. The Chi-squared Test and the Binary Logistic Regression (p<0.05) were used to analyze the data. RESULTS Female subjects who have been practicing weight training for two to five years are more likely to be dissatisfied with their bodies (OR=4.305 [95% CI=2.984-6.213; OR=1.773 [95% CI=1.086-2.895], p<0,05, respectively). CONCLUSION There is one group of individuals who are less likely to experience body weight satisfaction. This group of people has three characteristics: 1, 2, and 3.

12.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(4): e101866, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-976262

RESUMO

This article is a methodological description of a randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov U1111-1181-4455) aiming to evaluate the time-course (monthly) and associations between blood pressure changes and other health-related adaptations in response to exercise training in hypertensive elderly. Methods: The patients will be randomized to a control or combined training group interventions (aerobic and resistance exercise), with monthly assessments in four months. Although, the changes in baseline blood pressure is the primary clinical outcome, the secondary outcomes include: body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, arterial stiffness, baroreceptor sensitivity, cardiovascular autonomic modulation, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress, growth factors, tissue remodeling markers, metabolic profile, renal function, cognitive function and quality of life. Results: To support the understanding of the blood pressure changes in hypertensive elderly, a time-course of exercise-induced adaptations including cardiovascular and immunological adaptations are fundamental for research in this field. Conclusion: To investigate the time-course of combined training-induced adaptations including all the diverse aspects of health in hypertensive elderly a well-controlled protocol design is necessary, mainly to clarify the relationship between cardiovascular and immunological exercise-induced adaptations.(AU)

13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(6): 524-533, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887604

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: Thus, the aim of this study was to compare if higher or smaller fibronectin type 3 domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/irisin levels are associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers, caloric/macronutrient intake, physical fitness and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in obese middle-aged men, and also to correlate all variables analyzed with FNDC5/irisin. Subjects and methods: On the basis of a cluster study, middle-aged obese men (IMC: 31.01 ± 1.64 kg/m2) were divided into groups of higher and smaller levels of FNDC5/irisin. The levels of leptin, resistin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 and 10 (IL6, IL10), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, insulin resistance and sensibility, lipid profile, risk of T2DM development, body composition, rest energy expenditure, caloric/macronutrient intake and physical fitness were measured. Results: The higher FNDC5/ irisin group presented improved insulin sensibility (homeostasis model assessment - sensibility (HOMA-S) (p = 0.01) and QUICKI index (p < 0.01)), insulin (p = 0.02) and triglyceride levels (p = 0.01), lower insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.01), triglycerides/glucose (TYG index) (p = 0.02), neck circumference (p = 0.02), risk of T2DM development (p = 0.02), tendency to decrease serum resistin (p = 0.08) and significant lower LPS levels (p = 0.02). Inverse correlations between FNDC5/irisin and body weight (r −0.46, p = 0.04), neck circumference (r −0.51, p = 0.02), free fat mass (r −0.49, p = 0.02), triglycerides (r −0.43, p = 0.05) and risk of developing T2DM (r −0.61, p = 0.04) were observed. Conclusions: These results suggest that higher FNDC5/irisin levels in obese middle-aged men are related to a better metabolic profile and lower risk of T2DM development and serum LPS, a potential inducer of insulin resistance.

