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1.
J Prosthodont Res ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405758

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Masticatory changes in the older adult population may cause nutritional impairment, so epidemiological studies are important to allow specific public health interventions. Thus, this study aims at constructing and validating an instrument for screening for masticatory disorders in older adults (SMDOA). METHODS: Validation study. First step: validity evidence based on test content. Defining the construct and elaborating the questions by a panel of experts and evaluating the representativeness and relevance of the items in relation to the construct by a committee of 28 experts. Analysis was performed through the Content Validity Index for Items (CVI-I) and the Content Validity Index (CVI). Second stage: validity evidence based on response processes. The questionnaire was applied to 40 older adults (≥60 years) using the cognitive interview strategy. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the responses was carried out. Third stage: validity evidence based on the internal structure. The instrument was applied to 295 older adult patients and a confirmatory factorial analysis was performed to fit the model. RESULTS: The first version of SMDOA consisted of 16 issues related to chewing. The CVI and CVI-I were satisfactory, and only one question was excluded. The instrument with 15 questions was well evaluated by the older adults, only requiring minor adjustments to the morphosyntax. After the confirmatory factorial analysis, adjustments were made in its internal structure resulting in the 9-question model in two factors regarding function and masticatory perception. CONCLUSIONS: The SMDOA presented good evidence of validity in its content, response processes and internal structure.

2.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 39(1): 4-10, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176634

RESUMO

Introduction: Preterm and low-birth-weight newborns may present immaturity in the functions of sucking, swallowing and breathing, speech therapists inserted in the hospital focus on the development of newborns' oral sensorimotor system, promoting a safe transition from tube feeding to breastfeeding and contributing to improving the quality of life of the child population. The present study aimed to analyze the development of oral functions, oral feeding transition time and breastfeeding of preterm and low-birth-weight newborns under Speech-Language Pathology care. Methods: A prognostic study carried out at a maternity hospital, based on the data collected from 121 filed medical records of newborns attended between September 2015 to July 2017. The Kaplan-Meier method, the Log Rank test and the Pearson correlation test were used for data analysis, considering a significance level of 0.05 (95%). Results: It was observed that the lower the gestational age and the birth weight of newborns, the more speech therapy services were required until the establishment of exclusive OF; also, the transition time and the average time of using the orogastric tube were inversely proportional to the gestational age at birth. The non-nutritive sucking technique was the most used for stimulation, and 78.5% of the NBs were discharged from the hospital on exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion: Moderate to late preterm and low-birth-weight newborns are able to more quickly acquire the oral sensorimotor system functional pattern, and there are indications that Speech-Language Pathology care reduces the transition time to oral feeding, thus increasing the success rate of exclusive breastfeeding


Introducción: Los recién nacidos (RN) prematuros y con bajo peso pueden presentar inmadurez en las funciones de succión, deglución y respiración. Los logopedas en los hospitales trabajan el desarrollo del sistema sensoriomotor oral de los RN, promoviendo una transición segura de la sonda a la lactancia materna, lo que contribuye a mejorar la calidad de vida de la población infantil. El objetivo del presente estudio era analizar el desarrollo de las funciones orales, el tiempo de transición a la alimentación por vía oral (VO) y la lactancia materna de los RN prematuros, y con bajo peso al nacer bajo el cuidado fonoaudiológico. Métodos: Este estudio de pronóstico se llevó a cabo en una maternidad, con base en la recopilación de datos en prontuarios archivados de 121 RN atendidos entre septiembre de 2015 y julio de 2017. En el análisis de los datos se aplicó el método de Kaplan-Meier, el test log-rank y la prueba de correlación de Pearson. Se consideró un nivel de significancia de 0,05 (95%). Resultados: Se observó que cuanto menores eran la edad gestacional y el peso de nacimiento del RN, más necesidad de servicios fonoaudiológicos había hasta el establecimiento de la VO exclusiva, y el tiempo de transición y el tiempo promedio de utilización de la sonda orogástrica eran inversamente proporcionales a la edad gestacional al nacimiento. La técnica de succión no nutritiva fue la más utilizada para la estimulación, y el 78,5% de los RN recibieron el alta hospitalaria con lactancia exclusiva. Conclusión: Los RN prematuros de moderados a tardíos y de bajo peso son capaces de adquirir el patrón funcional del sistema sensoriomotor oral con mayor rapidez, y hay indicios de que la atención fonoaudiológica reduce el tiempo de transición alimentaria a la VO, y aumenta la tasa de éxito de lactancia materna exclusiva


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Fonação/fisiologia , Comportamento de Sucção/fisiologia , Deglutição/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fonoaudiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Médica Precoce/organização & administração , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactação/fisiologia
3.
J Voice ; 30(2): 246.e9-17, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25979792

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the validity evidence based on the content and response processes of the Rastreamento de Alterações Vocais em Idosos (RAVI; "Screening for Voice Disorders in Older Adults"), an epidemiologic screening for voice disorders in older adults. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective, nonrandomized, cross-sectional, validation study. METHODS: Criteria for defining the domains and elaborating the questions were established to confirm the validity evidence based on the content. A multidisciplinary committee of 19 experts evaluated the questions, and the relevance and representation of the domains were analyzed using the Content Validity Index for Items (CVI-I) and the Content Validity Index (CVI), respectively. For validity evidence based on the response processes, 40 individuals of both sexes, aged ≥60 years, were stratified by demographic and socioeconomic condition. They responded to the RAVI, made suggestions, and their verbal and nonverbal reactions were observed. RESULTS: The first version of the RAVI consisted of 20 questions related to sensations and perceptions associated with the voice. Although the CVI value of 0.80 was satisfactory, the CVI-I and the suggestions of the expert committee indicated that the scale needed to be reformulated. Consultation with older adults indicated a need for further adjustment. The preliminary version of the RAVI consisted of 16 questions. CONCLUSIONS: The two aspects of validity evidence described in the present study were essential for adapting the questions to better fit the construct of the questionnaire. Other aspects of validity evidence and reliability analysis will be described in part II of this study.


Assuntos
Inquéritos e Questionários , Distúrbios da Voz/diagnóstico , Qualidade da Voz , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Percepção Auditiva , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Distúrbios da Voz/epidemiologia , Distúrbios da Voz/fisiopatologia
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