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1.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 28(6): 463-471, Dec. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-573966

RESUMO

Latin America faces unique challenges in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Asociación Latinoamericana de Diabetes (Latin American Diabetes Association, ALAD) brought together medical associations in 17 countries in Latin America to produce a consensus statement regarding the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The goal of the document is to provide practical recommendations that will guide clinicians through a simple decision-making process for managing patients. The cornerstone elements for therapeutic decision making are: severity of hyperglycemia, clinical condition of the patient (stable or with metabolic decompensation), and body mass index. The consensus includes a section devoted specifically to patients with obesity. Information is presented as highly-relevant clinical questions. The algorithm is based on the scientific recommendations of the 2006 ALAD guidelines (a document prepared using an evidence-based approach) and data from recent randomized controlled studies.


América Latina se enfrenta a algunos retos excepcionales en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. La Asociación Latinoamericana de Diabetes (ALAD) reunió a las asociaciones médicas de 17 países latinoamericanos con el fin de producir una declaración de consenso sobre el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2. El objetivo de ese documento es brindar recomendaciones prácticas que guíen a los médicos a lo largo de un sencillo proceso decisorio para el tratamiento de los pacientes. Los elementos fundamentales para la toma de decisiones terapéuticas son la gravedad de la hiperglucemia, el estado clínico del paciente (estable o con descompensación metabólica) y el índice de masa corporal. El documento contiene un apartado dedicado específicamente a los pacientes obesos y la información se presenta en forma de preguntas clínicas sumamente pertinentes. El algoritmo se basa en las recomendaciones científicas de las directrices de la ALAD del año 2006 (documento preparado con un método basado en datos probatorios) y en datos obtenidos de estudios controlados aleatorizados recientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , /terapia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Tomada de Decisões , Dieta para Diabéticos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , /sangue , /dietoterapia , /tratamento farmacológico , /epidemiologia , Metas , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/classificação , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Estilo de Vida , América Latina/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sociedades Médicas
2.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 2: 2, 2010 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20205782

RESUMO

The prevalence of pre-diabetes is increasing worldwide and may start 7 to 10 years before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes. In this stage the presence and accumulation of risk factors is common and already implies an increase in cardiovascular risk. Likewise, the onset of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), mainly coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral vascular disease and cerebrovascular disease can also take place, all of which account for high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering pre-diabetes as a clinical entity, non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments are indicated with drugs which have shown clinical benefits related to reduction in morbidity and mortality. However, there is still need for new long-term studies to assess the real benefits of several new therapeutical approaches, as well as its cost-effectiveness.

3.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 28(6): 463-71, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21308173

RESUMO

Latin America faces unique challenges in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Asociación Latinoamericana de Diabetes (Latin American Diabetes Association, ALAD) brought together medical associations in 17 countries in Latin America to produce a consensus statement regarding the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The goal of the document is to provide practical recommendations that will guide clinicians through a simple decision-making process for managing patients. The cornerstone elements for therapeutic decision making are: severity of hyperglycemia, clinical condition of the patient (stable or with metabolic decompensation), and body mass index. The consensus includes a section devoted specifically to patients with obesity. Information is presented as highly-relevant clinical questions. The algorithm is based on the scientific recommendations of the 2006 ALAD guidelines (a document prepared using an evidence-based approach) and data from recent randomized controlled studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Tomada de Decisões , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta para Diabéticos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Metas , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/classificação , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , América Latina/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sociedades Médicas
5.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 1(1): 22, 2009 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19860912

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: According to Brazilian National Data Survey diabetes is the fifth cause for hospitalization and is one of the ten major causes of mortality in this country. AIMS: to stratify the estimated cardiovascular risk (eCVR) in a population of type 2 diabetics (T2DM) according to the Framingham prediction equations as well as to determine the association between eCVR with metabolic and clinical control of the disease. METHODS: From 2000 to 2001 a cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in 13 public out-patients diabetes/endocrinology clinics from 8 Brazilian cities. The 10-year risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) was estimated by the prediction equations described by Wilson et al (Circulation 1998). LDL equations were preferably used; when patients missed LDL data we used total cholesterol equations instead. RESULTS: Data from 1382 patients (59.0% female) were analyzed. Median and inter-quartile range (IQ) of age and duration of diabetes were 57.4 (51-65) and 8.8 (3-13) years, respectively without differences according to the gender. Forty-two percent of these patients were overweight and 35.4% were obese (the prevalence of higher BMI and obesity in this T2DM group was significantly higher in women than in men; p < 0.001). The overall estimated eCVR in T2DM patients was 21.4 (13.5-31.3). The eCVR was high (> 20%) in 738 (53.4%), intermediate in 202 (14.6%) and low in 442 (32%) patients. Men [25.1(15.4-37.3)] showed a higher eCVR than women [18.8 (12.4-27.9) p < 0.001]. The most common risk factor was high LDL-cholesterol (80.8%), most frequently found in women than in men (p = 0.01). The median of risk factors present was three (2-4) without gender differences. Overall we observed that 60 (4.3%) of our patients had none, 154(11.1%) one, 310 (22.4%) two, 385 (27.9%) three, 300 (21.7%) four, 149 (10.5%) five and six, (2%) six risk factors. A higher eCVR was noted in overweight or obese patients (p = 0.01 for both groups). No association was found between eCVR with age or a specific type of diabetes treatment. A correlation was found between eCVR and duration of diabetes (p < 0.001), BMI (p < 0.001), creatinine (p < 0.001) and triglycerides levels (p < 0.001) but it was not found with HbA1c, fasting blood glucose and post-prandial glucose. A higher eCVR was observed in patients with retinopathy (p < 0.001) and a tendency in patients with microalbuminuria (p = 0.06). CONCLUSION: our study showed that in this group of Brazilian T2DM the eCVR was correlated with the lipid profile and it was higher in patients with microvascular chronic complications. No correlation was found with glycemic control parameters. These data could explain the failure of intensive glycemic control programs aiming to reduce cardiovascular events observed in some studies.