14.
Int J Sports Med ; 38(12): 928-936, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28950398

RESUMO

Increase in muscle mass and strength through resistance exercise (RE) has been highly recommended for healthy aging. On the other hand, RE could lead to acute cardiovascular risks prompted mainly by intense blood pressure elevations and cardiac autonomic imbalance. We compared the cardiovascular responses to three different RE protocols performed by 21 healthy elderly on a leg press machine. The protocols tested were high load (80% 1RM) until muscular failure (HL); low load (30% 1RM) until muscular failure (LL); low load, 30 repetitions followed by 3 sets of 15 repetitions, with 50% blood flow restriction (LL-BFR); and a control session (CON). Based on heart rate variability analysis, only LL kept parasympathetic indexes lower than CON at 30 min recovery. By finger photoplethysmography, LL-BFR prompted higher systolic and mainly diastolic blood pressure increments in many sets. The heart rate and cardiac output increase, and total peripheral resistance reduction following exercise were not different among RE protocols. There was no significant post-exercise hypotension and carotid arterial compliance changes. HL seems to be the safer protocol to be recommended for the healthy elderly, because it induces lower blood pressure increments and faster parasympathetic recovery compared to LL and LL-BFR.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Idoso , Circulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Complacência (Medida de Distensibilidade) , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiologia , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia
15.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 11(3): 116-123, jul.-set. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-875892

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar os fatores associados à atividade física de idosos usuários das unidades básicas de saúde (UBS) do município de Matelândia, Paraná. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, no qual foram pesquisados 343 idosos usuários das UBS do município. Foi utilizado um questionário sociodemográfico, o International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), e o questionário de barreiras para prática de atividade física. RESULTADOS: Em relação ao nível de atividade física, 88,9% dos idosos avaliados foram classificados como ativos/muito ativos. Maior nível de atividade física foi significativamente associado a quantidade de medicamentos utilizados (p = 0,024), motivo para ir à UBS (p = 0,037) e indicação de atividade física pela UBS (p = 0,040). A falta de energia (p = 0,048) foi é uma barreira mais frequente e significativa para os idosos ativos/muito ativos. CONCLUSÃO: É grande o número de idosos ativos/muito ativos usuários das UBS de Matelândia, Paraná, e este foi associado à menor faixa etária, ao menor uso de medicamentos, à ida à UBS para retirada de medicamento/outros e à indicação de atividade física pela UBS. Para aqueles que não se enquadram nesses níveis, a falta de recursos financeiros e o ambiente insuficientemente seguro são as barreiras mais frequentes para a prática de atividades físicas.


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the factors associated with the physical activity of elderly assisted at the basic health units (BHU) of the city of Matelândia, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, in which 343 elderly users of the BHU of this city were surveyed. A socio-demographic questionnaire, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and the questionnaire of barriers to physical activity practice were used. RESULTS: In relation to the level of physical activity, 88.9% of the elderlies were classified as active/very active. Higher level of physical activity was significantly associated with the amount of medication used (p = 0.024), reason to go to BHU (p = 0.037), and indication of physical activity by UBS (p = 0.040). Lack of energy (p = 0.048) was a more frequent and significant barrier for the active/very active elderly. CONCLUSION: There is a large number of active/very active elderly users of the BHU of Matelândia, Paraná, Brazil, and this was associated with lower age, lower medication use, going to BHU to withdraw medication/others and indication of physical activity by the BHU. For those who do not fit into these levels, lack of financial resources and insufficiently safe environment are the most common barriers to physical activity.

16.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 17(5): 629-637, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28287024

