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1.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456089

RESUMO

Mammalian Orthoreoviruses (MRV) are segmented dsRNA viruses in the family Reoviridae. MRVs infect mammals and cause asymptomatic respiratory, gastro-enteric and, rarely, encephalic infections. MRVs are divided into at least three serotypes: MRV1, MRV2 and MRV3. In Europe, swine MRV (swMRV) was first isolated in Austria in 1998 and subsequently reported more than fifteen years later in Italy. In the present study, we characterized two novel reassortant swMRVs identified in one same Italian farm over two years. The two viruses shared the same genetic backbone but showed evidence of reassortment in the S1, S4, M2 segments and were therefore classified into two serotypes: MRV3 in 2016 and MRV2 in 2018. A genetic relation to pig, bat and human MRVs and other unknown sources was identified. A considerable genetic diversity was observed in the Italian MRV3 and MRV2 compared to other available swMRVs. The S1 protein presented unique amino acid signatures in both swMRVs, with unexpected frequencies for MRV2. The remaining genes formed distinct and novel genetic groups that revealed a geographically related evolution of swMRVs in Italy. This is the first report of the complete molecular characterization of novel reassortant swMRVs in Italy and Europe, which suggests a greater genetic diversity of swMRVs never identified before.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Europa (Continente) , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Itália , Mutação , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/classificação , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Suínos , Células Vero
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322405

RESUMO

Norovirus (NoV) has emerged as one of the major causative agents of non-bacterial, food- and water-borne gastroenteritis in humans, with the main genogroup involved in human outbreaks (GII), which has been detected worldwide in different animal species including swine. A four-month investigation at the slaughterhouse aiming to examine the presence of NoV in the swine in North-Eastern Italy, enabled the detection of two divergent Noroviruses (NoVs) (GII.P11) in two swine farms. This represents the first study in the swine population of North-Eastern Italy, which has paved the way for future integrated virological and epidemiological investigations on swine NoVs.

3.
Viruses ; 11(12)2019 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801277

RESUMO

Influenza D virus (IDV) has been increasingly reported all over the world. Cattle are considered the major viral reservoir. Based on the hemagglutinin-esterase (HEF) gene, three main genetic and antigenic clusters have been identified: D/OK distributed worldwide, D/660 detected only in the USA and D/Japan in Japan. Up to 2017, all the Italian IDV isolates belonged to the D/OK genetic cluster. From January 2018 to May 2019, we performed virological surveillance for IDV from respiratory outbreaks in 725 bovine farms in Northern Italy by RT-PCR. Seventy-four farms were positive for IDV. A full or partial genome sequence was obtained from 29 samples. Unexpectedly, a phylogenetic analysis of the HEF gene showed the presence of 12 strains belonging to the D/660 cluster, previously unreported in Europe. The earliest D/660 strain was collected in March 2018 from cattle imported from France. Moreover, we detected one viral strain with a reassortant genetic pattern (PB2, PB1, P42, HEF and NP segments in the D/660 cluster, whilst P3 and NS segments in the D/OK cluster). These results confirm the circulation of IDV in the Italian cattle population and highlight the need to monitor the development of the spreading of this influenza virus in order to get more information about the epidemiology and the ecology of IDV viruses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Vírus Reordenados , Thogotovirus/classificação , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Geografia , Itália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Thogotovirus/genética , Thogotovirus/isolamento & purificação
4.
Vet Ital ; 55(3): 221-229, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599546

RESUMO

Porcine astroviruses (PoAstV) are found in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy and diseased pigs worldwide. However, their role in causing enteric disease in pigs and other animals has not been elucidated. In the present report, we describe for the first time in Italy, the identification and genetic characterization, through whole genome sequencing, of a PoAstV2 in pigs in Northeast Italy in 2015. This instance is the first detection of PoAstV2 in pigs in Italy. The phylogenetic analysis of the complete ORF2 segment highlights the high similarity of this virus to those circulating that same year in Japan. There are very few full astrovirus genomes available, and the present data represent an important contribution towards a better understanding of the characteristics and evolution of these viruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Mamastrovirus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Itália , Mamastrovirus/classificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária
5.
J Virol Methods ; 260: 21-25, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981296

RESUMO

Prompt and accurate diagnosis is warranted for infectious diseases of domestic animals which may have a significant impact on animal production or clinical practice. In this study, the identification and genetic characterization of a bovine enterovirus (BEV) strain isolated from a calf with diarrhea, are described. Two different next generation sequencing platforms were employed. Shotgun metagenomic accomplished by MinION sequencing (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) allowed the identification of BEV RNA from a cell-culture isolate. BEV was then confirmed by a specific real time RT-PCR assay. To achieve the whole genome of this isolate, sequence reads obtained by MinION were coupled with those originating from NextSeq500 (Illumina). Genomic relatedness and phylogeny with extant BEV strains is also reported. Overall, this manuscript highlights the use of the portable MinION sequence technology as a tool for support diagnostics in veterinary practice.


Assuntos
Diarreia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Enterovirus Bovino/genética , Enterovirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Animais , Bovinos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Enterovirus/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células Vero , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Virol J ; 13: 139, 2016 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519739

RESUMO

Mammalian Orthoreoviruses 3 (MRV3) have been described in diarrheic pigs from USA and Asia. We firstly detected MRV3 in Europe (Italy) in piglets showing severe diarrhea associated with Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea. The virus was phylogenetically related to European reoviruses of human and bat origin and to US and Chinese pig MRV3.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Orthoreovirus Mamífero 3/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Diarreia/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Orthoreovirus Mamífero 3/classificação , Orthoreovirus Mamífero 3/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos
7.
Poult Sci ; 94(6): 1202-8, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25840964

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of class 1 and 2 integrons in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) from poultry in northern Italy. Strains were tested for phenotypic resistance to aminoglycosides and sulphonamides, and the association between the presence of integrons and the resistance to these antimicrobials was evaluated. A total of 299 isolates (158 from turkeys, 110 from broilers, and 31 from layer hens) were collected from 200 industrial farms. Antimicrobial susceptibility test by the disk diffusion method was performed in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. All strains were screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons by PCR and sequencing. About 55% of APEC contained integrons (class 1, 49.8%; class 2, 10.4%). Different variants of the aadA (5 variants) and the dfrA (4 variants) genes, encoding for streptomycin and trimethoprim resistance respectively, were detected in integron-positive isolates. Less common gene cassettes, such as sat, estX, and orfF, were also identified. Fifteen and 4 gene cassette arrays were found among class 1 and 2 integrons, respectively. High levels of resistance were observed for triple sulphonamides (79.3%), streptomycin (67.2%), and sulfamethoxazole combined with trimethoprim (62.2%), whereas resistance against gentamycin (16.7%), kanamycin (14.7%), and apramycin 3.0%) was low. Integron positivity was significantly higher in isolates phenotypically resistant to aminoglycosides (63.6% vs. 37.8%, P<0.001) and sulfonamides (64.1% vs. 21.1%, P<0.001) than in susceptible ones. Integron-borne aminoglycoside and sulfonamide resistance in APEC represents a concern for the poultry industry in Italy, since they are among the most commonly used antimicrobials in poultry therapy.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Integrons , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Perus , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Feminino , Itália , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
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