7.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol ; 74(1): 74-8, 2008 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18392505

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The involvement of pre-epiglottis space can change the indication for partial laryngeal resection. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate inter-observer and intra-observer agreement by means of computed tomography analysis regarding the involvement of the pre-epiglottis space (PES) from carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract and its relation with therapeutic planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of ninety-five computed tomography exams of patients with squamous cell carcinoma, from 1990 to 2004, were selected and evaluated; 87 were males and eight females, with ages ranging from 32 to 73 years. Imaging results were analyzed twice by three radiologists, individually, without any previous knowledge of the clinical stage. No patient had received any previous treatment up to the moment of imaging examination, such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. All the cases were confirmed by biopsy. Information was obtained from the medical charts. RESULTS: Kappa Index was calculated by assessing agreement between the three observers. We obtained substantial to almost perfect levels of agreement. CONCLUSIONS: After a general Kappa Index of 0.72, the results suggest a substantial agreement in the involvement of the PES by means of computed tomography analysis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Epiglote/patologia , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Epiglote/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Laríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 74(1): 74-78, jan.-fev. 2008. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-479831

RESUMO

O comprometimento do espaço pré-epiglótico pode alterar a indicação de cirurgias parciais da laringe. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concordância inter e intra-observadores da análise da tomografia computadorizada do envolvimento do espaço pré-epiglótico (EPE) por carcinoma epidermóide do trato aerodigestivo superior e sua repercussão no planejamento terapêutico. MATERIAL DE MÉTODO: Foram analisadas retrospectivamente as tomografias computadorizadas, do período de 1990 a 2004, de 95 pacientes com carcinoma epidermóide, sendo 87 do sexo masculino e apenas 8 eram do sexo feminino, com idade variando de 32 a 73 anos. Os exames foram avaliados duas vezes por três radiologistas, separadamente, sem o conhecimento prévio do estadiamento clínico. Todos os pacientes não haviam recebido qualquer tratamento até o momento do exame de imagem, como cirurgia, quimioterapia ou radioterapia. Todos os casos tiveram o diagnóstico confirmado por biópsia. As informações foram obtidas baseadas na revisão de prontuários médicos. RESULTADOS: O índice Kappa foi calculado para estimar a concordância entre os três observadores. A força de concordância variou de boa a excelente. CONCLUSÃO: Após um Kappa geral de 0,72, o resultado sugere uma concordância geral boa na avaliação do envolvimento do espaço EPE através de tomografia computadorizada.


The involvement of pre-epiglottis space can change the indication for partial laryngeal resection. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate inter-observer and intra-observer agreement by means of computed tomography analysis regarding the involvement of the pre-epiglottis space (PES) from carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract and its relation with therapeutic planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of ninety-five computed tomography exams of patients with squamous cell carcinoma, from 1990 to 2004, were selected and evaluated; 87 were males and eight females, with ages ranging from 32 to 73 years. Imaging results were analyzed twice by three radiologists, individually, without any previous knowledge of the clinical stage. No patient had received any previous treatment up to the moment of imaging examination, such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. All the cases were confirmed by biopsy. Information was obtained from the medical charts. RESULTS: Kappa Index was calculated by assessing agreement between the three observers. We obtained substantial to almost perfect levels of agreement. CONCLUSIONS: After a general Kappa Index of 0.72, the results suggest a substantial agreement in the involvement of the PES by means of computed tomography analysis.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Epiglote/patologia , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Epiglote , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas , Neoplasias Laríngeas , Invasividade Neoplásica , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol ; 50(1): 136-44, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16628286