RESUMO

The effects of training on FNDC5/irisin and its association with fitness and metabolic marker improvements induced by training have been poorly investigated in humans. Thus, the present study assessed the effects of combined training (CT) on FNDC5/irisin levels, metabolic markers and fitness adaptations in obese men. Middle-age obese men (age 49.13 ± 5.75, body mass index (BMI) 30.86 ± 1.63) were randomly distributed in the CT group (n = 12) and control group (CG n = 10). The CT consisted of strength followed by aerobic training, 3 times/week, for 24 weeks. Body composition, physical fitness, plasma FNDC5/irisin, biochemical markers and metabolic scores/index were evaluated. CT maintained FNDC5/irisin levels (µg/mL) (pre: 4.15 ± 0.32, post: 4.21 ± 0.32; p = .96) and improved body composition, metabolic and physical fitness markers. In the CG, decreased FNDC5/irisin (µg/mL) (pre: 4.36 ± 0.23, post: 3.57 ± 0.94; p = .01) and reduced strength (supine exercise/kg) (pre: 71 ± 14.7, post: 60.1 ± 14.05; p < .01) were observed, along with a trend to increase HOMA-IR (pre: 2.63 ± 1.11, post: 3.14 ± 1.27; p = .07) and other indicators of metabolic deterioration. An inverse correlation was found between the change (Δ%) in levels of FNDC5/irisin and Δ% glucose, Δ% total cholesterol, Δ% triglycerides and Δ% waist circumference, in addition to a positive relation with Δ% muscle strength. In conclusion, CT maintained FNDC5/irisin levels and provided metabolic and fitness benefits. The correlation between FNDC5/irisin changes and metabolic parameters, as well as the FNDC5/irisin reduction associated with fitness and metabolic worsening in the CG, suggests a relationship between FNDC5/irisin and a healthy metabolic status in humans.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Exercício/fisiologia , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Força Muscular , Obesidade/metabolismo , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Corrida , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Caminhada
17.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 117(4): 767-774, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28251401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It has been suggested that flexibility training may reduce the total volume of training during resistance trainings. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of flexibility training immediately before resistance training (FLEX-RT) versus resistance training without flexibility training (RT) on maximum strength and the vastus lateralis muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Participants had each leg assigned to RT or FLEX-RT. Both groups performed four sets of leg extensions to voluntary failure of 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM); however, FLEX-RT performed two sets of 25 s of static stretching before resistance training. Number of repetitions and total volume were calculated during weeks 1-5 and 6-10. Vastus lateralis muscle CSA, 1RM, and flexibility were assessed at baseline and after 10 weeks. RESULTS: The number of repetitions and total training volume were greater for RT than FLEX-RT for weeks 1-5 and 6-10. Regarding the vastus lateralis muscle CSA, a main time effect was observed, however, greater change was observed for RT than FLEX-RT (12.7 and 7.4%, respectively). A main time effect for 1RM was also observed with similar changes for RT and FLEX-RT (12.7 and 12.9%, respectively). Flexibility was increased pre- to post-training for FLEX-RT with greater change for FLEX-RT (10.1%) than RT (2.1%). CONCLUSION: These results show that performing flexibility training immediately before resistance training can contribute to a lower number of repetitions, total volume, and muscle hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Força Muscular , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Adulto , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Masculino , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/efeitos adversos , Distribuição Aleatória , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
18.
Rev. bras. ciênc. esporte ; 39(1): 98-106, mar. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-843489

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a training program on the relation between performance indicators of different physical capacities intra and inter functional and neuromuscular systems at different times of the season. Subjects were 16 young soccer players with an average age of 16.5 ± 0.4 years. The study was carried out for 17 weeks, including three assessment moments (T1: 1st, T2: 10th and T3: 17th week). High correlation was found between indicators of neuromuscular predominance (30 meters sprint test (30 m) and Maximum Sprint (MaxSprint) (RAST) in T1) (r = 0.93, p ≤ 0.001), functional (Sprints Average (MidSprint) and Minimal Sprint (MinSprint) (RAST) in T1, T2 and T3; MinSprint and Fatigue Index (FI) (RAST) in T3) (r = 0.95, 0.85, 0.91; -0.86, p ≤ 0.001, respectively) and between functional and neuromuscular indicators (30 m and MidSprint in T1; 30 m and MinSprint in T1; MaxSprint and MidSprint in T1 and T2 and MaxSprint and MinSprint in T1) (r = 0.95, 0.93, 0.96, 0.84, 0.87, p ≤ 0.001, respectively). The training contents had influence on the correlation of performance indicators at different times of the season.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a influência de um programa de treinamento na relação entre indicadores de desempenho de diferentes capacidades físicas intra e inter sistema funcional e neuromuscular em diferentes momentos da temporada. Participaram do estudo 16 jovens futebolistas com idade média de 16,5 ± 0,4 anos. O estudo decorreu por 17 semanas, incluindo três momentos de avaliação (T1:1ª; T2:10ª e T3:17ª semana). Foram encontradas alta correlação entre indicadores de predominância neuromuscular (Sprints em 30m (30m) e Sprint Máximo (MaxSprint) (RAST) em T1) (r = 0,93; P ≤ 0,001), funcional (Média de Sprints (MidSprint) e Sprint Mínimo (MinSprint) (RAST) em T1, T2 e T3; MinSprint e Índice de Fadiga (FI) (RAST) em T3) (r = 0,95; 0,85; 0,91; -0,86; P ≤ 0,001, respectivamente) e entre funcional e neuromuscular (30 m e MidSprint em T1; 30 m e MinSprint em T1; MaxSprint e MidSprint em T1 e T2 e MaxSprint e MinSprint em T1) (r = 0,95; 0,93; 0,96; 0,84; 0,87; P ≤ 0,001, respectivamente). Os conteúdos de treinamento exerceram influência na correlação dos indicadores de rendimento nos diferentes momentos da temporada.


Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la influencia de un programa de formación en la relación entre los indicadores de desempeño de las diferentes capacidades físicas intra y intersistemas funcionales y neuromusculares, y en diferentes momentos de la temporada. En el estudio participaron 16 jugadores de fútbol jóvenes con una media de edad de 16,5 ± 0,4 años. El estudio duró 17 semanas, incluyendo tres momentos de evaluación (T1: 1.a; T2: 10.a y T3: 17.a semana). Se encontró una alta correlación entre los indicadores de prevalencia neuromuscular [sprints en 30 m (30 m) y sprint máximo (MaxSprint; RAST) en T1 (r = 0,93; P ≤ 0,001)], funcional [sprint medio (MidSprint) y sprint mínimo (MinSprint; RAST) en T1, T2 e T3; MinSprint e índice de fatiga (FI; RAST) en T3 (r = 0,95; 0,85; 0,91; -0,86; P ≤ 0,001, respectivamente)] y entre funcional y neuromuscular [30 m y MidSprint en T1; 30 m y MinSprint en T1; MaxSprint y MidSprint en T1 y T2, y MaxSprint y MinSprint en T1 (r = 0,95; 0,93; 0,96; 0,84; 0,87; P ≤ 0,001, respectivamente)]. Los contenidos de la formación han influido en la correlación de los indicadores de rendimiento en diferentes momentos de la temporada.

19.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 23(1): 66-72, jan.-fev. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-843961

RESUMO

RESUMO Entre atletas e treinadores, existe uma percepção comum de que altas cargas de treinamento e competições, aplicadas de forma crônica, com controle nutricional e/ou períodos de recuperação inadequados, podem reduzir a resistência imunológica, aumentando a predisposição aos episódios de infecções, principalmente infecções do trato respiratório superior (ITRS). Nesse sentido, o presente estudo está centrado em revisar as interações entre os parâmetros imunológicos com a síndrome do sobretreinamento, especificamente em esportes coletivos, considerando a sua natureza intermitente. Assim, foi realizada uma revisão de periódicos nacionais e internacionais relacionados com o tema. As correlações entre exercício, sistema imunológico e suscetibilidade às ITRS têm sido avaliadas principalmente em esportes individuais e de resistência em comparação aos coletivos. As modulações dos leucócitos ao longo da temporada, frente ao efeito somatório das cargas de treinamento e competições, quando analisadas especificamente quanto aos neutrófilos e monócitos, possivelmente se relacionam com os processos de reparo tecidual e incidência de ITRS. As modulações relacionadas com os linfócitos parecem estar relacionadas mais diretamente com a incidência das ITRS. Ademais, o entendimento de todos os marcadores propostos, incluindo os imunológicos em associação com os indicadores de desempenho e controle do treinamento, parece ser um caminho mais promissor para o diagnóstico clínico do estado imunológico do atleta e da prevenção da síndrome do sobretreinamento do que necessariamente a busca por um marcador exclusivo de excesso de treinamento.