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in type 2 diabetic (DM2) outpatients from different regions of Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 2,519 randomly selected patients, from 11 hospitals, 2 endocrine and one general public care clinics from 10 cities. Overweight was defined as body-mass index (BMI) > 25 and obesity as BMI > 30 kg/m2. Glycemic control (GC) was evaluated by GC index (GCI = patient's HbA1 or HbA1c/upper limit of normal for the method x 100). RESULTS: 39% of the population studied was male, the mean age was 58.8 +/- 11.6 y, the duration from clinical diagnosis of DM2 was 9.0 +/- 7.3y, and BMI was 28.3 +/- 5.2 kg/m2. No measurements of BMI were recorded from 265 patients (10.5%). Patients from the Northeast presented lower BMI as compared with those from the Midwest, Southeast and South areas, respectively (26.4 +/- 4.7 vs. 27.9 +/- 4.8 vs. 29.2 +/- 5.1 vs. 29.4 +/- 5.4 kg/m2; p < 0.001). A greater prevalence of obesity was observed in the Southeast and South areas as compared to the Northeast (p < 0.001), as well as in the female group, respectively (69% vs. 31%; p < 0.001). Normal weight patients presented lower GCI. Patients being treated with two or more oral drugs and an association of insulin plus oral drug presented greater BMI values than those being treated with diet, oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin p < 0.001. The BMI of patients treated by a specialist did not differ from those treated by a generalist. CONCLUSIONS: 75% of our sample was out of adequate BMI and 30% was obese. The percentage of patients with overweight and obesity was comparable to those found in similar European studies but still lower than those found in the USA. The prevalence of obesity in diabetic patients was three times higher than in the overall Brazilian population according to data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE).


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso , Prevalência
10.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 50(1): 136-144, fev. 2006. mapas, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-425470

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em pacientes ambulatoriais com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) em diferentes regiões do Brasil. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Avaliamos aleatoriamente 2.519 pacientes em 11 hospitais, 2 ambulatórios especializados e um posto de saúde em 10 cidades brasileiras. Consideramos sobrepeso um índice de massa corporal (IMC) > 25 e obesidade um IMC > 30 kg/m². O controle glicêmico (CG) foi avaliado pelo índice de CG [ICG= HbA1 e ou HbA1c do paciente/limite superior de normalidade do método x 100]. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes tinham idade de 58,8 ± 11,6 anos, tempo de diagnóstico clínico de DM de 9,0 ± 7,3 anos, IMC de 28,3 ± 5,2 kg/m², e 39 por cento eram do sexo masculino. Do total da amostra, 265 pacientes (10,5 por cento) não apresentavam avaliação do IMC. Os pacientes da região Nordeste apresentaram menor IMC em comparação com os das regiões Centro-Oeste, Sudeste e Sul, respectivamente (26,4 ± 4,7 vs. 27,9 ± 4,8 vs. 29,2 ± 5,1 vs. 29,4 ± 5,4 kg/m²; p< 0,001). Houve maior prevalência de obesidade na região Sudeste e Sul em comparação à região Nordeste (p< 0,001) e nos pacientes do sexo feminino, respectivamente (69 vs. 31 por cento; p< 0,001). Os pacientes com peso normal apresentaram menor ICG. Aqueles em tratamento com associação de duas ou mais drogas orais e associação de insulina + droga oral apresentaram maior IMC do que aqueles em tratamento com dieta, hipoglicemiante oral e insulina; p< 0,001. O IMC não diferiu entre os pacientes assistidos ou não por especialistas. CONCLUSÕES: Da população estudada, 75 por cento não estava na faixa de peso ideal, sendo que um terço tinha obesidade. Nossos dados indicam que o sobrepeso e a obesidade já atingem um percentual de pacientes com DM2 no Brasil semelhante ao relatado em estudos europeus, mas ainda menor do que o observado nos EUA. A prevalência de obesidade nos pacientes diabéticos foi três vezes maior do que a observada na população brasileira em geral de acordo com os dados do IBGE.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Massa Corporal , /complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Sobrepeso , Obesidade/complicações , Prevalência
11.
Rev Diabet Stud ; 3(2): 82-7, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17487331

RESUMO

Major clinical studies have shown that the targets for blood glucose, lipid profile and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients are difficult to maintain in clinical practice. However, there are few data concerning South American populations. Using guidelines represented by the Brazilian Diabetes Society, we evaluated cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, glycemic control and the availability of screening for diabetes complications in 2233 (60% females) outpatients with type 2 diabetes aged 59.2 +/- 11.3 yr and with a known duration of diabetes of 9.2 +/- 7.2 yr, collected from 8 Brazilian cities. The outcome showed that less intensive clinical care available for diabetic patients in Brazil compared to western industrialized countries leads to widespread poor metabolic control and health status. Less than 30% of the patients reached the target for systolic (28.5%, < 130 mmHg) and diastolic (19.3%, < 80 mmHg) blood pressure, BMI (24.6%, < 25 kg/m2), LDL cholesterol (20.6%, < 2.6 mmol/l) and only 46% reached the goal for HbA1c (one % point above the upper limits of normality for the method used). Only 0.2% of patients reached all the targets. A lower number of women reached the targets for HbA1c, LDL and HDL cholesterol than men (p < 0.001). Women were less likely than men to have funduscopy examinations and urine albumin testing (p < 0.001). We conclude that the national goals for glycemic control, blood pressure and lipid levels are rarely achieved in clinical practice, and that the availability for diabetic complication screening is low. The quality of diabetes care, in particular for women, is poor and should be further reviewed in developing countries.

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