ABSTRACT Among athletes and coaches, there is a common perception that high training loads and competitions, applied chronically, with inadequate nutritional control and/or recovery periods, may reduce the immune resistance, increasing susceptibility to infection episodes, mainly upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). In this sense, this study is focused on reviewing the interactions between immunological parameters with the overtraining syndrome, specifically in team sports, considering its intermittent nature. Thus, a review of national and international journals related to the topic was held. The correlations between exercise, immune system and susceptibility to URTI have been evaluated mainly in individual and endurance sports compared to the team sports. The modulations of leukocytes throughout the season, against the totalization of training loads and competitions, when analyzed specifically for neutrophils and monocytes, are possibly related to tissue repair processes and incidence of URTI. Modulations related to lymphocytes seem to be more directly related to the incidence of URTI. Moreover, an understanding of all the proposed markers, including immunological markers, in association with the performance indicators and control of training, appears to be a more promising avenue for clinical diagnosis of the athlete's immune status and prevention of overtraining syndrome than the search for a unique marker of overtraining.


RESUMEN Entre los atletas y entrenadores, hay una percepción común de que las altas cargas de entrenamiento y competiciones, aplicados crónicamente, con períodos de control y/o de recuperación nutricional inadecuados, pueden reducir la resistencia inmunológica, aumentando la susceptibilidad a los episodios de infecciones, especialmente del tracto respiratorio superior (ITRS). En este sentido, el presente estudio está centrado en la revisión de las interacciones entre los parámetros inmunológicos con el síndrome de sobreentrenamiento, sobre todo en los deportes de equipo, teniendo en cuenta su naturaleza intermitente. Por lo tanto, se llevó a cabo una revisión de revistas nacionales e internacionales relacionadas con el tema. Las correlaciones entre el ejercicio, el sistema inmunológico y la susceptibilidad a la ITRS han sido evaluadas sobre todo en deportes individuales y de resistencia en comparación con los deportes colectivos. Las modulaciones de leucocitos durante la temporada, con relación al efecto de la suma de las cargas de entrenamiento y competiciones, cuando analizadas específicamente con relación a los neutrófilos y los monocitos, posiblemente están asociadas a los procesos de reparación de tejidos y la incidencia de la ITRS. Las modulaciones relacionadas con los linfocitos parecen estar asociadas más directamente a la incidencia de la ITRS. Además, la comprensión de todos los marcadores propuestos, incluyendo los inmunológicos en asociación con los indicadores de rendimiento y el control del entrenamiento parece ser una vía más prometedora para el diagnóstico clínico del estado inmunológico del atleta y para la prevención del síndrome de sobreentrenamiento que necesariamente la búsqueda de un único marcador de sobreentrenamiento.

20.
J Sports Sci ; 35(24): 2412-2420, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28029066

RESUMO

This study investigated the autonomic and haemodynamic responses to different aerobic exercise loads, with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). In a crossover study, 21 older adults (8 males and 13 females) completed different aerobic exercise sessions: low load without BFR (LL) (40% VO2max), low load with BFR (LL-BFR) (40% VO2max + 50% BFR) and high load without BFR (HL) (70% VO2max). Heart rate variability and haemodynamic responses were recorded during rest and throughout 30 min of recovery. HL reduced R-R interval, the root mean square of successive difference of R-R intervals and high frequency during 30 min of recovery at a greater magnitude compared with LL and LL-BFR. Sympathetic-vagal balance increased the values for HL during 30 min of recovery at a greater magnitude when compared with LL and LL-BFR. Post-exercise haemodynamic showed reduced values of double product at 30 min of recovery compared to rest in LL-BFR, while HL showed higher values compared to rest, LL-BFR and LL. Reduced systolic blood pressure was observed for LL-BFR (30 min) compared to rest. Autonomic and haemodynamic responses indicate lower cardiovascular stress after LL-BFR compared to HL, being this method, besides the functional adaptations, a potential choice to attenuate the cardiovascular stress after exercise in older adults.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Coração/inervação , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Idoso , Braço/irrigação sanguínea , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Percepção , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia
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